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3  1833  02167  250  3 

W.  D.  B.  MOTTER. 

Ji  m®  pftr%/V 

p.  b.  mOtter. 








Entered,  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  the  year  1871,  by 


In   the   Office   of  the   Librarian   of   Congress,   at  Washington,   D.  C. 


JOHN     W.     WOODS, 
1'  K  I  N  T  E  R  . 



We  trust  that  there  is  no  city  in  the  land  dearer  to  her  citizens  than  our 
own  fair  Baltimore ;  and  we  are  sure  that  there  are  none  in  which  affection 
takes  so  unostentatious  a  form.  Willi  a  history  reaching  back  into  what,  for 
America,  is  antiquity ;  with  a  record,  than  which  none  of  her  peers  can  show  a 
prouder ;  with  manufactures  and  a  trade  which  place  her  in  the  front  rank  of 
American  cities  ;  with  a  long  line  of  sons,  distinguished  in  every  walk  of  life, 
her  only  chronicles  have  been  fragmentary  sketches,  and  the  few  bright  pages 
in  American  history  in  which  her  name  is  recorded.  It  has  been  the  aim  of 
the  editors  and  publishers  of  the  present  volume  to  supply,  in  some  measure, 
tliis  deficiency ;  and,  after  nearly  two  years  of  continuous  labor,  they  have  the 
pleasure  of  offering  to  the  public  the  first  compendious  account  of  Baltimore, 
and  of  prominent  Baltimoreans,  ever  yet  published  ;  and  one  which  they  venture 
to  trust  will  not  be  found  altogether  unworthy  the  subject  they  have  undertaken 
to  illustrate. 

The  comprehensive  Historical  Sketch  of  the  city,  from  the  graceful  pen  of 
Bkantz  Mayer,  late  President  of  the  Maryland  Historical  Society,  traces,  suc- 
cinctly, but  clearly,  the  history  of  the  city  from  its  first  settlement  to  the  present 
time,  including  its  religious,  social  and  commei-cial  advancement.  Replete  as 
it  is  with  information  of  the  development  and  material  growth  of  the  varied 
industries  which  make  a  metropolis,  and  rich  in  happy  description  and  pleasant 
memories  of  the  "olden  time,"  we  are  persuaded  that  it  will  be  found  as  enter- 
taining as  it  is  instructive  and  valuable.  It  has  been  pi-epared  with  great  care 
from  the  most  authentic  sources,  and  we  have  no  hesitation  in  claiming  for  it 
the  authority  of  a  standard. 

In  the  department  of  Biography  will  be  found  sketches  of  the  lives  of  such 
citizens  of  Baltimore,  both  living  and  dead,  as  have  been  identified  with  promi- 
nent parts  of  the  city's  history ;  have  had  an  important  share  in  her  material 
or  moral  development ;  or  whose  enterprise,  ability  and  worth  have  entitled 
them  to  horn      de  recognition.     Besides  the  interest  that  the  lives  of  such  men 


must,  of  necessity,  have  for  their  fellow-citizens,  there  are  embodied  in  these 
sketches  many  interesting  facts  and  much  valuable  information,  not  otherwise 
known  to  the  public,  so  that  they  form  an  important  supplement  to  the  His- 
torical Sketch.  That  there  are  some  distinguished  citizens  of  Baltimore,  of  the 
past  and  present  generation,  whose  names  do  not  appear  in  the  series  of  Biog- 
raphies, we  do  not  deny ;  but  we  have  striven,  assiduously  and  conscientiously, 
to  make  the  omissions  as  few  as  possible.  In  preparing  the  Biographies,  we 
have  been  kindly  assisted  by  several  of  the  most  prominent  literateurs  of  the 

Thus,  after  many  months  of  incessant  and  arduous  effort,  we  have  succeeded 
in  producing  a  work,  the  subject  of  which,  as  well  as  its  unique  character, 
entitle  it  to  a  place  in  the  library  of  every  Baltimorean,  and  of  every  one  who 
is  connected  with  Baltimore,  by  business  or  other  associations,  and  consequently 
interested  in  her  history  or  welfare ;  while  the  interesting  nature  of  its  contents 
should  assure  it  a  welcome  from  the  general  public. 

W.   A.    BENNETT. 





FROM    THE    FOUNDATION,    IN    1729,   TO    1870; 




FROM    THE    FOUNDING    OF    THE    TOWN    TO    THE    REVOLUTION,    1729    TO    1776. 

When  Sir  George  Calvert  turned  his  back  on  the  Province  of 
Avalon,  in  Xew  Foundland,  which  his  royal  master,  James  the 
First,  had  granted  to  him,  it  was  mainly  because  the  region  was 
unsuited  to  his  schemes,  and  not  because  he  abandoned  his  original 
views  or  principles  of  Colonization.  He  was,  in  truth,  disheartened 
as  a  Northern  adventurer,  for,  though  he  built  an  expensive  residence 
in  the  colony,  spent  quite  £25,000  in  improvements,  removed  his 
family  to  the  principality,  manned  and  equipped  ships  at  his  own 
charge  to  guard  the  British  fisheries  from  the  French,  he  found  that 
the  sour  climate  and  ungenerous  soil  made  no  returns  or  inducements 
for  such  an  emigration  and  plantation  as  he  desired. 

But  Sir  George  did  not  turn  his  back  on  America.  In  1629  he 
went  to  Virginia,  in  which  he  had  been  interested,  and, — though 
ungenerously  received  by  the  Protestant  royalists  at  the  seat  of  gov- 
ernment,— when  he  left  the  James  River  he  steered  his  vessel  around 
the  peninsula  of  Old  Point  Comfort,  and  ascending  the  broad  Chesa- 
peake, entered  its  grand  tributaries,  explored  its  lands,  approved 
its  genial  climate,  and,  at  least  in  imagination,  laid  the  foundations 
of  this  State.  He  soon  returned  to  England,  and  in  1632  obtained 
from  Charles  the  First, — who  had  succeeded  his  early  friend  and 
patron  James, — the  grant  of  Maryland,  whose  charter  is,  on  excellent 
authority,  asserted  and  believed  to  have  been  the  work  of  Sir  George's 
head  and  hand.  Yet  this  charter  did  not  pass  the  seals  until  after 
the  death  of  its  experienced  author,  but  was  issued  in  June,  1632,  to 
his  eldest  son  and  heir  Cecilius,  so  that  the  real  work  of  plantation 
was  the  task  of  the  Second  Lord  Baron  of  Baltimore,  and  of  his 
brother,  Leonard  Calvert,  who,  in  the  following  year  sailed  for 
America,  to  make  a  colonial  settlement  at  Saint  Mary's  on  the 

Yet,  whatever  was  done  in  furtherance  of  human  interests  or  rights, 
so  far  as  the  foundation  of  Maryland  was  concerned,  may  justly  be 


said  to  have  been  effected  by  the  constitutional  provisions  of  the 
charter  itself,  which,  investing  the  Lord  Proprietary  with  the  royal 
prerogatives  enjoyed  by  the  Bishop  of  Durham  within  the  Palatinate 
of  Durham,  made  him  a  sovereign  prince  with  but  two  limitations 
of  his  authority,  namely :  First,  That  the  laws  were  to  be  enacted 
by  the  Proprietary  with  the  advice  and  approbation  of  the  freemen 
and  freeholders  or  their  deputies ;  and  secondly,  That  no  interpreta- 
tion of  the  charter  was  to  be  made  whereby  God's  Holy  Rights  and 
the  Christian  Religion,  or  the  allegiance  due  to  the  Sovereign  of 
England,  "  may,  in  anywise,  suffer  by  change,  prejudice  or  diminu- 
tion." Thus,  although  the  yronosal  of  all  laws  was  to  emanate  from 
the  Proprietary,  their  enactment  was,  in  reality,  to  be  due  to  the  free- 
men of  the  Province,  while  Christianity  was  to  be  acknowledged  as 
the  only  religious  limitation  on  the  rights  of  conscience.  So  that, 
while  Religious  Toleration,  as  we  understand  the  word,  was  then 
practically  unknown  in  the  Old  World,  the  founders  of  Maryland, — 
counselled  both  by  the  experience  of  personal  persecution,  and  prob- 
ably by  righteous  individual  opinion, — determined  to  adopt  it  as  the 
keystone  of  what  became  the  first  Province  of  the  British  Empire. 
And  so  the  foundations  of  Maryland  were  laid,  in  February,  1684,  by 
Leonard  Calvert  and  the  two  hundred  who  accompanied  him,  at 
"  Saint  Marie's,"  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Potomac,  near  its  entrance 
into  the  Chesapeake  Bay. 

The  task  we  have  undertaken  does  not  allow  a  longer  sketch  of  the 
early  history  of  our  State ;  but  this  brief  allusion  to  the  principles 
upon  which  it  was  "  founded  "  two  hundred  and  thirty-eight  years 
ago,  is  due  to  the  memory  of  the  Baltimores,  whose  name  is  honor- 
ably perpetuated  in  our  capital  city. 

There  seems  to  have  been,  during  the  seventeenth  century,  an  ex- 
traordinary greediness  for  the  establishment  of  towns  by  our  legisla- 
tive ancestors,  as  our  statutes  show,  that  within  four  years  towards 
the  close  of  that  period,  "thirty-three  towns  were  created  by  the 
Assembly,"  no  less  than  three  of  which  were  within  the  limits  of 
what  was  then  known  as  "  Baltimore  County."  This  was  indeed 
natural ;  for,  in  a  sparsely  settled  country, — threaded  as  Maryland  is 
by  numerous  streams, — points  of  assemblage  and  delivery,  as  well  as 
of  exchange  of  products,  are  of  indispensable  need  for  agriculturists 
and  for  those  who  ply  the  water-craft  of  the  region.  The  making 
and  unmaking  of  these  towns,  which  were,  in  fact,  to  be  ports  or 
"  places  of  landing"  exclusively,  was  attended  with  as  little  difficulty 
as  with  few  permanent  or  useful  results.     Doubtless,  in  most  cases, 


they  were  but  temporary,  and  intended  for  trial  only.  Yet,  this 
lavish  local  legislation, — from  the  distracting  rivalries  it  created, — 
was  much  to  be  regretted  in  regard  to  the  final  settlement  and  found- 
ing of  Baltimore.  Two  towns  long  held  the  ascendency  over  all 
these  paper  and  prospective  speculations  within  our  territory ; — first: 
Saint  Mary's,  which  was  the  original  capital  of  the  province,  where 
the  first  Legislative  Assembly  was  held,  on  the  26th  of  February, 
1634-5  (old  style), — under  the  auspices  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
founders ; — and,  secondly,  Annapolis,  settled  by  the  Puritan  refugees 
from  Virginia,  who  seated  themselves  at  a  place  by  some  called 
"Providence," — by  others,  "Proctor's  or  the  town-land  at  Severn," — 
by  others,  again,  "  The  Town-Land  of  Proctor's  where  the  town 
was  formerly," — by  other  annalists,  "Anne  Arundel  Town,"  then, 
"  The  Port  of  Annapolis,"— and  finally,  in  1708,  by  charter,  "  The 
City  of  Annapolis,"  which  soon  became  and  has  continued  to  be  the 
seat  of  our  Provincial  and  State  governments. 

In  founding  new  States  in  countries  still  unredeemed  from  the 
forest,  it  is  easy  to  understand  that  far-seeing  men, — especially  in  the 
distant  days  when  steam  and  railways  were  unimagined, — would 
seek  the  establishment  of  wisely  seated  and  well  defended  trading 
ports,  at  the  head  of  streams  navigable  by  the  largest  vessels  used 
for  commerce.  Although  our  forefathers  two  centuries  ago  were 
not  consumed  by  the  land-mania  of  their  descendants  which  urges 
them  to  seize  and  own, — if  not  actually  to  possess, — the  title  to 
regions  that  may  not  be  developed  or  even  occupied  in  their  day  and 
generation,  it  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  the  sailors  and  traders  who 
explored  the  upper  Chesapeake  did  not  observe  the  advantages  of  a 
port  at  the  end  of  our  main  water  course,  whose  channel  for  sea-going 
craft  penetrates  the  continent  two  hundred  miles  from  the  ocean. 
Accordingly,  it  is  not  surprising, — when  they  descried  the  Patapsco, 
with  an  extent  of  only  eighteen  or  twenty  miles  from  the  bay ;  with 
its  safe,  land-locked,  north-branch  of  a  mile  and  three-quarters  in 
extent ;  with  easy  entrance  and  safe  anchorage  in  deep  water ; 
capable  of  accommodating  ships  of  the  largest  class  to  the  number 
of  two  thousand ;  surrounded  by  gentle  acclivities  affording  a  fair 
site  for  a  city ; — that  a  few  provident  men  fixed  on  it  as  the  future 
commercial  capital  of  the  future  State.  It  is  perhaps  more  surpris- 
ing that  they  did  not  descry  these  advantages  sooner,  and  it  is  only 
to  be  ascribed  to  the  scantiness  of  population  and  labor  that  they 
were  not  earlier  embraced.  The  "  back  country  "  and  the  adjoining 
States  were  not  yet  sufficiently  developed ;  yet,  doubtless,  other  ex- 
plorers,— "  pioneers "  of  the  forest  who  penetrated  the   mountain 


country, — knew  the  connection  between  these  "  head  waters  "  and 
those  of  the  great  navigable  streams  of  the  west ; — but  the  whole 
land  was  then  so  comparatively  bare  of  people  and  undeveloped,  that 
men  rather  clustered  about  the  older  settlements, — keeping  aloof 
from  the  "  savages  "  and  the  rough  frontier  men.  Besides  this,  it 
would,  unquestionably,  have  required  more  imagination  than  the 
early  adventurers  possessed,  and  certainly  more  hope  of  advantageous 
realization,  in  men  of  their  time  and  class,  to  have  induced  them  to 
expend  labor  and  money  in  rapidly  developing  the  problematical 
seat  of  a  commercial  capital.  ]STay,  indeed,  their  time  is,  in  no  way, 
to  be  measured  by  ours.  Yet,  the  mere  selection  and  establishment 
of  the  future  site  of  our  great  city,  so  early  in  the  history  of  this 
State's  growth,  indicates  a  commendable  foresight  in  our  handful 
of  forefathers  who  dwelt  in  this  neighborhood  and  tilled  or  traded  as 
their  interests  required. 

.  What  did  these  forefathers  find  to  tempt  them  ?  "We  have  described 
the  water  course  leading  to  the  site,  its  extent  and  qualities.  The 
bay  and  its  upper  rivers  are  unsurpassed  in  value  on  the  eastern  coast 
of  North  America ;  while  its  lower  and  middle  afnuents '  pour  into 
its  broad  channel  the  agricultural  and  mineral  wealth  of  the  State, 
affording,  also,  supplies  to  the  fishermen,  which,  economically  used, 
might  enrich  a  nation.  The  geological  features  of  the  country  around 
the  western  head  waters  of  the  Chesapeake  were  peculiarly  favorable 
for  the  attainment  and  use  of  water  power.  The  streams  running 
into  the  bay,  as  we  have  said,  are  numerous ;  the  alluvial  soil  on  its 
margin  is  so  narrow  that  the  tide- water  almost  washes  the  base  of  the 
hilly  formation  ;  the  country  gradually  rises  to  an  elevation  of  several 
hundred  feet  in  successive  ridges  towards  the  interior,  down  which 
the  waters  are  precipitated  in  their  progress  to  the  bay.  So  remark- 
ably is  this  the  case  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  site  of  Baltimore, 
that  five  of  the  principal  streams  were  by  the  first  settlers  denomi- 
nated "  Falls ;"  and  no  less  than  eight  streams,  each  of  which  is 
capable  of  mechanical  use,  discharge  themselves  within  a  short  dis- 
tance of  the  modern  city.  With  these  advantages  the  harbor  of 
Baltimore  originally  consisted  of  a  beautiful  natural  basin,  or  rather 
of  three  adjoining  basins,  of  several  miles  in  circumference,  the  en- 
trance to  which  was  formed  by  two  projecting  points  not  more  than 
four  hundred  yards  apart.  It  had  then  an  ample  depth  of  water 
throughout  and  even  quite  close  to  the  shores,  so  that  in  the  early 
days,  ships  were  loaded  on  skids  from  the  beach  ;  nor  was  this  admir- 
able harbor  impaired  until  long  after,  when  the  neighboring  soil 
was  broken  in  building  on  the  borders,  when  the  forest  was  cleared 


away  and  the  land  turned  into  arable  fields ;  so  that  as  the  town  be- 
gan to  grow,  and  the  trees  which  surrounded  these  basins  on  all  sides 
were  cut  down,  and  streets  and  roads  opened  to  their  margins,  the 
drainage  from  the  hills  began  to  fill  them  up  and  diminish  their 
depth.  But  the  changes  of  this  portion  of  Baltimore  will  be  more 
fully  set  forth  in  another  part  of  this  narrative,  we  shall  at  present 
confine  ourselves  to  the  original  legislation  and  actual  location  of 
the  "  Town"  itself. 

Baltimore,  is  in  fact  a  congeries  of  three  towns  :  "  Baltimore  Town," 
which  originally  embraced  a  small  tract  on  the  west  side  of  Jones's 
Falls  ;  "  Old  Town,"  which  was  early  and  separately  settled  on  the 
east  side  of  those  falls ;  and  "  Fell's  Point,"  which  grew  up  to  the 
southeast  of  that  stream  on  the  outer  basin.  As  early  as  1662  lands 
were  taken  up  in  this  vicinity  ;  and  "  Whetstone  Point,"  between 
the  branches  of  the  Patapsco,  seems  to  have  been  at  first  most 
attractive ;  for,  in  that  year  Charles  Gorsuch,  a  member  of  the 
Society  of  Friends,  patented  fifty  acres  of  land  on  that  point.  The 
year  after,  Alexander  Mountenay,  took  up  two  hundred  acres,  com- 
prising what  was  then  the  glade  or  bottom  on  both  sides  of  Harford 
Run.  This  was  called  "Mountenay's  Neck."  In  1668,  Mr.  John 
Howard  patented  "Timber  Neck,"  lying  between  the  middle  and 
north. branches  of  the  Patapsco  ;  and  in  the  same  year,  the  tract  north 
of  it, — the  real  site  of  the  first  "  Baltimore  Town," — was  granted  to 
Mr.  Thomas  Cole,  comprising  five  hundred  and  fifty  acres,  and  called 
"  Cole's  Harbor."  This  tract  extended  from  "Mountenay's  Xeck," 
westerly,  across  the  north  side  of  the  river  one  mile,  and  northwardly 
from  the  river  about  half  a  mile,  in  the  form  of  a  rhomboid,  divided 
into  two  nearly  equal  parts  by  the  stream  afterwards  named  Jones's 
Falls.  There  were  patents  of  subsequent  date  for  tracts  distinguished 
on  the  old  maps  by  the  names  of  Long  Island  Point ;  Kemp's  Addi- 
tion, Parker's  Haven  and  Copus's  Harbor, — the  latter  since  com- 
monly known  as  "  Fell's  Point," — and  all  on  the  east.  Other 
patents  were  issued  for  Lunn's  Lot  and  Chatsworth  on  the  west ; 
and  for  Salisbury  Plains,  Darby  Hall,  and  Gallow-Barrow,  on  the 
north.  All  of  these  lands,  by  various  names  and  titles,  subse- 
quently fell  within  the  growing  limits  of  Baltimore. 

The  families  of  Cole  and  Gorsuch  intermarried,  —  Cole's  only 
daughter  becoming  the  wife  of  Mr.  Charles  Gorsuch,  the  patentee  ot 
Whetstone  Point, — on  which  Fort  McHenry  stands, — so  that  in  1679 
and  1682,  the  husband  and  wife,  by  separate  deeds,  conveyed  the 
tract  called  Cole's  Harbor  to  Mr.  David  Jones  who  gave  his  name  to 
the  stream,  so  often  mentioned,  and  by  its  repeated  overflows,  of  such 


troublesome  interest  to  Baltimoreans  of  the  present  day.  Jones  is 
said  to  have  been  the  first  actual  settler,  having  his  residence  on  the 
north  side  of  his  "  Falls,"  near  the  head  of  the  tide-water  at  that 
day,*  and  when  the  stream  was  passable  without  a  bridge. 

In  the  course  of  time  "  Cole's  Harbor  "  came  into  the  possession  of  the 
step-son  of  David  Jones, — James  Todd, — who  having  intermarried, 
it  is  said,  with  the  daughter  of  Mountenay,  absorbed  also  the  tract 
of  "  Mountenay's  Neck."     The  first  named  tract  was  resurveyed  for 
Mr.  Todd  who  re-patented  it  as  "  Todd's  Range,"  of  five  hundred  and 
ten  acres  ;  and  in  the  year  1702,  Mr.  Todd  and  his  wife  jointly  con- 
veyed one  hundred  and  thirty-five  and  a  half  acres  of  "  Mountenay's 
Neck,"  and  one  hundred  and  sixty-four  and  a  half  acres  of  "  Cole's 
Harbor  "  to  John  Hurst  who  kept  an  inn  near  Jones's  dwelling,  and 
also  conveyed  the  remainder  of  the  Harbor  to  Charles  Carroll,  agent 
of  the  Proprietary.     Immediately   after  completing  •  his   purchase, 
Hurst  mortgaged  three  hundred  acres  of  the  two  tracts  to  Captain 
Richard  Colegate,  one  of  the  County  Commissioners,  who  lived  on 
"  Colegate's  Creek,"  below  the  north  branch  of  the  Patapsco.     In 
1711,  Mr.  Carroll  sold  thirty-one   acres   of  Cole's   Harbor,  with  a 
"  mill  seat,"  to  Mr.  John  Hanson,  a  millwright,  who  built  the  mill,  the 
remains  of  which  still  stood,  in  1825,  near  the  northwest  intersection 
of  Bath  and  Holliday  streets.     In  1726,  a  Quaker,  from  Lancashire, 
England,  who  had  settled  east  of  Jones's  Falls,  took  out  an  escheat 
warrant  and  employed  Richard  Gist  to   survey  Cole's  Harbor   or 
Todd's  Range,  and  in  the  succeeding  year  purchased  the  rights  in  it 
of  John  Gorsuch,  son   of  Charles.     But   this   stirred   the   sons   of 
Charles   Carroll,  then  lately  dead,  who  entered  a  caveat  and  pre- 
vented the  new  grant  sought  for  by  the  enterprising  land-hunter 
from  Lancashire.     Gist's  return  of  the  survey  is  interesting  as  show- 
ing that,  in  1726,  the  sole  improvements  in  that  part  of  modern  Bal- 
timore were  three  dwellings,  a  mill,  tobacco  houses  and  orchards, — 
and  that  the  land  was  about  "  one  half  cleared  and  of  middling 

From  Mr.  Bacon's  collection  of  the  Laws  of  Maryland,  it  appears 
that  an  act,  passed  as  early  as  1663,  "for  seating  of  lands  in  Baltimore 
County,"  was  rejected  by  the  Proprietary.  Twenty  years  later,  in 
1683,  several  towns  or  "  ports  of  trade  "  were  created  by  Acts  of  As- 
sembly, in  "  Baltimore  County," — whose  limits,  at  that  time,  are  be- 
lieved to  have  included  all  the  lands  within  the  Province  north  of 
Anne  Arundel,  on  the  west  of  the  bay,  comprising  even  Cecil,  be- 

*  The  tide,  at  that  time,  is  reported  as  flowing  up  as  high  as  the  head  of  High 


yond  Elk  River.  The  lines  of  Anne  Arundel,  in  1698,  were  the 
highlands  of  Magothy  to  Patuxent  River ;  while  Baltimore  County 
was  bounded  westwardly  by  that  county  or  by  Charles,  until  Prince 
George's,  which  then  included  Prince  Frederick's,  was  laid  off,  in  1695. 

In  compliance  with  this  Act  of  1688,  towns  or  ports  of  trade  were 
laid  off  in  this  "  Baltimore  County,"  on  Patapsco,  near  "  Humphry's 
Creek,"  and  on  "  Bush  River,"  on  the  "  town  land  near  the  Court 
House."  The  next  year  another  town  was  laid  out  on  "  Middle 
River ;"  and  two  years  later  another  was  seated  on  "  Spesutie  Creek," 
and  another  on  "  Gunpowder,"  at  "  West  Bury's  Point ;"  while  the 
site  of  town  on  Middle  River  was  suspended.  After  this  there  was 
a  long  lull  in  the  creation  of  towns  in  Baltimore  County,  and  it  was 
not  until  1706,  that  "  Whetstone  Point," — the  original  favorite 
among  locators  of  land  in  this  vicinity, — was  made  a  "town  ;"  while 
the  "  town  where  the  Old  Court  House  "  existed,  was  discontinued, 
and  a  new  Court  House  directed  to  be  built  at  a  spot  "on  Gun- 
powder," designated  as  "  Tajdor's  Choice,"  which  was  erected  into 
another  town.  The  acts  making  these  numerous  civic  creations 
being  rejected  or  repealed  by  the  authorities, — when  William  and 
Mary  assumed  the  government  of  the  Province  for  the  crown,  in 
1689,  it  became  necessary  to  confirm  rights  acquired  under  the  abro- 
gated laws.  This  was  done  in  1712,  as  to  the  designated  "Court 
House ;"  to  which  the  seat  of  justice  being  removed,  the  town  was 
called  Joppa,  and  continued  to  be  the  County  town  for  more  than 
fifty  years. 

The  royal  government,  in  all  likelihood,  was  not  as  beneficial  to 
Maryland  as  the  Proprietary  had  been ;  for  the  governors  selected  by 
the  Proprietary  and  his  Lordship  himself  had  been  generally  careful 
of  their  people  as  well  as  the  Province,  so  that  while  the  wild  legis- 
lation for  acts  of  settlement  was  permitted  by  the  sovereigns,  private 
interests  of  various  landholders  were  allowed  to  prevail  rather  than 
considerations  of  general  welfare.  The  towns  were,  indeed,  actually 
injured  by  their  unnecessary  number,  being,  in  fact,  so  many  rivals 
of  each  other  in  the  race  of  prosperous  location  on  the  upper  streams 
of  Maryland. 

Meanwhile  the  commerce  of  the  bay  and  river  was  growing ;  and, 
— as  the  most  convenient  converging  point,  at  that  time,  for  all  sec- 
tions bordering  on  or  communicating  with  the  great  streams, — 
"North  Point"  was  agreed  on  as  the  common  resort  and  anchorage 
of  vessels  for  loading  and  distribution.  There  were  but  three  custom 
house  districts  on  both  shores  of  the  bay.  St.  Mary's,  St.  George's 
and  Annapolis  being  those  on  the  western.     Naval  officers  or  Tide 


"Waiters,  however,  were  stationed  at  any  trade  ports  where  the  land- 
ing or  shipping  of  merchandise  was  allowed,  but  as,  agriculture 
increased,  and  commerce  augmented  with  it  and  with  population,  the 
trade  gradually  crept  northerly.  It  was  found  to  he  the  interests  of 
owners  and  shippers  to  bring  their  craft  into  our  river,  though  not 
immediately  to  the  head  of  it,  Thus,  in  1723,  there  were  but  "  five 
ships  in  Patapsco  up  for  freight ;"  and  persons  still  lived  to  within 
the  last  twenty  years  who  have  seen  as  many  vessels  of  burthen 
anchored  at  the  same  time  at  the  point  between  the  south  and  mid- 
dle branches  of  the  Patapsco,  as  in  the  north  branch  on  which  our 
city  was  finally  established.  The  writer  distinctly  remembers  being 
pointed  to  the  spot,  near  the  viaduct  of  the  railway  to  Washington, 
close  to  the  "Relay  House"  at  "Elk  Ridge  Landing,"  (nine  miles 
from  the  present  Baltimore  City,)  where  his  companion  had  often 
loaded  vessels  of  over  two  hundred  tons  burthen  with  tobacco,  that 
had  been  rolled  down  to  the  landing  by  the  "  rolling-road,"  which  is 
still  recognized  by  that  name  in  the  neighborhood. 

To  the  point  between  the  south  and  middle  branches,  the  main 
road  from  the  west  and  through  the  country  generally  was  directed, 
passing  south  of  Gwynn's  Palls,  at  the  mouth  of  which  once  stood 
Tasker  &  Carroll's  Furnace  of  the  "  Baltimore  Company."  This 
point,  the  terminus  of  such  a  road,  and  with  such  an  anchorage  for 
commerce,  was,  of  course,  one  of  vast  importance  in  "  seating  coun- 
ties" and  establishing  a  future  metropolis;  but  it  is  a  singular  fact 
in  the  history  of  cities  that  the  proprietor  of  the  point, — Mr.  John 
Moale, — a  merchant  from  Devonshire,  in  England,  preferred  the 
present  profitable  devotion  of  the  neighboring  lands  which  he  owned 
to  trade  and  iron  mining,  than  to  adventuring  them  in  speculation 
as  "  town  lots"  in  futurity  1* 

*  It  is  probable  tliat  the  original  locators  of  Baltimore  Town  were  decidedly  in 
favor  of  adopting  Mr.  Moale' s  Point  as  the  site  of  the  fixture  metropolis,  and  were 
only  prevented  by  the  resolute  hostility  of  the  proprietor.  Moale's  Point  and  its 
neighborhood  would  have  been  free  from  the  difficulties  of  drainage  experienced  by 
us  from  Liberty  and  Charles  streets;  from  Chatsworth  Run;  from  Jones's  Falls; 
and  from  Harford  Run.  Even  in  those  days,  the  alluvion  of  Jones's  Falls,  spread- 
in-  from  its  shore,  eastward,  towards  Harford  Pun,  and  to  the  limits  of  South 
Btreet  westwardly,  already  limited  the  channel  of  the  Patapsco  on  its  northern  side, 
and  formed  some  islands,  which  by  repeated  overflows  finally  became  fast  land. 
The  lines  of  the  streets  as  originally  laid  out,  running  from,  north  to  south,  nowhere 
reached  the  ahsolute  shore.  Calvert  street  seems  to  have  communicated  with  it; 
While  Forrest  street  (now  Charles)  terminated  at  ''Uhlcr's  Spring  Branch,"  which 
was  then  near  the  site  of  Uhler's  alley.  The  original  site  of  Baltimore  was  broken 
by  marshes  and  water-COUrses,  and  surrounded  by  hills;  the  filling  up  and  leveling 
of  which— together  with  the  expensive  Hoods  of  the  "Falls"  —  sufficiently  vindicate 
the  favor  shown  at  first  to  Moale's  Point. 

OF     BALTIMORE.  17 

It  was  about  this  time  that  the  site  of  Baltimore  was  to  be  decided. 
Many  persons  fixed  their  eyes  on  this  accessible  and  convenient 
"  Moale's  Point,"  as  the  most  eligible  situation.  Accordingly,  appli- 
cation was  made  to  the  owner  for  ground  upon  which  to  lay  out  a 
town ;  and  tradition  says  that  the  people  went  so  far  as  to  introduce 
a  bill  into  the  Legislature  for  the  establishment  of  a  town  on  his 
property.  But,  Mr.  Moale  was  a  member  of  that  Assembly,  and 
believing  less  in  the  success  of  the  enterprise  than  in  his  ores  and  in- 
dustry, he  not  only  rejected  the  personal  application  for  the  sale  of 
any  part  of  his  land,  but  defeated  the  measure  in  the  General  As- 
sembly, thus  making  it  necessary  for  the  adventurers  to  seek  another 
location.  The  die  was  thus  cast;  and  when  in  1729,  the  "Act  for 
erecting  a  town  on  the  north  side  of  Patapsco,  in  Baltimore  County, 
and  for  laying  out  into  lots  sixty  acres  of  land  in  and  about  the 
place  where  one  John  Flemming  now  lives,"  was  passed, — it  was  the 
"  head  of  the  North  Branch  that  was  promptly  selected  by  the  lead- 
ing men  of  "  Baltimore  County  "  who  had  appealed  to  the  Legisla- 
ture for  a  town. 

The  John  Flemming  alluded  to  in  the  Act  was  a  tenant  of  Mr. 
Carroll,  residing  in  a  "  quarter  "  house  then  standing  on  the  bank  of 
"  Uhler's  Run,"  about  the  present  intersection  of  Lombard  and 
Charles  streets.  The  Act  of  Assembly  empowered  Baltimore  to  be  a 
privileged  place  of  landing,  loading,  and  selling  or  exchanging 
goods,  and  Major  Thomas  Talley,  William  Hamilton,  Esq.,  William 
Buckner,  Esq.,  Dr.  George  Walker,  Richard  Gist,  Esq.,  Dr.  George 
Buchanan,  and  Colonel  William  Hammond,  all  of  whom,  except  Dr. 
Walker,  were  justices  of  the  county,  were  appointed  Commissioners 
to  carry  it  into  effect.  They  were  all  men  of  substance  and  stand- 
ing in  the  province,  mostly  landholders ;  and  one  of  them,  Dr. 
Walker,  was  afterwards  proprietor  of  that  charming  seat  on  the 
western  side  of  the  present  city,  formerly  known  as  "  Chatsworth," 
the  superb  grounds  of  which  are  now  all  covered  with  modern 
improvements,  save  the  gardens  and  enclosures  occupied  at  present 
by  Mr.  Daniel  B.  Banks  on  Franklin  street. 

The  tax-payers  on  the  millions  of  real  estate  comprised  within  the 
same  limits  to-day,  may  be  a  little  astonished  to  know  that  on  the 
1st  of  December,  1729,  these  worthy  Commissioners, — the  Fathers  of 
our  city,  whose  names  deserve  most  respectful  record  and  remem- 
brance,— bought  of  the  Messieurs  Carroll,  the  tract  of  sixty  acres, 
authorized  by  law,  for  forty  shillings  per  acre,  in  money  or  in  tobacco, — 
(which  was  a  Maryland  currency) — at  one  penny  per  pound ; — not 
quite  six  hundred  dollars  in  the  coin  of  our  country  !     Let  us,  also, 


record  permanently  in  this  volume  the  original  limits  of  this  cheaply 
purchased  city,  which  on  the  12th  of  January,  1730, — (new  style) — 
the  County  Surveyor,  Mr.  Philip  Jones,  laid  off  legally  as  follows : 
Beginning  at  a  point  near  the  northeast  intersection  of  what  are  now 
called  Pratt  and  Light  streets,  and  running  northwestwardly  along 
Uhler's  alley,  towards  what  was  then  a  "  great  eastern  road  "  and  "  a 
great  gully  "  or  drain,  at  or  near  Sharp  street,  thence  across  the 
present  Baltimore  street,  east  of  the  gully,  northeasterly  with  the 
road,  which  is  now  McClellan's  alley,  to  a  "  precipice  which  over- 
hung the  falls,"  at  or  near  the  southwest  corner  of  Saratoga  street 
and  St.  Paul  street ;  then,  with  the  bank  of  Jones's  Falls,  (which  then 
swept  up  to  the  last  named  corner,)  southwardly  and  eastwardly, 
various  courses,  unto  the  low  grounds  which  lay  ten  perches  west  of 
Gay  street, — then  due  south  along  the  margin  of  these  low  lands  to 
the  bank  on  the  north  side  of  the  river  (which  then  came  up  to  near 
the  present  Custom  House  and  Post  Office  building) — and  then,  by 
the  river  bank,  westwardly  and  southwardly  to  the  place  of  begin- 
ning. This  rough  surface  of  soil,  and  drains,  and  gullies, — cheaply 
purchased  probably  by  the  Commissioners  as  only  fit  for  a  town  and 
not  for  a  farm, — was  then  cut  in  its  centre  from  due  east  to  west,  that 
is,  from  about  McClellan's  alley  to  the  swamp  which  edged  Jones's 
Falls  at  Frederick  street, — by  Long  street, — afterwards  Marker,  and 
now  Baltimore  street.  Long  street  was  intersected  at  right  angles 
by  Charles  street.  There  were  also  nine  lanes,  called  East,  South, 
Second,  Light,  Hanover  and  Belvidere,  Lovely,  St.  Paul's  and  Ger- 
man. The  six  first  named  of  these  lanes  were  in  the  course  of 
time  increased  in  width  and  raised  to  the  dignity  of  streets.  The 
lots,  of  about  an  acre  each,  were  numbered  from  one  to  sixty,  com- 
mencing on  the  north  side  of  Long  (Baltimore)  street,  and  running, 
first,  westwardly,  exhausting  the  northern  acres,  then  returning 
eastwardly  on  the  southern  side  of  the  street,  until  all  the  lots 
were  apportioned.  Number  "  one,"  we  judge  from  old  maps,  was 
situated  between  the  present  Gay  and  South  streets,  probably  east 
of  Holliday. 

The  site  of  Baltimore  was  so  completely  only  a  great  business  lo- 
cation for  the  future — (as  time  has  indeed  proved) — and  so  cut  up 
with  hills,  water  courses,  drains,  and  swamp  land,  that  it  did  not 
attract  a  rush  of  "  takers  "  when  the  office  was  open  for  purchasers 
of  lots  on  the  14th  of  January,  1730,  and  several  following  days. 
"Improvements"  were  required  of  the  buyers,  and  not  the  least 
charge  to  the  purchaser  was  the  "  house,  covering  at  least  four  hun- 
dred square  feet,"  which  he  was  required  to  build  within  eighteen 


months  from  date  of  "taking  up."  A  list, — the  original  one, — of 
the  "  Entries  of  Purchasers  of  Baltimore  Town-lots,"  is  still  preserved 
in  the  Register's  office  of  our  city,  and  they  who  are  curious  in  such 
matters  may  not  be  surprised  to  know  that  the  two  lots  first  selected 
were  number  49  by  Mr.  Charles  Carroll,  at  the  southeast  corner  of 
Calvert  street  and  the  Basin,  which  then  extended  far  up  the  street, 
and  number  37  at  the  then  intersection  of  Charles  street  and  the 
Basin.  But  the  takers  were  not  immediately  greedy,  though  in  a 
few  years  the  whole  land  was  absorbed,  and  applications  were  made 
for  the  lots  forfeited  by  delinquents.  Still,  as  yet  there  was  nothing 
to  invite  extravagance  in  city  building  or  improvements  by  extend- 
ing streets,  building  bridges,  leveling  hills  and  filling  marshes ;  all 
of  which  tasks  have  fallen  on  the  successors  of  the  first  enterprise. 

Thus  the  first  "  Baltimore  Town  "  was  laid  out  and  disposed  of, 
but  it  was  as  we  see  a  small  affair  of  sixty  rough  acres,  comprised 
within  the  westernmost  Basin  of  the  Patapsco  on  the  south,  the  chalk 
hills  of  Charles  and  Saratoga  streets  on  the  north,  the  deep  drain  and 
gully  which  swept  down  about  the  present  course  of  Liberty  street 
and  McClellan's  alley  on  the  west,  and  on  the  east  by  the  big  swamp, 
which  bordering  Jones's  Falls,  ran  up  by  its  western  flank  as  far  on 
the  present  Frederick  street  as  Saratoga  or  Bath  streets.  Jones's 
Falls, — the  absolute  easternmost  limit,  swept  round,  in  a  deep  horse- 
shoe bend,  a  couple  of  squares  above  our  Gay  street  bridge,  the 
curve  of  the  horse-shoe  penetrating  as  far  as  the  corner  of  Calvert 
and  Lexington  streets,  and  thence  going  northeastwardly  along  the 
line  of  Calvert. 

But  the  limits  of  the  town  were  in  fifteen  or  twenty  years  enlarged 
by  additions.  In  1730,  a  ship  carpenter,  William  Fell,  brother  of 
Edward  who  settled  east  of  Jones's  Falls  in  1726,  bought  the  tract, 
before  mentioned  by  us,  called  Copus's  Harbor,  and  built  a  mansion 
there,  on  the  present  Lancaster  street ;  so  that  the  subsequent  im- 
provements and  disposition  of  the  property  have  resulted  in  what 
still  bears  the  name  of  "  Fell's  Point."  In  1732,  another  town  across 
Jones's  Falls,  immediately  opposite  to  Baltimore  Town,  was  erected 
on  ten  acres,  laid  off  in  twenty  lots,  valued  at  one  hundred  and  fifty 
pounds  of  tobacco  each,  and  located  on  that  part  of  Cole's  Harbor 
settled  by  Mr.  Edward  Fell.  This  was  called  "Jones-Town"  and 
consisted  of  three  streets ; — Front,  Short  and  Jones — on  the  last  of 
which  at  the  southwest  corner  of  Bridge  or  Gay  street  extended 
over  the  falls,  stood  a  store  kept  by  Mr.  Fell ;  and,  as  a  settlement 
in  this  district  had  been  made  before  the  laying  out  of  Baltimore 
Town,  the  location,  after  awhile,  took  and  has  ever  since  retained 


the  name  of  "  Old  Town."  Thus,  in  these  three  locations,  we  have 
the  absolute  nucleus  of  our  present  city,  though  it  was  not  until  1745, 
that  "  Jones  "  and  "  Baltimore  "  towns,  were  amalgamated  into  one, 
with  the  name  of  the  latter,  and  commissioners  appointed  to  carry 
the  union  and  administration  into  effect.  Yet,  strange  to  say,  there 
was  still  a  gap  in  the  centre  of  the  settlement  until  1747,  when  Mr. 
Harrison  bought  for  £160,  from  Mr.  Carroll,  the  whole  land  and 
marsh,  comprising  twenty-eight  acres,  which  lay  between  the  limits 
of  the  original  Baltimore  Town  on  the  east  and  the  western  bank  of 
Jones's  Falls ; — and,  at  the  next  session  of  the  Legislature,  obtained 
an  Act  by  which  Gay,  Frederick,  and  parts  of  Water  and  Second 
streets  were  laid  off  with  eighteen  acres  of  ground.  It  was  not  until 
1750,  that  High  street,  from  Ploughman  to  French,  with  eighteen 
acres,  was  added  to  the  town ;  nor  until  1773,  that  Ploughman's, 
Philpot's,  and  Fell's  lands  were  annexed  to  the  extent  of  eight  acres, 
— while  the  eighteen  acres  between  Bridge  (now  Gfay)  and  Front 
streets,  which  Messrs.  Moale  and  Steiger  were  authorized  by  the 
same  Legislature  to  add  to  the  town,  were  in  fact  not  joined  to  it 
until  eight  years  afterwards,  about  1751. 

The  communication  between  the  first  towns  and  their  additions, 
east  of  the  Falls,  was  of  course  vastly  obstructed  by  the  wide  marsh 
which  bounded  the  stream  and  which  with  the  extent  northwardly, 
already  mentioned, — spread  westward  from  the  margin  of  the  Falls  to 
the  present  Frederick  street.  What  is  now  Harrison  street,  from  its 
head  at  Gay  street  to  the  Patapsco,  was  a  swamp, — the  resort  of  sports- 
men for  snipe  and  woodcock, — and  so,  indeed,  the  lower  part  of  it, 
below  the  present  Maryland  Institute  and  market,  continued  until 
near  the  beginning  of  this  century.  The  communication,  therefore, 
between  Baltimore  Town  proper,  and  its  adjunct,  Jones-Town,  was 
inconvenient  and  sometimes  dangerous;  effected  only  by  a  ford 
which  (hen  existed  somewhere  between  the  limits  of  Gay  and  Sara- 
toga si  reds  as  they  are  now  laid  down.  Accordingly,  a  bridge  was 
shortly  erected,  by  the  respective  inhabitants  of  the  towns,  at  the 
place  where  Gay  street  bridge  now  stands,  so  that  the  townfolk  and 
travelers,  who,  if  they  did  not  choose,  in  the  unoccupied  and  unbuilt 
condition  of  the  land  at  that  early  day,  to  follow  the  pathway  or  road 
thai  was  dignified  by  the  name  of"  Long  street,"  and  flounder  through 
the  swamp  and  swim  the  Falls  if  it  happened  to  be  high,  might  con- 
veniently cross  the  open  lots,  north  of  the  highway,  and  pass  to  Jones- 
Town  by  this  permanent  viaduct,  which,  doubtless,  contributed  to 
the  lnjlshilirr  union  of  the  two  (owns  of  "Baltimore"  and  u  Jones," 
in  L745,  under  the  name  of"  l>Ai/i'iMOitE,"  as  we  have  already  stated. 


About  the  year  1734,  a  town  was  laid  out  at  "  Elk  Ridge  Land- 
ing,"— near  the  present  Relay  House,  on  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio 
Railroad,  from  which  country  produce, — especially  tobacco, — was 
for  many  years  afterwards  brought  to  ships  anchored  off  Moale's 
Point,  where  the  originators  of  Baltimore-Town  had  been  so  anxious 
in  1729  to  found  their  settlement.  Indeed,  Joppa,  the  "  Baltimore 
County  "  seat,  and  "  Elk  Ridge  Landing,"*  were,  in  those  days,  rivals 
of  Baltimore-Town ;  but  our  ancestors  having  secured  their  wisely 
chosen  site  at  the  absolute  top  of  bay  and  river  navigation,  proceeded 
bravely  to  do  their  best  in  the  way  of  advancing  its  fortunes.  It  is 
stated, — although  the  exports  to  Great  Britain  about  this  period — 
(1731) — from  the  two  colonies  of  Maryland  and  Virginia, — which  are 
said  to  have  been  then  nearly  equal  in  wealth  and  white  population, 
— amounted  to  about  sixty  thousand  hogsheads  of  tobacco  and  over 
twenty-one  thousand  pounds  sterling  in  skins  and  lumber — -employ- 
ing twenty-four  thousand  tons  of  shipping,— that  great  depression 
was  experienced  throughout  the  province ;  and,  in  fact,  that  the  low 
price  of  the  staple  product, — tobacco, — caused  local  insurrections  and 
the  destruction  of  many  fields  of  the  narcotic  plant.  The  emission 
of  bills  of  credit  as  a  substitute  for  a  currency, — as  had  been  already 
done  in  other  colonies, — produced  a  favorable  change,  and  improve- 
ments soon  began  to  be  made  by  the  adventurers  of  our  future  me- 
tropolis. Like  worthy  burghers,  they  did  not  forget  their  religious 
duties  or  allegiance  to  the  Church  of  England ;  so  that  the  first 
church  built  in  Baltimore-Town  was  St.  Paul's, — on  lot  Xo.  19  of  the 
original  town  plat, — being  the  most  elevated  ground  of  the  town,  and 
part  of  the  property  on  which  the  present  edifice  of  the  same  name 
is  erected, — its  predecessor,  alas !  was  but  a  sorry,  barn-like,  temple  ! 
The  church,  indeed,  was  not  finished  until  1744 ;  nor  have  we,  until 
the  year  1758,  any  information  of  other  churches  or  places  of  worship, 
except  those  of  the  Society  of  Friends,  of  whom  a  large  portion  of 
the  first  settlers  of  Baltimore  undoubtedly  consisted.  The  original 
"  Quaker-meeting"  in  this  vicinity  was  called  "  Patapsco,"  and  was 
held  at  a  house  which  stood  on  the  site  of  the  Quaker  burying  ground 
on  the  Harford  turnpike,  the  ground  for  which  was  given  by  Joseph 
Taylor.  This  meeting  is  first  mentioned  in  the  old  manuscripts  of 
the  Society  in  1703,  when  it  was  probably  held  in  a  private  house ; 
but  it  is  certain  that  Mr.  John  Giles — the  first  of  that  family  whose 
members  have  since  occupied  high  positions  in  our  State,  settled  near 

*  In  1683  an  Assembly  was  held  at  "t7ie  Ridge'''  in  Anne  Arundel  County- (Elk 
Ridge  Landing) — at  which  the  first  Act  was  passed  for  "laying  out  of  towns,"  en- 
titled "An  Act  for  the  Advancement  of  Trade." 


the  present  site  of  Baltimore,  about  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth 
century,  and  that  at  his  house  the  Friends  or  Quakers  held  their 

The  writer  of  this  sketch  secured  from  the  late  Colonel  Samuel 
Moale,  of  Baltimore,  a  rough  but  undoubtedly  authentic  picture, 
drawn  in  1752  by  his  father  John  Moale,  of  Baltimore-Town,  as  it 
then  appeared  from  the  heights  of  "  Federal  Hill,"  south  of  the  Basin. 
It  has  been  placed,  very  properly,  by  Colonel  Moale's  direction  in 
the  collections  of  the  Maryland  Historical  Societ}T,  in  its  building  in 
Baltimore,  and  will  unquestionably  be  sacredly  kept  by  the  officers 
of  that  institution  as  the  most  valuable  memorial  of  their  city, — 
rudely  but  graphically  displaying  to  their  descendants  the  appear- 
ance and  growth  of  it  in  the  course  of  twenty-three  years  from  its 
founding.  This  sketch  was  the  basis  of  the  engraved  picture  of  Bal- 
timore in  1752,  published  many  years  ago  by  the  late  Edward  J. 
Coale,  with  additional  matter  furnished  by  Mr.  Bowly,  filling  up 
with  some  details  much  of  the  space  left  bare  by  Air.  Moale  in  his 
original  and  homely  draft. 

In  this  original  sketch  we  have  Baltimore  as  it  appeared  one  hun- 
dred and  nineteen  years  ago  to  a  townsman,  who  evidently  intended 
his  picture  as  an  affidavit  rather  than  a  work  of  art  or  imagination. 
The  twenty-three  years  of  growth  had  furnished  but  twenty-five 
houses — a  fraction  over  one  a  year;  so  that,  allowing  ten  inhabitants 
to  each  one  of  twenty  houses,  the  population  had  grown  to  two  hun- 
dred. It  should  be  stated,  however,  that  Mr.  Moale's  drawing  does 
not  embrace  the  scenery  and  improvements  east  of  the  Falls,  while 
the  houses  delineated  are  thinly  sprinkled  over  a  broken  hill-side 
sloping  to  the  Basin,  with  St.  Paul's  Church  crowning  the  top  of  the 
eminence.  Mr.  Bowly,  in  his  improved  picture,  as  published,  has 
garnished  the  lower  margin  of  the  Basin,  where  it  receives  the  Falls, 
with  a  flourishing;  field  of  cabbage  or  tobacco  plants.  We  can  recog- 
nize  Calvert  and  Light  streets,  on  the  former  of  which  we  distinguish 
I  lie  brick  building,  which  until  twenty  years  ago,  stood  at  the  earner 
of  Bank  or  Mercer  street,  and  was  known  as  Payne's  Tavern — the 
scene  of  much  revelry  in  early  days,  and  containing  the  rather  1 'united 
ball-room,  in  which  many  of  the  Baltimore  belles  of  the  ancient  time 
have  recounted  to  us  their  minuets  with  the  French  officers  during 
the  Revolutionary  war,  and  their  cotillions  with  General  AVashing- 
ton  alter  the  war  was  over.  Further  on,  along  the  route  of  Mercer 
street,  we  think  we  discern  Lt  Kaminsky's,"  part  of  which  still  stands, 
a  pari  being  this  year, — Anno  Domini  1870, — torn  down  to  make 
way  for  the  improvements  caused  by  the  destruction  of  the  old,  his- 


toric,  :' Fountain  Inn,"  in  which  Washington's  apartment  was  still 
known  and  shown  until  the  building  was  destroyed.  In  1752,  Payne 
had  a  rival  publican  and  boniface,  in  Rogers,  who  kept  tavern  at  the 
corner  of  Long  or  Market  ami  Calvert  streets.  There  were  three 
other  brick  houses  in  the  village,  one  of  which  stood  about  the  site 
of  Barnum's  Hotel,  and  was  the  dwelling  of  Mr.  Edward  Fotterall,* 
—two  stories  high,  with  free-stone  corners  ; — the  first  house, — Bay 
the  Chroniclers, — built  kW  without  a  hip-roof," — the  predecessor  of  the 
fashionable  "  Mansard"  The  bricks  for  all  these  houses  were  im- 
ported from  England, — doubtless  as  ballast  for  the  tobacco  ships, — 
for  our  agricultural  ancestors  had  not  yet  learned  that  they  were 
living  on  clay-lands  which  were  to  produce  for  their  descendants  the 
best  bricks  in  the  world.  Mr.  Moale  terminates  his  sketch,  at  the 
bottom  by  a  rough  and  bare  margin,  which  we  may  suppose  he  in- 
tended as  the  limit  of  the  Basin,  but  Mr.  Bowly  certifies  our  conjec- 
ture by  delineating  the  water-courses  of  that  spot,  and  anchors  at  its 
landing  the  brig  "  Philip  and  Charles/'  belonging  to  Mr.  Rogers, 
and  the  sloop  "  Baltimore,"  the  property  of  Mr.  Lux.  Such  is  an 
inventory  of  Baltimore-Town  in  the  year  1752  : — Twenty-five  houses, 
one  of  which  is  a  church, — -and  two  taverns  ; — four  of  these  edifices 
built  of  brick,  one  being  of  two  stories  and  without  a  hip-roof; — two 
hundred  men,  women,  children,  slaves  and  servants,  to  occupy  the 
buildings  ; — and  lastly,  for  the  present  navigation  of  the  settlement, 
— one  sloop  and  one  brig,  both  owned  in  the  town.  It  may  help 
our  imagination  of  the  village  and  its  belongings,  if  we  recount  that, 
a  Mr.  James  Gardner  kept  school  at  the  corner  of  the  present  South 
and  Water  streets,  but  that  he  did  not  completely  fill  the  wants 
of  the  community,  for  the  Annapolis  newspaper — the  Maryland 
Gazette, — announces  that  a  "  schoolmaster  of  sober  character,  who 
understands  teaching  English,  writing  and  arithmetic,  will  meet 
with  good  encouragement  from  the  inhabitants  of  Baltimore-Town, 
if  well  recommended. "f     The  mind  was  fed,  but  there  was,  as  yet, 

*  Fotterall  went  to  Ireland,  the  place  of  his  birth,  at  the  Revolution,  being  piob- 
ably  a  loyalist.  At  all  events,  it  is  recorded  that  his  houses  were  pulled  down,  all 
his  property  being  confiscated  and  sold. 

f  The  following  list  of  well-known  Inhabitants  op  Baltimore-Town  in  17">2, 
is  from  a  paper  in  possession  of  the  late  Joseph  Townsend,  who  had  it  many 
years  before  his  death  from  one  of  the  early  settlers,  who  was  cognizant  of  the  facts 
stated  : 

•Capt.  Lucas,  Win.  Rogers,  Nich.  Rogers,  Dr.  Wm.  Lyon,  Thomas  Harrison, 
Alex.  Lawson,  Bryan  Philpot,  Nick  Ruxton  Gay,  James  Carey  (inn  keeper),  Parson 
Chase,  Mr.  Paine,  Chris.  Carnan,  Dame  Hughes  (the  only  midwife  among  English 
folk,)  Chs.  Coustable,  Mr.  Ferguson,  Mr.  Goldsmith,  Mr.  Juo.  Moore,  Mr.  Shep- 
hard  (tailor),  Bill  Adams  (barber),  Geo.  Strebeck  (only  wagoner)  drove  a  single 


no  Market  House  for  the  creature  comforts  of  the  villagers,  who 
probably  relied  independently  on  the  vegetables,  fruit,  poultry  and 
pork,  raised  by  their  own  industry  within  the  bounds  of  their  lots. 
But  one  was,  nevertheless,  soon  set  on  foot,  and,  not  long  afterwards, 
erected  by  subscription  at  the  northwest  corner  of  Market  and  Gay 
streets,  with  a  large  room  above  it,  for  popular  assemblages,  balls  and 
amusements  suitable  to  a  rather  demure  population.  Having  a  mar- 
ket house,  five  or  six  dozen  houses,  and  a  church  to  protect, — a  fire 
department  became  necessary  ;  so  that  every  householder,  under  a 
penalty  of  ten  shillings  of  the  realm,  was  required  to  "  keep  a  lad- 
der" to  be  used  in  case  of  fire :  while  an  equal  sum  was  imposed,  as 
fine,  if  he  allowed  his  chimney  to  blaze  in  the  midst  of  so  inflamma- 
ble a  neighborhood.  Large  as  the  spaces  were,  and  favorable  as  the 
ground  was  for  the  culture  of  "  porkers," — those  pioneer  scavengers 
of  infant  cities  were, — under  adequate  penalties, — inhibited  from 
roaming  abroad,  and  confined  to  the  enclosures  of  their  owners. 

Slow  as  seems  to  have  been  the  growth,  and  unpromising  the  pros- 
pects of  Baltimore-Town,  it  is  likely  that  the  people  "  had  faith  "  in 
what  they  were  about,  for,  in  the  very  year  of  the  completion  of  Mr. 
Moale's  sorry  picture,  thirty-two  acres  of  "  Cole's  Harbor,"  which 
Mr.  Joshua  Hall  bought  of  Mr.  Carroll,  were  added  to  the  town, 
comprising  part  of  the  tract  which  was  between  the  town  and  the 
lines  of  Lunn's  lot  at  the  south,  northwest  of  the^ms^  town  that  was 
laid  out.  This  seems  to  include  the  land  between  McClellan's  alley 
and  the  present  Liberty  street,  running  round  the  western  and  nor- 
thern limits  of  the  original  Baltimore-Town  to  the  western  side  of  the 
Falls.  The  population  of  the  County  of  Baltimore,  at  this  time, 
consisted  of  2,692  white  men,  3,115  white  boys,  2,587  white  women, 
2,951  white  girls,  595  servant  men,  126  servant  boys,  200  servant 
women,  49  servant  girls,*  470  men  convicts,  6  boy  convicts,  87  women 

team,  Jake  Keeports  (carpenter),  Conrad  Smith,  Captain  Dnnlop,  Jack  Crosby 
(carpenter),  Bob  Lance  (cooper),  Philip  Littig  (whose  wife  was  accoucheuse  among 
the  German  population),  John  Ward,  Hilt  Stranwich  (laborer),  Nancy  Low,  Mr. 
Gwinn."  The  first  female  child  born  in  Baltimore-Town  was  Ellen  North,  afterwards 
Mrs.  Ellen  Moale,  who  lived  to  see  Baltimore  a  city  of  nearly  80,000  inhabitants, 
having  had  hardly  more  than  250  when  she  was  born. 

*  Servants  in  Maryland,  at  that  time,  may  properly  he  classed  as  the  Redemp- 
tioners  provided  for  by  Lord  Baltimore  in  his  original  scheme  of  colonization,  as 
set  forth  in  the  "  Relation  of  Maryland,  1635."  Much  of  the  early  emigration  to 
Maryland  was  thus  effected,  the  emigrant  binding  himself  to  five  years  in  the  Prov- 
ince in  consideration  of  his  transportation  thither  at  the  cost  of  the  co-contractor. 
In  1688  the  term  of  service  was  reduced  hy  Act  of  Assembly  to  four  years.  Where 
these  agreements  were  made  with  a  merchant,  ship  owner  or  ship  captain,  these 
indented  servants  or  "Redemptioners,"  were  sold  at  auction  for  their  terms  of  four 

OF     BALTIMORE.  25 

convicts,  6  girl  convicts ;  being  571  convicts,  in  all,  designed  for  com- 
pulsory labor  in  the  county  and  sold  for  certain  terms ;  while  there 
were  116  mulatto  slaves,  196  free  mulattoes,  4,027  black  slaves  and  8 
free  blacks, — making  a  total  population  of  17,238,  whereof  eleven 
thousand  three  hundred  and  forty-five  occupied  the  position  of  master 
or  mistress,  and  four  thousand  eight  hundred  and  ninety-three  the 
position  of  menials, — affording  a  servant  for  nearly  every  two. 

The  spirit  of  improvement, — co-operative  or  alone, — was  not  ade- 
quate it  seems  to  the  wants  of  the  stripling  villagers,  for  in  1753,  we 
find  the  gambling  spirit  of  mankind  appealed  to  by  the  scheme  of  a 
lottery,  to  raise  four  hundred  and  fifty  "  pieces  of  eight," — (as  dollars 
were  called,  from  the  eight  reals  that  composed  them,) — for  the  pur- 
pose of  building  a  public  wharf.  This  indicates  the  increasing  de- 
mands of  trade,  and  so  do  the  draining  of  parts  of  the  marsh,  near  the 
Falls,  by  Mr.  Steiger,  as  pasturage  for  his  cattle,  inasmuch  as  the  town- 
lots  were  beginning  to  be  built  over  by  the  Larshes,  the  Luxes,  the 
Myers,  the  Goodwins,  the  Moales  and  the  Carrolls.  And  thus  gradu- 
ally grew  the  town  which  soon  needed  protection,  it  was  supposed, 
from  incursions  of  the  western  savages,  who,  it  was  alleged,  after  the 
defeat  of  Braddock,  in  1755,  penetrated  the  country,  past  Forts 
Frederick  and  Cumberland,  and  pushed  their  plundering  and  mur- 
dering parties  to  within  fifty  miles  of  Baltimore.  There  is  a  tradi- 
tion of  this  period,  that  the  country  people  were  once  actually  driven 
into  the  town,  and  that  the  women  and  children  were  placed,  for 
safety,  in  the  vessels  in  the  harbor.  An  ancient  original  paper,  before 
us  as  we  write,  dated  the  28th  of  January,  1748,  is  a  subscription 
list  signed  by  some  twenty-six  of  the  principal  burghers  of  Baltimore, 
by  which  they  pledge  themselves  respectively  to  pay  five  or  ten  shil- 
lings each  in  order  to  "  make  good  the  fence  of  the  said  town  and  to 
support  a  person  to  keep  it  in  good  order,"  in  compliance  with  an  Act 
of  Assembly,  which  prohibits  the  inhabitants  "  from  keeping  or  rais- 
ing hogs  or  geese  therein."  But  the  Indians  were  more  dangerous 
foes  than  the  swine  and  poultry,  and,  accordingly,  the  town's  people 
met  and  resolved  to  raise  a  stouter  defence  for  their  safety,  by  the 
erection  of  a  palisade  around  the  village,  shutting  out  all  ingress  or 
egress  except  by  a  gate  on  Market  street  near  McClellan's  alley,  and 
another  on  the  upper  part  of  Gay  street  near  the  bridge,  while  a  smaller 
aperture,  for  foot  passengers,  was  cut  in  the  circuit  near  the  head 

years,  and  at  the  end  of  then-  term,  they  received  one  whole  year's  provision  of  corn 
and  fifty  acres  of  land.  These  "servants  "  therefore  are  not  to  be  confounded  with 
the  negro  slaves  or  the  convicts,  the  latter  of  whom  were  also  sold  to  labor  for 


of  Charles   street,  which  then  was  on  the  cliffs  about  Saratoga.* 
Luckily  the  inhabitants  were  never  indebted  to  their  eircumvalla- 
tion  for  guardianship,  yet,  if  it  did  not  save  them  from  an  enemy's 
fire,  it  served  them  for  domestic  fuel.     So  that,  in  the  course  of  two 
or  three  rigorous  winters,  the  logs  gradually  disappeared  under  the 
nightly  assaults  of  certain  economical  citizens  who  made  themselves 
comfortable  b}T  the  blaze  of  the  pilfered  defences.     Thus  ended  the 
walls  of  our  infant  metropolis ;  but  the  fright  of  the  inhabitants, 
in  all  likelihood,  contributed  to  the  growth  of  the  town,  as  people 
who  were  disposed  to  take  up  lands  in  the  interior,  remote  from  pro- 
tection were  deterred  by  the  risk  of  savage  raids,  and  threw  their 
capital,  industry  and  enterprise  into  the  young  but  promising  mart. 
It  was  about  this  time  that  Baltimore  became  the  refuge  of  men 
who  had  suffered  from  the  real  and  not  the  imaginary  dangers  of 
war.     When  the  British  took  ]STova  Scotia, — or,  as  it  was  otherwise 
called,  Acadia,  in  1756, — many  of   the    neutral  French  who  were 
forcibly  deprived  of  their  property  and  expelled,  came  to  our  town. 
Some  of  them  were  received  in  private  houses,  while  others  were 
quartered  in  Mr.  Fotterall's  dwelling,  in  which  they,  also,  erected 
a  temporary  chapel.     Assisted  by  public  levies,  authorized,  it  is  said, 
by  law,  these  industrious  and  frugal  refugees,  soon  got  possession  of 
much  ground  on  South  Charles  street  where  they  erected  wooden 
huts,  from  the  trees  cut  in  the  neighborhood,  which,  in  time,  and 
mostly  by  their  own  hands,  were  converted  into  substantial  frame 
or  brick   buildings.      This   foreign   settlement   became   known   as 
"French  Town," — a  name  it  retained  until  very  few  years  past.    The 
descendants  of  some  of  these  Acadians  still  linger  among  us  ; — and, 
— although  out  of  chronological  order, — we  may  as  well  record  that 
Baltimore  was  still  further  indebted  for  a  French  population  in  the 
year  1793,  when  the  refugees  from  the  insurrection  at  Cape  Francois 
came  in  the  grand  convoying  fleet,  principally  to  the  Chesapeake. 
About  two  thousand  persons  arrived  in  the  first  instance  at  Balti- 
more, and  about  one  thousand  more  in  the  following  three  months. 
These  were,  mostly,  people  of  wealth,  who,  in  addition  to  their  in- 
dustry, brought  with  them  in  produce,  specie  and  jewels,  not  less 
than  a  million  of  dollars.     Of  these  emigrants  many  were  skilful 

*  The  steepness  "Cliffs"  may  be  estimated  from  the  great  declivity 
which  still  remains  (1870)  in  the  three  squares  on  Saratoga  street,  between  Charles 
and  Calvert  Btreets,  at  the  foot  of  which  the  "  Falls"  then  flowed,  and  at  times  over- 
flowed, the  "Meadow.'"  The  writer  well  remembers  the  tops  of  those  dill's,  which, 
crowned  with  old  "  Sim  nth  a,"  used  still  to  peer  up  full  twenty  feel  above  the  level 
of  the  streets  on  the  lots  on  the  south  side  of  Saratoga,  between  Charles  and  Liberty 

OF     BALTIMORE.  27 

mechanics ;  but  the  greater  numbers  were  planters  or  agriculturists, 
and  hence  the  swarm  of  French  gardeners  which  soon  afterwards 
stocked  and  attended  our  markets,  and  gave  to  Baltimore  that  re- 
nown for  the  excellence  of  its  garden  vegetables,  which  it  retains 
to  the  present  day.  In  this  emigration  the  ratio  of  whites  to  negroes 
was  about  two  to  one. 

It  was  about  1754,  that  "  Barrister"  Carroll  built  the  stately  mansion 

of  "  Mount  Clare,"'  still  standing  near  the  line  of  the  Baltimore  and 

Ohio  Railroad,  in  the  western  section  of  our  city.     The  dimensions 

and  style  of  this  establishment, — built,  however,  of  imported  bricks, — 

attest  the  increasing  importance  of  the  settlement,  and  prepare  us 

for  the  steady  changes  winch  occurred, — without    any  forcing  or 

speculative  processes, — during  the  French  and  Indian  wars,  to  the 

beo'iimino-  of  the  Revolutionary  struo-ole.     The  town  grew.     Dwell- 

ings,  inns,  tan  yards,   a    pottery,  rope  walks,  ship  yards,  wharves, 

new  tobacco  inspections,  a  distillery,  and  an  alms  and  work-house, 

were  erected,  and  markets  regulated.     Between  1750  and  1782  the 

great  and  permanent  additions  of  land  to  the  original  consolidated 

Towns  of  "  Baltimore  "  and  "  Jones's"  were  made,  showing  the  need 

of  space  for  an  increasing  and  industrious  population.     In  1750, 

High  street,  from  Plowman's  to  French,  as  we  have  said,  was  laid 

off; — in  1765  the  water  lots  on  the  "Point"  had  been  taken  up, — 

and  as  the  site  was  favorable  for  building  and  fitting  vessels, — the 

Point  became  a  rival  of  the  Town  west  of  the  Falls.     This  year  Mr. 

Cornelius  Howard  added  thirty-five  acres  of  Lunn's  lot,  including  the 

streets  known  as  Conway  and  Barre",  and  running  also  thence  between 

the  west  side  of  Forrest  street  and  the  east  side  of  Liberty  street,  to 

Saratoga.     This  addition  to  the  town  was  at  once  confirmed  by  law. 

The  next  year  a  commission  was  authorized  by  the  Assembly  to 

have  the  "  marsh  between  the  Falls  and  Frederick  street "  filled  up  ; 

and  in  1768,  another  law,  which  was  soon  carried  into  effect,  decreed 

the  building  of  a  Court  House  and  Prison,  on  Calvert  street,  near 

Jones's  Falls.     The  fate  of  this  edifice  will  be  hereafter  narrated. 

In  1773,  about    eighty   acres  of  Plowman's,  Philpot's   and    Fell's 

lands  were  added  to  the  east  of  the  town,  and  an  "Alms  House  " 

erected;  while,  after  the  revolution  in  1781,  "Fell's  Prospect "  was 

laid  off  by  Commissioners  and  joined  to  the  town  on  the  east,  besides 

the  previously  mentioned  eighteen  acres  betwixt  Bridge  (now  Cay) 

street  and  French  street,  and  in  1782  Colonel  John  Eager  Howard 

annexed  to  the  town  all  his  lands  east  of  the  street  named  by  him 

"  Eutaw,"  in  memory  of  his  well-known  battle-field.     On  Lexington 

street   he   laid   out   a  spacious  lot  for  a  market,   (which  was   not 


improved  until  1803  ;) — and,  moreover,  assigned  a  large  property  on 
Market  or  Baltimore  street,  west  of  Eutaw,  for  the  use  of  the  State, 
should  the  Assembly  consent  to  make  our  town  the  Seat  of  Govern- 
ment, within  twenty  years.  But  this  liberal  gift  the  Legislature  re- 
jected as  often  as  it  was  proposed.  In  the  fall  of  this  same  year,  the 
tracts  known  as  "  Gist's  Inspection "  and  "  Timber  ]STeck,"  lying 
south  of  former  additions  and  upon  the  Middle  Branch  of  the  Pa- 
tapsco,  as  well  as  the  lands  between  "  Fell's  Prospect "  and  Harris's 
Creek,  were  added  to  the  town  ; — all  of  which  formed,  with  the  first 
settlements,  the  grounds  which  were  to  be  covered  by  the  future  me- 
tropolis. Although  some  of  these  additions  were  made  subsequently 
to  the  period  of  which  we  are  treating,  it  has  been  thought  proper  to 
group  them  in  this  place,  as  the  best  means  of  displaying  the  numer- 
ous bits  which  gradually  composed  the  Mosaic  plat  of  "  Baltimore."* 
Thus,  with  population,  land,  buildings,  wharves,  distilleries,  and 
alms  as  well  as  work-houses,  it  will  be  seen  that  in  the  twenty  years 
between  the  date  of  Mr.  Moale's  unpicturesque  sketch  and  the  be- 
ginning of  the  War  of  Independence,  the  town  and  county  made 
such  advances  in  civilization,  that  it  not  only  had  a  thrifty,  laboring 
population,  but  its  "distilleries,"  and  probably  the  permitted  "direct 
importation  of  Madeira  wine,"  had  helped  to  make  some  of  those 
paupers  for  whom  its  alms  and  work-house  was  erected.  But, to  com- 
pensate for  the  decline  of  virtue  among  some  classes,  it  must  be  re- 
corded to  the  honor  of  the  little  town  or  village,  that,  about  this 
period  (1770)  forty-two  merchants  and  traders  of  enterprise  and 
capital,  and  some  very  skilful  mechanics,  were  added  to  the  inhabi- 
tants, who  already  employed  eleven  doctors  to  heal  their  bodies,  and 
nine  lawyers  to  protect  their  purses  and  property.  Beside  this,  the 
Methodist  Society,  formed  originally  by  the  visits  of  the  Wesleys  in 
1735  and  Whitfield  in  1740, — built  in  1773  their  first  meeting-house, 

*  The  following  items,  taken  from  an  original  bill  for  the  "  Funeral  Expenses  of  a 
gentleman  in  Baltimore-Town,  in  1758,"  a  re  curiously  indicative  of  manners  and 
expenses,  then.  Coffin,  £G,  lGs.;  41  yards  crape,  £7,  3s.  6d.;  32  yards  black  tif- 
fany, £4,  10s.;  11  yards  black  crape,  £1,  18s.  6d.;  H  yards  broadcloth,  £6,  lis.  and 
3d.;  7£  yards  of  black  shaloon,  19s.  3d.;  6i  yards  linen,  £1,  13s.;  3  yards  sheeting, 
7s.  10d.;  3  dozen  pairs  men's  black  silk  gloves,  £5,  8s.;  2  dozen  pairs  women's  do., 
£3,  12s.;  G  pairs  men's  black  gloves,  at  3  shillings,  18s.;  1  pair  women's  do.,  3s.;  then 
there  were  black  silk  handkerchiefs  ;  8^  yards  calamanco,  mohair,  buckram  ;  13£ 
yards  ribbon  ;  47i  pounds  loaf  sugar  ;  14  dozen  eggs,  10  oz.  nutmegs  ;  li  pounds 
allspice;  20f  gallons  white  wine,  at  £4,  2s.  and  Gd  ;  12  bottles  red  wine; 
10£  gallons  rum  ;  while  10  shillings  additional  were  paid  for  coffin  furniture,  and 
one  pound  sterling  each  to  dame  Hannah  Gash  and  Mr.  Ireland  for  attendance. 
And  so  it  seems  our  forefathers  went  becomingly  and  jovially  to  their  graves  Anno 
Domini  1708,  in  Baltimore-Town. 


in  Strawberry  alley,  and  another,  in  the  next  year,  in  Lovely  lane. 
The  Presbyterians  had  already  erected  their  First  Church  on  the 
corner  of  North  and  Fayette  streets, — torn  down  within  late  years 
to  give  place  to  the  United  States  Court  House.  The  Roman  Catho- 
lics, in  1770,  erected  part  of  St.  Peter's  Chapel,  on  Saratoga  street, 
though  by  a  curiously  conceived  lawsuit  against  "  Ganganelli,  Pope 
of  Rome," — (for  want  of  another  defendant,) — brought  by  one  of 
the  builders,  who  had  become  bankrupt,  to  recover  advances ;  the 
Church  was,  at  the  beginning  of  the  Revolution,  closed  for  some 
time,  forcing  the  worshippers  to  assemble  in  a  private  house  in  South 
Charles  street,  until  they  could  recover  possession.  This,  however, 
was  obtained  sooner  than  practicable  by  the  "  law's  delay,"  by  the 
address  of  a  Captain  of  volunteer  militia,  who  insisted  on  marching 
his  Catholic  troops  to  their  place  of  worship,  and  demanded  and 
obtained  the  key  of  the  deserted  Chapel.  In  1773,  the  Baptists 
bought  a  lot  and  erected  part  of  a  church  on  Front  street ;  while  the 
German  Lutherans,  with  the  aid  of  a  lottery,  built  one  on  Fish  street 
(now  Saratoga),  with  an  established  clergyman  as  their  permanent 
pastor.  Nor,  were  Internal  Improvements  by  public  highways  ne- 
glected. In  1774,  the  Legislature  passed  an  act  appropriating  £4,000 
or  $10,666f, to  be  expended  by  thirteen  Supervisors  in  making  "the 
three  great  roads  leading  to  the  town,"  from  the  West,  the  North  and 
the  East ;  thus  establishing,  1st,  the  intercourse  between  the  town  and 
the  western  parts  of  Maryland,  and  thence,  by  the  line  of  "  Brad- 
dock's  Road,"  to  "  Red-Stone-Old-Fort,"  on  the  Monongahela ;  2d,  the 
intercourse  with  Harford  county,  the  Suscmehanna  head-waters,  and 
onward  to  Philadelphia ;  and  3d,  with  the  northern  parts  of  our  own 
county  and  Pennsylvania.  This,  too,  was  the  epoch  of  the  establish- 
ment of  a  public  press  in  Baltimore, — the  weekly  "  Maryland  Journal 
and  Baltimore  Advertiser,"  being  first  issued  by  William  Goddard, 
of  Rhode  Island,  who  had  removed  from  Philadelphia,  and  printed 
at  a  house  on  the  east  side  of  South  street,  near  Market  (now  Balti- 
more street).  He  published  his  first  paper  on  the  20th  of  August, 
1773.-  Before  this,  the  newspapers  of  Philadelphia  and  Annapolis 
were  the  sole  mediums  of  information  for  Baltimoreans,  and  the 
only  means  of  advertising  their  wares  or  their  wants.  An  attempt, 
soon  after,  made  by  a  certain  Joseph  Rathel,  to  establish  a  Circulating 

*  As  a  sample  of  Baltimore  business  at  that  time,  we  may  notice  an  advertise- 
ment of  Thomas  Usher,  who  in  stating  that  he  has  a  variety  of  imported  goods  for 
sale,  adds  :  "  T.  U.  is  erecting  a  spacious  shed,  capable  of  containing  many  horses, 
for  the  accommodation  of  country  people  and  wagoners,  with  the  conveniency  of  a 
large  trough  to  feed  in  ;  and  market  people  may  be  there  accommodated,  as  horses 
may  stand  in  safety,  and  a  pump  is  convenient  to  water  them." 


Library,  was  loss  successful,  as  might  be  expected  from  an  advertise- 
ment in  one  of  Goddard's  early  issues,  by  an  empirical,  "Doctor  John 
H.  Gilbert,"  who  describes  himself  as  a  "  German,  and  regular-bred 
physician,  who,  from  study  and  travel,  by  land  and  sea,  and  long 
successful  experience  and  practice,  has  found  the  great  efficacy  and 
virtue  of  his  several  preparations,"  after  reciting  which,  he  remarks 
in  a  "Postscript:"  "1ST.  B.  The  Doctor  has  for  sale  some  copies  of 
the  Vicar  of  Wakefield,  in  2  vols.,  by  the  celebrated  Doctor  Gold- 
smith !"  It  is  probable  that  Baltimore-Town  was  not  then  so  much 
a  reading  as  a  talking  community, — its  citizens  meeting  at  the 
"  Coffee  House,"  or  enjoying  themselves  by  a  visit  to  the  theatre 
then  lately  established  in  a  warehouse  at  the  corner  of  Market  and 
Frederick  streets,  or,  soon  after,  in  the  better  Thespian  temple,  built 
at  the  intersection  of  George  (now  Water)  and  Albemarle  streets,  by 
Douglass  and  Hallam.  Books,  indeed,  were  not  advertised  for  sale 
in  Baltimore  during  the  next  five  years,  except  a  few  in  1774,  "  at  the 
printing  office;"  and  again,  in  1775,  as  to  be  obtained  from  one  "Wil- 
liam Green,  from  Philadelphia,"  who  visited  the  city  with  a  collection 
of  books  for  sale,  and  who  wisely  admonishes  the  burghers  that  "  his 
stay  will  be  short !"  The  town  "  improvements"  for  intercourse 
between  the  two  sides  of  the  Falls  were  much  amended  at  this  epoch. 
Gay  street  bridge  was  entirely  rebuilt  of  wood  ;  but  another,  erected 
at  the  Market  street  crossing,  was  constructed  of  stone,  whose  arches, 
however,  unfortunately  gave  way  when  the  supporting  centre-boards 
were  withdrawn,  so  that  it  had  to  be  reconstructed  of  wood.  An- 
other bridge  of  wood  was  also,  for  the  first  time,  built  at  Water 
street ;  but  it  was  necessary  to  connect  both  the  Market  and  Water 
street  improvements  with  the  town,  by  raised  causeways,  from 
Frederick  street  across  the  marsh. 

In  1774,  when  taxation  was  by  head,  or  "per  poll"  Baltimore- 
Town  <in<l  county  contained  7,410  taxable  inhabitants,  and  the  levy 
w;is  172  pounds  of  tobacco  per  /">//,  or  1,274,000  pounds  in  all,  con- 
vertible in  current  money,  at  12  shillings  and  6  pence  per  hundred 
pounds.  The  price  of  tobacco  in  t/tc  market  was  then  from  fifteen  to 
twenty-five  shillings  per  hundred  in  Baltimore,  and  consequently  it 
may  he  supposed  that  this  liberal  discount  to  tax-pavers  was  availed 

In  177-")  Goddard's  enterprise  stimulated  Dunlop  to  establish  his 
"  Maryland  Gazette;"  and  doubtless  the  notes  of  war,  sounding  in 
the  distance,  bad  already  made  men's  minds  alert  for  news  as  well 
as  for  interchange  of  opinion  upon  the  growing  dispute ;  so  that  they 
not  only  sought  information  as  to  the  times,  hut   began  to  build  a 


battery  on  Whetstone  Point,  and  stretched  three  massive  chains 
supported  by  floating  blocks,  across  the  narrowest  part  of  the  strait 
at  the  entrance  of  the  harbor,  leaving  but  a  very  narrow  passage  for 
vessels  on  the  side  of  the  fort.  At  an  election  held  "  in  the  town  "  in 
1776,  four  hundred  and  seventy-two  votes  were  taken,  while  the 
unadded  "Fell's  Point,"  at  that  time,  contained  a  population  of  821. 
The  year  before,  there  were  enumerated  504  houses  and  5,934  in- 
habitants in  the  town  proper,  so  that,  with  the  addition  of  the  821  of 
"  Fell's  Point "  or  Deptford  Hundred,  as  it  was  called, — there  were 
6,755  individuals  girdled  by  the  defences  of  Whetstone  Point  and  its 
floating  chain.  The  population  in  this  quarter  of  Maryland  and  in 
our  immediate  neighborhood,  may  be  estimated  from  this  record, 
and  from  the  census  of  the  original  "  Baltimore  County  "  before  its 
subdivision,  which  gave  that  district  10,490  slaves  and  servants,  and 
about  20,000  free  white  inhabitants.  Thus  the  growth  of  Baltimore- 
Town  and  its  adjuncts  had,  in  the  second  quarter  century,  largely 
exceeded  the  progress  of  the  first  twenty-five,  at  the  end  of  which 
Mr.  Moale  had  drawn  his  rough  profile  of  the  ungainly  village.* 

In  a  sketch  of  a  large  city's  growth,  for  which  so  small  a  space  in 
the  present  work,  can  be  spared,  the  writer  is  so  much  confined  to 
annalistic  details  that  it  is  quite  impossible  to  dwell  upon  many  his- 
torical facts  which  would  be  useful  in  elucidating  a  fuller  narrative 
of  Baltimore.  For  instance,  we  should  have  much  pleasure  in  offer- 
ing our  studies  and  views  of  the  colonial  establishments  and  legisla- 
tion of  the  Lord  Baltimores  and  their  Assemblies,  as  well  as  the 
legislation  of  Great  Britain  for  its  colonies  and  provinces.  It,  is 
indeed,  difficult  to  comprehend  growth,  at  all,  in  the  swathing- 
cloths  of  such  restrictive  domination ;  so  that  the  allegiance  of  a 
people, — free  in  temper  and  spirit, — their  endurance  and  apparent 
contentment  for  so  many  years, — are  matters  of  wonder  in  this  age 
of  liberty  and  self-government.  The  navigation  laws  of  Great 
Britain,  which  confined  all  of  the  colonial  trade  to  British  and 
colonial  merchants  and  ships ;  limiting  intercourse  to  her  European 
dominions  for  tobacco,  and  allowing  no  other  trade  but  a  restricted 
one  to  the  south  of  Europe,  were,  alone,  sufficient  to  mar  the  pro- 
gress and  manhood  of  airy  colony ;  yet  the  Marylanders,  wrought, 
traded,  planted  and  steadily  increased  in  numbers.  The  restrictions 
and  revenue  laws  were,  however,  doubtless,  often  and  lucratively 

*  In  May,  1778,  William  Stinson  advertises  in  a  Baltimore  paper,  the  opening  of 
a  " Coffee- House,  at  the  corner  of  Market  and  South  streets,"  which,  he  says,  "is 
much  wanted  in  this  great  commercial  and  flourishing  Town  ;" — though  before  that 
time  there  were  certainly  inns  for  the  accommodation  of  the  country-folk. 


evaded ; — indeed,  they  were  but  invitations  to  duplicity.  The  dis- 
couragement, nay  inhibition,  of  all  manufactures,  except  flour,  iron 
and  " homespun"  made  the  people  dependent  mainly  upon  tobacco 
and  grain  for  their  exchanges ;  and  thus,  in  the  midst  of  a  region 
unsurpassed  for  water  power,  they  were  reduced  to  agriculture,  or 
the  simplest  trade,  for  subsistence  and  the  hope  of  wealth.  In  addi- 
tion to  this,  they  were  cramped  by  their  currency,  and  obliged  to 
suffer  losses  by  exchange ;  £200  in  bills  of  credit,  being  given  for 
£100  sterling  before  the  year  1750,  though  they  afterwards  recovered 
a  better  ratio  of  values.  The  legal  currency  and  money  of  account 
remained,  as  fixed  by  the  coins  one  hundred  years  before,  at  six  shil- 
lings per  dollar,  while  the  real  par,  at  this  period,  was  by  general 
consent,  placed  at  seven  shillings  and  six  pence, — a  rate  which  was 
confirmed  directly  after  the  declaration  of  Independence.*  During 
all  this  period,  too,  the  spirit  of  the  Proprietary's  enterprise,  and  the 
spirit  of  the  Royal  government,  which,  at  times  interposed  and 
interrupted  the  Proprietary's  control  of  his  province,  was  to  keep 
this  "  fishing  and  farming  "  colony,  a  "  fishing  and  farming  "  manor 
for  the  Lord  Baltimores,  capable  in  time,  of  producing  a  princely 
revenue  for  the  family  and  for  England.  Farms,  forges,  mills,  and 
plantations,  or  manorial  estates,  were  all  that  met  the  royal  or  pro- 
prietary approval.  The  edict  to  the  people  of  Maryland  was :  "  pro- 
duce from  the  soil  your  wheat  and  iron  and  profitable  tobacco,  and 
give  them  to  us  exclusively  in  Great  Britain ;  for  which,  we  shall 
return  you  our  manufactures  and  luxuries,  supplying  you  also,  with 
labor  from  our  prisons  and  from  Africa ;  and  thus  you  will  be,  and 
continue  to  be,  dependent  on  your  mother — England."  The  terms  of 
settlement,  as  proposed  for  "  adventurers "  originally,  by  Cecelius 
Calvert  the  second  Lord  Baltimore,  were  liberal  enough,  so  for  as 
the  indigent  emigrant  was  concerned,  after  his  four  or  three  years 
of  indented  service  had  expired ;  but  neither  for  him  nor  for  his 
master  was  the  whole,  paramount,  colonial  system, — either  of  the 
Crown  or  of  the  Proprietary, — calculated  to  develop  so  rich  and 
various  a  territory  as  is  grasped  and  penetrated  by  the  bays  and 
rivers,  and  crowned  by  the  coal  and  iron  mountains  of  our  opulent 

*  From  an  early  clay  Maryland  was  embarrassed  by  a  want  of  currency.  Cecelius 
Calvert  (2d  Lord)  tried  the  issue  of  silver  coins,  shillings  sixpences,  and  groats,  but 
the  experiment  was  probably  not  extensive  enough.  Government  bills  of  credit 
were  issued,  and  soon  depreciated.  In  1732,  the  Assembly  made  tobacco  a  legal  ten- 
der, at  one  penny  per  pound,  and  Indian  corn  at  twenty  pence  per  bushel.  The  value 
of  tobacco  as  a  currency  for  legal  costs,  &c,  was  afterwards  fixed  again  by  law, — 
but  the  market  value  per  pound  seems,  to  a  late  date,  to  have  regulated  its  value  as 
a  currency,  according  to  the  decisions  of  the  courts  in  various  cases. 


State.  Yet,  it  is  unquestionable  that  if  this  colonial  or  provincial 
policy  did  not  produce  the  greatest  results  possible  in  wealth  and 
material  progress,  it  seems  to  have  formed  a  very  contented,  a  very 
cultivated,  and  a  very  polished  people.  The  system  made  Annapolis 
everything.  It  was  the  seat  of  government ;  and  there  all  society 
centred,  as  well  as  the  springs  of  all  mercantile  and  commercial 
affairs.  All  entrances  and  clearances  of  vessels  were  made  there. 
The  governor  and  all  the  public  officers  dwelt  in  the  political  capital ; 
and  around  them, — generally  born  in  Great  Britain  and  highly 
educated  and  connected, — gathered  the  most  learned  persons  in  pro- 
fessional life,  as  well  as  the  wealthiest  planters  and  their  families. 
Elegant  and  extensive  houses  were  built,  and  the  elaborate  furniture, 
the  ancestral  portraits  and  pictures,  and  the  current  fashions,  were  all 
brought  from  what  Marylanders  were  then  pleased  affectionately  to 
call  "  home," — Great  Britain.  Accordingly  it  is  not  surprising  to  find 
in  the  old  records  and  writings  of  that  day,  that  Annapolis  was  con- 
sidered the  "  Court  of  the  Colonies,"  and  that  the  renown  of  the 
Sharpes  and  the  Edens,  and  their  courtly  circles  of  Dulanys,  Carrolls, 
Jennings,  Ogles,  Goldsboroughs,  Carmichaels,  Johnsons,  and  Chases, 
is  remembered  to  the  present  day,  not  only  in  the  ancient  city  itself, 
but  throughout  the  State.  Indeed,  the  culture  of  Annapolis  was 
not  external  or  showy  alone,  and  confined  to  graces  of  manner  or 
hospitality.  The  men  were,  in  truth,  "  persons  of  quality  "  in  in- 
tellect, education,  and,  better  than  all,  in  character;  for  it  is  from 
these  very  circles  that  the  Carrolls,  the  Johnsons,  the  Tilghmans,  the 
Pacas,  the  Stones,  and  the  Chases,  sprang,  when  the  first  call  was 
made  on  our  people  for  the  defence  of  American  rights. 



BRITAIN.      1776    TO    1783. 

The  summary  character  of  this  sketch  confines  us  so  much  to  gene- 
ral outlines  that  it  is  impossible  to  detail  the  numerous  political  events 
in  Maryland,  and  especially  in  Baltimore-Town,  from  the  origin  of 
the  discontent  with  the  mother  country,  relative  to  taxation,  to  the 
period  of  the  actual  outbreak  of  the  war.  It  must  suffice  to  say  that 
the  Baltimoreans  not  only  understood  their  rights  as  well  as  their 
interests,  hut  were  quite  resolved  to  maintain  them  whenever  re- 
quired, in  spite  of  the  opinions  of  a  few  loyalists  who  were  willing 
to  abide  by  power  and  "its  oppressions.  The  Stamps  and  the  Teas,  it 
is  true,  were  sent  to  Annapolis,  and  the  forcible  opposition  to  their 
introduction  or  use  occurred  in  the  political  and  commercial  capital 
of  the  Province  ;  but,  doubtless,  had  the  occasion  arisen  in  Baltimore, 
its  people  would  have  been  as  stern  and  decided  as  the  Annapolitans 
in  their  destruction  of  the  obnoxious  herb,  and  the  vessels  that  brought 
it.  When  the  news  came  from  Boston,  in  1774,  that  its  port  had 
been  closed,  a  Baltimore  Committee,  to  correspond  with  neighboring 
colonies,  was  promptly  appointed  by  a  public  and  very  patriotic 
assemblage  of  the  best  citizens.  The  ablest  men  of  character,  prop- 
erty and  influence  were  put  upon  it.  Resolves  against  importation 
were  passed;  words  of  cordial  support  were  sent  to  the  Massachusetts 
men,  and  collections  were  made  for  the  distressed  Bostonians.  Mili- 
tary companies  were  formed  and  supplied,  and  plans  devised  to 
obtain  reliable  arms  and  abundant  ammunition.  The  zeal  of  the 
people  was  manifested  in  their  outspoken  earnestness.  Timid  or 
Lukewarm  townsmen  were  marked,  and  so  were  all  importations  ;  nor 
were  strangers  allowed  to  visit  or  sojourn  among  our  people  without 
examination  into  their  characters  and  purposes.  These  inspections 
were  rigidly  observed  by  the  Committee,  and  many  persons  were 
ordered  away  or  required  to  give  security  for  their  behavior.  A 
clergyman,  who  declared  that: — "all  persons  who  mustered  were 
guilty  of  treason;  and  that  they  who  had  sworn  allegiance  and  now 

OF     BALTIMORE.      ,«  O  f>  >*  O  O  O  35 

took  up  arms  were  guilty  of  perjury," — was  summoned  before  this 
popular  tribunal,  and, — being  informed  that  "such  declarations  were 
calculated  to  defeat  the  measures  recommended  for  the  preservation  of 
America  and  Iter  Liberties,  and  that  it  was,  therefore,  the  Committee's 
duty  to  take  notice  of  persons  guilty  of  such  offences,"  promptly 
made  the  apology  required,  and  was  dismissed  with  its  acceptance. 
An  imprudent  letter  from  Mr.  James  Christie,  a  merchant,  to  a  rela- 
tive of  his  in  the  British  service,  was  intercepted,  and  caused  his 
arrest.  He  was  personally  protected  from  violence,  but  the  conven- 
tion at  Annapolis  fined  him  £500  sterling,  and  ordered  him  to  leave 
the  Province.  A  Captain  Button  was  gently  reprimanded,  as  a  mild 
warning  to  super-zealous  royalists ;  while  Mr.  James  Dalglieish, 
who  had  been  somewhat  intoxicated,  it  seems,  when  he  repeatedly 
denounced  the  American  movement,  thought  it  best  to  decamp  from 
Baltimore  and  was  never  heard  of  afterwards.  The  popular  Com- 
mittee, appointed  by  the  townsmen  on  the  12th  of  November,  1774, — 
the  Revolutionary  Fathers,  in  fact,  of  Baltimore, — were  Samuel 
Purviance,  Jr.,  Robert  Alexander,  Andrew  Buchanan,  D.  John  Boyd, 
John  Moale,  Jeremiah  Townly  Chase,  William  Buchanan  and  Wil- 
liam Lux.  No  record  of  Baltimore's  history*,  no  matter  how  brief, 
would  be  complete  without  the  mention  of  these  honored,  aged, 
patriotic  men,  whose  descendants  still  survive  and  are  respected  in 
our  city  of  eighteen  hundred  and  seventy.  These  gentlemen, — with 
Messrs.  William  and  John  Smith,  Thomas  Harrison  and  Robert 
Christie,  Sen., — had  been  previously  appointed  a  Committee  of  Cor- 
respondence, on  the  31st  of  May,  1774,  at  a  called  "  meeting  of  the 
freeholders  and  gentlemen  of  Baltimore  County,"  held  at  the  Court 
House  ;  but  the  Committee  named,  on  12th  of  November  of  the  same 
year,  seems, — (with  but  one  exception,) — to  have  been  the  effective 
administrators  of  the  town  and  its  vicinity,  under  the  chairmanship 
of  Samuel  Purviance,  Jr.,  whose  ample  correspondence  shows  that  he 
was  as  bold,  staunch  and  self-sacrificing  in  the  cause  as  any  merchant 
in  the  land  at  that  dangerous  period.  His  daring  effort  to  arrest  the 
Proprietary  Governor  Eden,  previous  to  that  functionary's  departure 
for  England, — (disapproved  as  it  was  by  the  Convention  of  delegates 
from  the  counties  of  Maryland,  which  had  been  formed  and  was  sit- 
ting at  Annapolis,') — shows  the  zeal  with  which  he  was  ready  to  im- 
peril himself,  for  what  he  considered  the  welfare  of  Maryland.  The 
Provincial  Convention,  in  August,  1775,  declared,  "in  the  name  of 
the  inhabitants,  that  they  would,  to  the  utmost  of  their  power,  prose- 
cute and  support  the  then  opposition  carrying  on,  as  well  by  arms  as 
by  the  Continental  Association."     It  provided  for  regular  elections 


of  its  members  in  succession,  as  well  as  of  Committee  men,  by  the 
"freeholders  of  each  county  and  other  freemen  having  a  visible 
estate  of  £40  sterling,  or  qualified  to  vote  for  burgesses."  Baltimore 
County  and  Town  were  allowed  to  send  five  Delegates  and  to  have 
thirty-seven  Committee  men,  whose  powers  extended  to  the  general 
police  and  government  of  the  county ;  while  the  county,  itself,  was 
directed  to  furnish  five  of  the  forty  companies  of  active  minutemen. 
Before  this,  nay,  even  before  the  battle  of  Lexington,  on  the  19th  of 
April,  Baltimore-Town  had  formed  several  companies  of  each  descrip- 
tion of  arms,  and  made  every  exertion  to  procure  ammunition.  Among 
others,  General  Buchanan,  Lieutenant  of  the  County,  distinguished 
himself  and  took  command  of  a  company  of  gentlemen  of  riper 
years  ;  while  a  company  of  their  sons  and  younger  companions,  armed 
and  equipped  themselves  in  rich  scarlet  uniforms,  under  the  orders  of 
Captain  Gist,  who  afterwards  became  well  known  as  the  General 
Mordecai  Gist  of  the  Revolutionary  Army.  Many  vessels,  returning 
home,  were  searched  and  stripped  of  their  arms  and  ammunition. 

As  soon  as  the  Annapolis  Convention  spoke  out  in  August,  several 
gentlemen  volunteered,  and  joined  the  army  before  Boston,  among 
whom  were  Richard  Carey,  David  Hopkins,  and  James  McHenry, — 
subsequently  a  soldier  of  the  war,  a  member  of  Washington's  Staff, 
and  finally,  one  of  his  Cabinet,  while  President. 

The  five  Delegates  to  the  Convention  and  the  thirty-seven  Com- 
mittee men,  were,  of  course,  duly  elected.  Purviance,  Lux,  Chase, 
Alexander  and  Boyd,  were  appointed  to  superintend  the  trade  and 
importation  of  arms ;  while  Moale,  Harrison,  Calhoun,  Sollers,  Ais- 
quith,  Ridgely  and  John  Eager  Howard,  were  empowered  to  license 
lawsuits,  in  order  to  prevent  the  abuse  of  the  legal  processes  which 
the  disaffected  might  attempt. 

It  was  about  this  time  that  the  Water  Battery  on  Whetstone  Point, 
— before  mentioned, — was  planned  by  Mr.  James  Alcock,  and  begun 
under  the  superintendence  of  Messrs.  Griest,  Griffith  and  Louden- 
slager,  while  Captain  JS".  Smith  was  put  in  command  of  the  artillery 
stationed  at  that  post.  The  chain  was  soon  Btretched,  afloat,  over  the 
narrow  strait,  whose  channel  was  additionally  impeded  by  sunken 
vessels.  Men  were  enlisted  in  Baltimore  by  Samuel  Smith,  Mordecai 
G-ist,  David  Plunkett,  Brian  Philpot  and  William  Ridgely,  who  held 
commissions  in  a  regiment  of  which  Smallwood,  the  future  General, 
was  Colonel.  The  Bermudian  sloop  Hornet,  the  State's  ship  Defence, 
the  Lexington,  and  the  Andrea  Doria,  commanded  by  the  brave  and 
well  known  .loslma  Barney,  were  put  into  service;  the  Nicholsons, 
also,  look  service  in  this   little  navy  that  was  preparing;  and  so  the 


Town  and  Province  united  cordially  in  preparations  for  oft'ence  and  de- 
fence in  the  impending  war.  Never,  with  hut  few  exceptions,  could  a 
people  have  heen  more  decided, — both  natives  and  Europeans  uniting 
cordially  in  condemnation  of  Parliamentary  taxation.  Still,  it  was 
hoped  by  almost  every  one,  that  wiser  counsels  would  prevail,  and 
that  the  "  rights  of  America  "  might  be  secured  from  a  more  enlight- 
ened Ministry  and  British  Legislature,  without  resorting  to  an  armed 
conflict  for  absolute  and  national  independence.  But,  so  mild  an  end 
of  the  quarrel  was  not  in  store  for  America.  The  die  was,  at  length, 
cast ;  and  the  Declaration  of  Independence  was  made  by  the  Con- 
gress, in  July,  1776 ;  finally  signed  by  nearly  all  the  delegates  in  that 
month  and  the  next, — and  approved  by  the  various  delegations  sit- 
ting at  the  capitals  of  the  colonies.  Its  promulgation  was  the  signal 
for  the  departure  of  the  "  Loyalists ;"  and  Baltimore  afforded  her 
faithless  quota,  in  which  we  find  the  name  of  Robert  Alexander,  who 
had  once  been  a  delegate  to  the  Convention  and  even  to  the  Congress ; 
of  Daniel  Chamier,  who  had  been  Sheriff  of  the  County  ;  of  Doctors 
Henry  Stevenson  and  Patrick  Kennedy,  the  former  of  whom  had 
built  a  splendid  mansion  and  laid  out  superb  grounds  and  gardens 
on  the  hills  near  the  Falls,  in  the  rear  of  the  jail,  and  whose  house 
still  remained  standing  a  short  time  ago ;  of  Mr.  James  Somerville, 
a  respectable  merchant,  and  several  others,  who,  in  retiring  from 
Maryland,  determined  that,  if  they  could  not  join  their  townsmen 
in  the  dispute,  they  would  not  oppose  them  by  violence.  Some,  it  is 
said,  ended  their  lives  in  obscurity,  and  perhaps  in  poverty,  abroad, 
while  others  took  opportunities,  during  the  war,  to  render  kindly 
services  to  the  soldiers  of  liberty,  who  fell  into  the  hands  ot  the 
British.  A  very  few  returned  after  the  peace,  and  remained  in  Bal- 
timore or  the  State. 

The  history  of  the  Town  and  of  the  Province  during  the  Revolu- 
tionary war  is  a  part  of  our  national  history,  and  its  events  and 
heroes  are  so  well  recorded  in  the  books  and  memories  of  our  people, 
that  it  is  perhaps  unnecessary  in  this  rapid  sketch  to  recount  the  local 
occurrences  of  the  seven  years'  struggle  and  trial.  The  student  who 
desires  fuller  details  of  transactions  in  the  Town,  at  that  period,  will 
be  amply  rewarded  by  the  "  Narrative  of  events  which  occurred  in 
Baltimore-Town  during  the  Revolutionary  war,"  published  in  1849, 
by  the  late  Mr.  Robert  Purviance,  an  accomplished  merchant  of  this 
city,  nephew  of  Samuel  Purviance,  Jr.,  the  celebrated  Chairman  of  the 
Baltimore  Committee,  during  the  war,  and  who  compiled  this  valu- 
able work  from  the  original  papers,  journals  and  correspondence  of 


the  Committee  and  of  his  uncle,  who,  in  1788,  fell  a  victim  to  the 
Indians  while  attempting  to  descend  the  Ohio. 

Our  town's  people,  meanwhile  rested  quiet  under  all  the  discom- 
forts and  self-denials  of  war.  Having  no  importations,  and  no  manu- 
factures but  rough  "  homespun  "  woollens  and  coarsest  linens,  they 
were  often  at  a  loss  for  clothing,  and,  of  course,  made  no  attempts  at 
display.  They  had  no  luxuries  and  few  amusements.  There  may 
have  been  a  "  ball "  or  an  "  assembly  "  tolerated  from  time  to  time, 
when  good  news  came  from  the  battle-field.  Now  and  then,  a  few 
contraband  ounces  of  the  "  infamous  tea,"  may  have  been  smuggled 
into  a  private  house,  and  consumed  by  even  the  patriotic  and  tea- 
loving  dames,  out  of  a  "coffee-pot"  but  never  out  of  a  tea-pot! 
"  However  ditficult,"  said  the  Baltimore  Committee,  "  may  be  the 
disuse  of  an  article  which  custom  has  rendered  familiar  and  almost 
necessary,  yet  we  hope  the  ladies  will  cheerfully  acquiesce  in  this  self- 
denial,  and  thereby  evince  to  the  world  a  love  of  their  friends,  their 
posterity  and  the  country  I" 

Theatres  were  absolutely  forbidden ;  and,  as  a  glimpse  of  the  times, 
we  cannot  help  presenting  the  reader  a  sample  of  the  female  feeling 
of  the  Colony,  in  a  petition  to  the  authorities  for  the  performance  of 
a  play  during  these  days  of  peril.  It  is  an  old  manuscript  of  the  time, 
and  thus  quaintly  sets  forth  the  wishes  of  the  "  ladies  of  quality  "  of 
that  day : — 

"  Mr.  Thomas  "Wall,  having  solicited  several  Ladies  of  this  City,* 
that  they  would  intercede  with  the  executive  Power  to  grant  him 
Permission  to  exhibit  Theatrical  Performances :  We  whose  Names 
are  subjoined,  Impelled  by  motives  of  Humanity  for  his  distressed 
Family,  and  the  pleasurable  Improvement  resulting  from  said 
Rational  Entertainments,  have  thought  proper  to  gratify  his  re- 
quest ;  and  therefore  respectfully  desire  the  Governor  and  Council 
to  grant  him  License  for  that  purpose.  The  Calamities  of  War, 
have  in  a  great  Measure  Secluded  the  Fair-Sex  from  any  Participa- 
tion in  Public  Amusements,  and  whilst  the  Gentlemen  have  frequent 
opportunities  of  enlarging  their  social  Intercourse,  over  an  Exhilarat- 
ing Bottle,  the  Ladies  are  frequently  consigned  to  Solitude  and 
Oblivion.  Affected  Sagacity,  with  formal  Saws  and  Solemn  Phiz, 
may  incline  to  treat  this  Application  with  Cynical  Reprehension, 
but  from  the  known  Urbanity  of  his. Excellency  and  the  other  Hon- 
orable  Members,  it  is  expected  to  meet  with  less  Contemptuous 
Treatment.     No  Salique  Law  has  hitherto  excluded  the  influence  of 

*  Annapolis. 

OF     BALTIMORE.  39 

Female  Solicitation  in  a  refined  Society,  and  every  G-enerous  son  of 
Liberty  must  wish  to  promote  whatever  may  contribute  to  the  Hap- 
piness of  the  zealous  Daughters  of  Freedom." 

Here  follow  the  names  of  Mrs.  Carroll,  of  Carrollton,  Mrs.  Brice, 
and  forty-one  other  leading  ladies  of  Maryland ;  while  their  earnest 
appeal  to  the  authorities  is  backed  by  another,  to  the  same  effect, 
from  ('harks  Carroll  of  Carrollton,  Samuel  Chase,  and  forty-seven  of 
the  principal  men  of  the  district.  How  the  petition  tared  we  do 
not  know ;  but  certain  it  is  that  Lafayette,  on  his  way  to  Virginia 
during  the  war,  in  1781,  was  entertained  at  a  ball,  where,  with  all 
his  courtesy  and  address,  he  could  not  hide  the  sadness  and  anxiety 
which  must  then  have  oppressed  every  responsible  officer  of  the 
army.  His  demeanor  was  noticed,  and  became  the  source  of  a 
patriotic  outburst  of  the  very  women  who  "  longed  a  little  "  for  an 
occasional  play,  or  dance,  or  sip  of  the  "  herb  that  cheers  but  not  ine- 
briates." The  gallant  Frenchman  told  his  questioners  that  he  could 
not  enjoy  the  gaiety  of  the  scene  whilst  his  poor  soldiers  were  with- 
out clothes ;  ragged,  and  destitute  of  even  the  necessaries  for  a 
campaign.  "  We  will  supply  them ! "  exclaimed  the  patriotic 
women ;  and  next  day,  the  ball-room  and  fan  were  exchanged  for 
the  work-room  and  needle,  and,  in  a  short  time,  the  clothing  was 
made  hj  these  Baltimore  belles  of  1781,  out  of  materials  furnished 
by  their  fathers  and  husbands.  Lafayette  never  forgot  the  occasion ; 
and  never  did  he  neglect  a  Baltimorean  in  after  life.  When  he 
visited  this  city  in  1824,  he  recurred  to  the  event  we  have  men- 
tioned, and  affectionately  inquired  for  his  "friend,  the  patriotic 
commissary,  David  Poe,"  who,  out  of  his  own  limited  means,  had 
supplied  him  with  five  hundred  dollars  to  aid  in  clothing  the  Con- 
tinental troops,  while  his  excellent  wife,  without  aid  from  other 
hands,  had  cut  out  five  hundred  pairs  of  pantaloons,  and  superin- 
tended their  making,  for  the  suffering  soldiers  ! 

Such  were  the  times  and  the  temper  of  all  classes  and  both  sexes 
in  Baltimore-Town.  Living  was  difficult,  expensive,  and  danger- 
ous. But  the  place  was,  nevertheless,  alluring,  and  in  spite  of  the 
war,  the  exposure,  and  the  necessity  of  surrendering  even  one's 
blankets  for  the  soldiers  in  the  field,  it  seems  to  have  attracted 
settlers  in  considerable  numbers. 

In  1778,  all  foreign  fabrics  had  become  so  scarce  or  costly  that 
many  factories  which  had  been  prohibited  in  the  colony  were  estab- 
lished for  the  making  of  necessary  articles,  either  in  or  near  the 
Town.  There  were  a  linen  factory,  a  bleaching  yard,  a  paper  mill, 
a  slitting  mill,  a  cord  factory,  a  nail  factory,  and  a  linen  and  woollen 


factory.  Before  the  war,  vessels,  as  we  said,  had  to  enter  and  clear 
at  Annapolis ;  but,  in  1780,  a  Custom  House  was  established  here, 
and  Thomas  Sollers,  the  naval  officer,  authorized  to  grant  registers 
for  vessels.  In  May,  during  a  single  week,  one  brig  from  France, 
and  one  ship,  three  brigs  and  five  schooners  from  the  West  Indies, 
took  advantage  of  this  arrangement  and  came  to  our  wharves.  There 
was,  of  course,  vast  difficulty  as  to  exchange  and  currency :  yet,  out 
of  fifty-six  debtors  to  British  merchants,  who  paid  their  debts  into 
the  treasury  of  the  new  "  State  "  in  depreciated  money,  there  were  but 
four  or  five  residents  of  Baltimore-Town  or  county.  In  1782,  a  line 
of  stage  coaches, — (afterwards  extended  to  Alexandria,) — was  estab- 
lished between  Baltimore  and  Philadelphia, — our  Town  at  that  date 
containing  eight  thousand  inhabitants  and  eight  places  of  worship. 
During  the  very  heat  of  the  war,  twenty  gentlemen  came  to  Bal- 
timore as  residents,  among  whom  we  find  the  names  of  Curzon,  Pat- 
terson, Gilmor,  Torrence,  Boyd,  Levering,  Payson,  Frick,  AVilliams, 
Difienderfler,  Rayborg,  Leypold,  Heide,  Shultze  and  Schafier,  all  of 
whom  at  once  engaged  in  active  business,  as  far  as  then  practicable, 
and,  at  the  close  of  the  war,  were  foremost  in  developing  the  liberated 
commerce  and  industry  of  the  Town. 

The  suspension  of  hostilities  with  Great   Britain  was  joyously 
celebrated  by  an  illumination  on  the  night  of  the  21st  of  April,  1783. 
It  was  not  only  a  rejoicing  for  release  from  war  and  for  liberty  and 
independence,  but  of  anticipated  prosperity  arising  from  freedom, 
personal,  agricultural  and  commercial ;  and,  in  truth,  it  is  from  this 
period  that  Baltimore  may  date  a  material  progress  unexampled  in 
the  history  of  American  cities.     Renewed  attention  to  Baltimore- 
Town,  as  a  seat  of  trade,  followed  the  cessation  of  active  warfare 
and  the  prospect  of  peace.     Many  merchants  from  other  States  and 
from  Europe  settled  here,  and  in  1782,  the  streets  were  begun  to  be 
paved,  especially  the  main,  or  Market  street,  which  in  spring  and 
fall  was  generally  impassable  from  Gay  to  the  Falls.     Sidewalks 
were  laid,  and  the  width  of  the  cellar  doors  and  of  the  old-fashioned 
porches  of  front  doors  limited,  so  that  the  burghers  could  not  take 
up  too  much  space  allowed  for  pedestrians,  while  enjoying  their  even- 
ing chat  or  pipe  before  their  dwellings.     AVharves,  too,  were  built, 
and  laws  made  to  guard  the  streets  from  nuisances,  and  the  harbor 
from  street  drainage  ;  while  the  streets  themselves  were  only  to  be  used 
by  vehicles  of  a  certain  breadth  of  wheel.    To  defray  these  expenses  an 
auction  tax  was  laid  on  the  sales  of  the  only  auctioneer  in  this  town  ; — 
a  tax  was  also  imposed  on  public  exhibitions  and  on  assessed  prop- 
erty :  and,  that  common  panacea, — an  annual  lottery, — was  authorized 


to  bring  up  the  arrears  of  deficiencies  in  municipal  expenses.  The 
Executive  of  this  system  was  a  Board  of  Commissioners  with 
ample  powers  to  aid  the  Town  Commissioners;  so  that  the  new 
board,— in  fact  the  first  "  Civic  Fathers"  of  Baltimore, — composed  of 
William  Spear,  James  Sterrett,  Engelhardt  Yeiser,  George  Linden- 
berger,  Jesse  Hollingsworth,  Thos.  Elliott  and  Peter  Hoffman, — was 
made  a  sort  of  body  politic  and  corporate,  authorized  to  fill  their 
own  vacancies,  appoint  a  Treasurer,  collect  fines  for  the  use  of  the 
Town,  appoint  Constables,  and  to  report  their  accounts  to  the  Town 
Commissioners.  At  the  ensuing  session  of  the  Legislature,  it  was 
thought  that  the  powers  thus  conferred  on  a  self-appointing  and  irre- 
sponsible body  were  too  extensive ;  and,  accordingly,  provision  was 
made  for  the  removal  of  the  first  set,  and  the  selection  of  others, 
every  five  years,  by  elected  electors.  In  recording  these  primordial 
city  foundations,  it  is  due  to  the  memory  of  our  excellent  ancestry 
in  town-government,  to  record  the  names  of  William  Smith,  John 
Moale,  Richard  Ridgely,  Daniel  Bowly,  Hercules  Courtenay  and 
John  Sterrett,  who  then  filled  the  important  function  of  Town  Com- 
missioners of  Baltimore.  In  1783,  the  year  of  the  peace,  Samuel  Smith, 
Samuel  Purviance,  Daniel  Bowly,  John  Sterrett,  Thomas  Russell, 
Richard  Ridgely,  Robert  Henderson,  Thomas  Elliott  and  William 
Patterson,  were  appointed  AVardens  of  the  Port  of  Baltimore,  for  five 
years,  to  be  renewed  by  selection  of  the  electors  of  the  Special  Com- 
missioners every  five  years  in  succession.  Of  this  body  Mr.  Purvi- 
ance was  chosen  Chairman.  Measures  were  also  taken  to  make  a 
survey  and  chart  of  the  basin,  harbor  and  Patapsco  river ;  to  ascer- 
tain the  depth  and  course  of  the  channel,  and  provide  for  keeping  it 
clear,  while  a  penny  per  ton  was  imposed  on  every  vessel  clearing  or 
entering,  to  defray  the  expenses.  This  impost  was  raised  to  two  cents, 
and  sanctioned  by  Congress,  after  the  adoption  of  the  Constitution 
of  the  United  States.  The  Wardens  were  also  empowered  to  make 
rules  as  to  wharfage  and  wharves  and  their  repair ;  there  being  then, 
it  is  said,  no  "private  wharves"  extending  over  two  hundred  feet,  ex- 
cept those  of  Messrs.  Spear,  Smith  and  Buchanan  ;  so  that  the  space 
occupied  by  water,  at  that  time,  was  perhaps  double  the  surface  of 
the  present  docks  and  basin.  John  and  Andrew  Ellicott  owned  the 
water-lot,  and  built  an  extended  wharf  on  Light  street,  to  make 
which  highway  they  used  the  sediment  of  the  basin,  which  they  ex- 
tracted by  a  drag  drawn  by  horses.  This  primitive  and  rude  process 
preceded  the  iron  scoops  applied  by  a  windlass,  which  were  after- 
wards used  by  these  gentlemen  for  the  same  purpose,  and  were  the 
simple  mud-machines  of  our  ancestors. 


A  company,  chiefly  composed  of  Baltimoreans  was  very  soon 
formed  and  incorporated  to  make  a  canal  on  the  Susquehanna,  and 
in  the  year  1799,  another  corporation  was  created  to  unite  the 
waters  of  the  Chesapeake  and  Delaware  by  the  same  means.  The 
intercourse  with  "  the  western  country,"  too,  was  not  neglected,  for 
the  value  of  the  West  was  already  known,  and  its  virgin  lands  and 
mineral  wealth  coveted.  This  intercourse  was  promoted  by  roads 
through  Frederick  and  Hagerstown  and  onward  to  the  Monongahela 
and  Ohio,  while  regular  lines  of  stages  were  established  and  began  to 
ply  betwixt  Baltimore  and  Frederick,  and  Annapolis.  "  The  news  " 
was  more  eagerly  sought  for  than  ever,  and  the  want  was  supplied 
by  a  new  gazette  issued  by  Mr.  John  Hayes,  who  commenced  the 
publication  of  his  "  Maryland  Gazette."  An  attempt  to  establish  a 
bank  failed ;  but  a  better  project — to  light  the  streets — succeeded,  as 
well  as  the  plan  of  a  day-police  and  a  night-watch  to  guard  the  vil- 
lagers while  they  slept.  Our  8,000  townsmen  of  that  day  were, 
however,  so  exemplary  in  their  demeanor,  both  in  daylight  and 
darkness,  that  but  three  constables  were  required  for  hours  of  busi- 
ness and  but  fourteen  watchmen  for  the  night  I  We  have  advanced 
in  civilization  and  numbers  since  then  I 

The  greater  part  of  the  Baltimoreans  who  went  to  the  wars  and 
held  commissions  returned  as  permanent  residents  to  the  town,  and 
were  soon  followed  by  such  persons  as  General  Otho  Holland  Wil- 
liams, Colonel  Ramsay,  Colonel  McIIenry,  General  Swann,  Colonel 
Bankson,  the  Tilghmans,  Strickers,  Clemms,  Ballards  and  Harrises 
from  other  parts  of  the  new  State,  or  from  other  States,  while  the 
number  of  absolute  settlers  was  largely  augumented  from  France, 
Germany,  Holland  and  even  England.  The  principal  emigrants 
from  Europe  were  such  men  as  Zacharie,  Pascault,  Monbois,  Latil, 
Delaporte,  Dumeste,  and  Paul  Bentalou,  in  whose  arms  the  brave 
Pulaski  died  after  the  siege  of  Savannah.  A  few  years  after,  these 
well  remembered  merchants  were  succeeded  by  another  influx  of 
Europeans,  the  most  prominent  of  whom  were  Messonier,  Valck, 
Carrere,  Labes,  Mayer,  Oliver,  Schroeder,  Brantz,  Caton,  Coopman, 
Seekamp,  Ghcquere,  Von  Kapif,  Brune  and  other  intelligent  and 
thoroughly  educated  merchants,  who  were  well  known  in  the  com- 
mercial circles  of  our  town  during  its  greatest  prosperity  in  foreign 
trade  In  fact, — what  with  enterprising  men,  public  improvements, 
increased  capital,  a  desire  to  open  and  extend  domestic  as  well  as 
foreign  intercourse,  and  the  establishment  of  an  efficient  civic  appa- 
ratus, -the  town  began  distinctly  to  assume  the  air  of  an  important 
mart.     Nothing  indicates  the  multiplication  of  consumers  so  com- 

OF     BALTIMORE.  43 

pletely  as  a  difficulty  of  supplying  conveniently  and  abundantly  all 
the  mouths  that  are  to  be  fed.  Up  to  this  period  the  old  and  single 
market  house  had  sufficed  for  Baltimore,  but  now  the  inhabitants 
of  Old  Town  and  of  Fell's  Point, — those  on  Howard's  Hill, — and 
those  in  the  centre  of  the  settlements,  began  to  dispute  about  the 
site  of  enlarged  accommodations  for  the  traffic  in  provisions.  It 
was  soon  seen  that  one  market  would  no  longer  satisfy  the  three 
widely  separated  classes  of  population ;  and  it  was,  therefore,  wisely 
resolved  that  each  should  be  accommodated.  In  early  times  it  had 
been  intended  to  get  rid  of  "  the  Marsh"  on  Mr.  Harrison's  property 
at  the  junction  of  Harrison  and  Baltimore  streets,  by  thoroughly 
excavating  it  so  as  to  form  a  Dock  connecting  with  the  Basin  and 
extending  the  whole  distance  thence  to  our  principal  street.  This 
scheme  was  now  abandoned,  and  the  site  of  our  present  Maryland 
Institute  was  devoted  to  one  of  the  three  market  houses,  which  was, 
accordingly,  built  thereon,  and,  for  so  many  years  bore  the  name 
of  "the  Marsh"  or  "Centre  Market."  Meanwhile  the  people  of 
Fell's  Point  proceeded  to  erect  a  market  for  the  Point  on  a  space 
appropriated  therefor  by  Mr.  Fell,  holding  their  markets  on  Tues- 
days and  Fridays;  while  the  dwellers  on  "Howard's  Hill"  built 
the  third  on  the  northwest  corner  of  Camden  and  Hanover  streets, 
opening  it  for  traffic  on  Mondays  and  Thursdays  ; — Wednesdays  and 
Saturdays  being  devoted  to  the  "  Marsh."  Thus  the  dispute  was 
settled ;  though  our  subsequent  wants  demanded  the  erection,  in 
1803,  of  our  renowned  "Lexington  Market,"  for  the  benefit  of  the 
AVestern  Precincts,  and,  another  for  the  Eastern  Precincts,  author- 
ized in  1807,  on  ground  given  by  Colonel  Rogers,  which,  however, 
was  not  erected  until  1819. 

The  description  previously  given  of  the  town's  topography  in  the 
middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,  showed  that  the  land  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  the  Falls,  which  then  nearly  touched  the  "  Monument 
Square "  of  our  day,  in  the  "  horsehoe  bend "  we  described,  was 
high  and  precipitous,  affording  steep  banks  for  the  curbing  of 
that  wayward  stream.  In  truth,  the  bed  of  Monument  Square, 
at  that  time,  must  have  been  quite  twenty-five  or  thirty  feet 
higher  than  its  level  in  1870.  In  the  centre  of  that  Square,  about 
the  spot  where  the  Battle  Monument  now  stands,  the  Baltimore 
County  Court  House  had  been  built  on  the  bluff  overlooking  the 
Falls.  It  was  of  two  stories,  built  of  brick,  and  tapered  off  in  the 
centre  of  its  roof  with  a  tall  lookout  and  spire,  terminated  with  "  a 
weather-cock  and  the  points  of  the  compass." 

The  improvement  of  the  town  made  it  necessary  to  open  Calvert 


street  northwardly  from  the  water,  and  accordingly  measures  were 
taken  to  effect  this  desirable  change.  But  the  Court  House  stood 
in  the  midst  of  the  projected  highway,  and  seemed  too  valuable  an 
edifice  to  he  destroyed  for  the  opening  of  even  so  important  a  street. 
To  do  the  thing,  and  yet  to  save  the  building,  was  the  problem.  It 
was  solved  by  an  ingenious  mechanic  of  Baltimore,  who  engaged 
with  the  Town  Council  to  remove  twenty  feet  of  earth  from  beneath 
the  foundation  of  the  Court  House,  and  to  support  it  by  an  archway 
and  buttresses.  The  original  of  the  subscription  list  of  our  towns- 
men, now  before  us  as  we  write,  is  dated  on  the  21st  of  September, 
1784,  and  provides  for  payment  of  the  sums  set  against  their  names 
respectively,  for  the  projected  "  underpinning."  The  Smiths,  Boyds, 
McIIenrys,  Moales,  Hoffmans,  Bowlys  and  thirty-four  other  public 
spirited  men  subscribed  various  amounts,  from  £125  to  £7  each, 
unconditionally,  there  being  limitations  expressed  only  by  Colonel 
Howard,  who  required  that  the  street  should  not  be  "  extended  so 
as  to  run  through  his  grounds  west  of  Jones's  Falls ;" — by  Griffith 
Hall  and  Lemmon,  that  the  streets  "  should  be  extended  eight 
hundred  feet  across  the  "  Meadow ;" — and,  Alexander  and  Andrew 
Robinson,  that  "Calvert  street  should  not  be  prolonged  so  ;  s  to 
intersect  the  Conewago  Road."  The  entire  subscription  was 
liberal,  amounting  to  between  six  and  seven  hundred  pounds 

The  plan  of  Mr.  Leonard  Harbaugh  was  adopted,  and  carried  into 
effect, — bold  and  reckless  as  the  project  seemed;  and,  until  our 
modern  Court  House  was  erected,  on  its  present  site,  the  old  one 
served  all  the  purposes  of  County  justice,  "perched,  as  it  was,  on  a 
stool,"  with  the  whipping-post,  pillory,  and  stocks,  in  front  of  the 
archway,  as  perpetual  warnings  of  their  fate  to  all  the  idlers  and 
petty  malefactors  of  the  vicinage.  The  Jail,  of  those  days,  stood 
higher  up  on  the  hills,  about  the  site  of  the  granite  Record  office, 
while  the  Powder  House  was  in  the  declivity  east  of  the  Court 
1  louse,  and  near  the  original  bed  of  the  Falls,  at  the  southeast  corner 
of  our  Square  and  Lexington  street,  with  a  small  wharf  in  trout  of 
it,  to  which  boats  from  the  shipping  came  for  powder  during  the  war. 
The  water  was  quite  deep,  and  we  have  heard  an  "old  inhabitant  " 
asserl  it  was  there  that  he  learned  to  swim,  and  often  dived  from  the 
banks  in  front  of  this  edifice.  The  low  swampy  flat,  embraced  by  the 
horseshoe  curve  of  the  Kails  in  this  neighborhood,  was  called  "Steiger's 
Meadow," — the  name  it  was  commonly  known  by  to  a  very  late 
period  ;  while,  on  the  heights  above  the  stream  and  flats,  were  the  Old 
German  Church,  and  "Old  "St.  Paul's, — a  wooden,  barn-like  structure, 


on  Charles  street ; — and  the  Roman  Catholic  chapel  on  Saratoga,  taken 
down  to  make  way  for  Calvert  Hall,  since  used  by  the  Redemp- 

The  First  Presbyterian  Church  stood  on  a  cliff  east  of  the  Square, 
and  of  which  it  was  a  continuation,  and  so  remained  after  rebuild- 
ing, on  its  original  high  ground,  until  it  was  sold,  within  a  few 
years,  to  the  U.  S.  Government,  for  public  purposes. 

When  the  Old  Court  House  was  taken  down,  many  years  afterwards, 
gentlemen  who  had  erected  line  residences  around  it,  fearing  that  the 
site  might  be  re-occupied  by  an  unsightly  building,  memorialized  the 
Legislature  for  leave  to  raise  $100,000  for  a  monument  to  the  mem- 
ory of  Washington.     This  was  the  origin  of  the  present  Washing- 
ton's Monument,  built,  however,  on  land  granted  for  the  purpose  by 
Washington's  friend  and  fellow-soldier,  Colonel  John  Eager  Howard, 
and  not,  as  originally  proposed,  in  the  Square.     It  seems  that  when 
the  dwellers  in  that  neighborhood  reflected  on  the  risks  incurred 
from  having  so  tall  and  isolated  a  column  near  their  houses,  and 
moreover,  that,  if  not  built  with  rock-like  staunchness,  it  might, 
some  day,  fall  down  and  crush  them,  or,  that  the  lightnings  of  heaven 
might  be  attracted,  by  the  bare  monument,  from  passing  thunder- 
storms,— they  preferred  to  leave  the  Square  a  vacant  space,  until  it 
was  adorned  with  the  shorter  and  less  dangerous  shaft  raised  by  our 
townsmen  in  memory  of  their  defenders  in  the  second  war  against 
Great  Britain.     The  erection  of  these  "fine   dwellings"  near  the 
future  Square,  attests  the  removal  of  the  principal  merchants  and 
traders  from  Fell's  Point,  where,  up  to,  and  even  beyond,  the  period 
of  the  Revolution,  most  of  them  had  dwelt,  as  most  convenient  for 
their  interests  and  business.     Indeed,  we  remember  perfectly,  it  was 
long  afterwards  that  our  fathers  could  be  persuaded  to  abandon 
Camden,  Conway,  Barre',  Hanover,  South  Charles  and  Water  streets, 
and  all  the  best  vicinities  of  the  Basin,  or  the  Patapsco,  and  begin, 
even,  to  believe  in  the  upper  parts  of  Baltimore  as  suitable  for  trade 
or  dwellings.     The  men  of  those  days,  on  arriving  at  the  Town,  used 
to  land  at  ■"  The  Point,"  and  were  entertained  in  some  of  its  com- 
fortable homesteads,  among  the  hospitable  gentlefolks  to  whom  they 
were  introduced  by  correspondence,  until  able  to  obtain  dwelling 
houses  or  lodgings  for  themselves  and  families  elsewhere  in  this  con- 
glomerate of  settlements.     Between  town  and  point  there  was  a  vast 
space,  with  few  houses, — and  mostly  covered  with  corn  fields  or  forest 
trees ;  so  that, — (on  a  sort  of  waste-land,) — the  original  theatre  of 
Hallam  k  Henry  was  built  on  a  common,  beyond  what  was  after- 
wards known  as  "  the  Causeway," — which  was  long  infamous  for  its 


vile  inhabitants  and  sailor-brawls.  At  that  time,  the  waters  of  the 
basin  flowed  up  to  this  notorious  causeway,  close  to  the  brewery, 
known  as  "  Claggett's,"  on  Pratt  street ;  while,  on  its  banks,  as  well 
as  in  the  Marsh  below  the  market,  multitudes  of  blackbirds,  snipe 
and  other  water-fowl,  were  shot  by  the  sportsmen  of  that  day.  The 
roads  between  the  two  sides  of  the  Falls  to  Water  street  at  Frederick, 
was  then  so  frequently  overflowed  as  to  require  two  or  three  long 
bridgings  to  cross  the  swash  made  by  the  tide.  At  the  foot  of  Gray 
street,  within  fifty  yards  of  Lombard  street,  the  waters  of  the 
Patapsco  rippled  on  a  sandy  margin,  and  there  was  little  interruption 
to  the  original  shore  line  from  thence  to  the  commencement  of  Com- 
merce street  and  the  foot  of  South  street, — (which  was  then  at  the 
present  line  of  Lombard,) — and  so  on  to  Light  street,  and  south- 
wardly to  the  "  City  Spring,"  still  existing  not  long  since,  on  South 
Charles  street  near  Camden.  Thence  the  shores  curved  to  the  foot  of 
Federal  Hill  at  "  Hughes's  Quay."  We  have  known  eminent  mer- 
chants,— dead  within  only  a  few  years, — who,  as  boys,  "crabbed" 
with  a  forked  stick,  the  whole  of  this  distance,  and  whose  parents 
embarked  for  Europe,  in  1782,  at  a  little  dock  which  came  up  to 
Exchange  Place,  within  thirty  feet  of  its  present  southern  limit ! 

In  those  days,  Market  street  (now  Baltimore,)  extended  westward, 
beyond  the  Old  Congress  Hall,  between  Sharp  and  Liberty  streets, 
from  Gay  and  Frederick  streets,  where  the  Alarm-bell  and  Watch 
House  were  built.  The  Assembly  room,  over  the  "  Old  Market,"  at 
the  corner  of  Gay,  was  frequented  by  all  the  fashion  of  the  town  and 
neighboring  gentry  during  the  season  of  winter  festivity ;  while  the 
country  people  who  came  to  traffic,  finding  the  market  accommoda- 
tions inadequate,  lined  both  sides  of  Gay  street  with  their  wagons, 
while  others  occupied,  with  stands,  the  sidewalks  on  Market  street, 
which,  up  to  this  time,  had  remained  entirely  unpaved.  We  remem- 
ber to  have  heard  from  an  eye-witness  that,  when  the  Army  passed 
through  Baltimore  in  1781,  he  saw  a  mounted  soldier  nearly  swamped, 
opposite  to  North  street,  in  a  deep  mud-hole  from  which  the  rider 
and  his  horse  were  with  difficulty  extracted.  But,  after  the  paving 
of  Market  street,  there  were  no  more  pitfalls  ;  and  the  improvements, 
on  both  sides  of  the  main  highway,  wont  on  with  such  rapidity  that 
we  seldom  found  old  citizens  able  to  give  us  the  exact  chronology  of 
edifices  as  they  fell  before  the  modern  rage  for  building.  It  is  cer- 
tain, however,  that  there  were  not  many  brick  houses  erected  at  a 
very  early  day  ;  OUT  quiet  ancestors  being  contented  with  wood,  until, 
after  tin1  Revolution,  when  the  increase  of  means,  from  an  emanci- 
pated  industry  and  commerce,  made  the  trading  community  rivals 

Or    BALTIMORE.  47 

of  the  aristocratic  landholders  who  dwelt  on  their  estates,  deriving 
ample  incomes  from  plantations  or  rentals. 

In  those  days  the  bold  heights  north  of  Franklin  street  and  on 
the  lines  of  Charles  and  Calvert  streets,  were  still  covered  by  a  thick 
forest,  and  formed  part  of  "  Belvidere," — the  seat  of  Colonel  John 
Eager  Howard.  This  beautiful  domain  was  then  popularly  known 
as  "  The  Park,"  or,  "  Howard's  Park ;"  and,  indeed,  is  so  desig- 
nated even  now,  though  the  forest  is  gone,  the  hills  have  subsided 
into  streets,  and  what  was  woodland  is  covered  with  costly  dwell- 
ings. It  was  on  the  upper  hills  of  this  Park  where,  it  is  said,  there 
was  a  spacious  lawn,  that  the  townsfolk  repaired  to  show  themselves 
whenever  the  alarm  was  given  that  "  British  Barges  were  ascending 
the  river  towards  the  town."  The  intention  of  this  parade,  it  is 
said,  was  to  intimidate  the  assailants  by  the  display  of  their  numbers 
and  preparation.  "We  do  not  know  whether  this  Chinese  system  of 
defensive  warfare  ever  availed  our  worthy  ancestors  in  frightening 
the  enemy ;  but  it  is  within  our  own  distinct  recollection  that 
"  Howard's  Park"  was,  many  years  after  the  Revolutionary  War, 
the  favorite  resort  of  all  our  military  people, — volunteers  and 
militia, — on  "Washington's  Birthday"  and  the  "Fourth  of  July;" 
and  that  thither  they  went, — in  full  array  and  grand  processions, 
which  were  the  delight  of  our  boyhood, — to  listen  to  the  reading  of 
"  Washington's  Farewell  Address,"  "  the  Declaration  of  Independ- 
ence," and  an  appropriate  Oration  from  the  favorite  speaker  of  the  day. 
AVe  remember,  too,  that  independently  of  its  resort  as  a  place  of  holi- 
day display,  Howard's  Park  was  the  elysium  of  school  bo}Ts,  as  a  free 
range  for  their  sports,  when  boys  were  less  numerous  and  perhaps 
less  demonstrative  than  at  present ; — nor  are  we  unmindful  of  the 
tender  recollection,  that  many  of  the  gray-haired  grandsires  and 
grandmothers  of  the  rising  generation,  were  there  accustomed,  on 
Saturday  afternoons,  to  have  their  first  meetings  and  lover-like 
walks, — many  of  which  doubtless  terminated  in  that  longer  march 
of  life,  in  which  they  have  gone  down  to  the  present  time,  hand  in 
hand,  with  the  fair  companions  of  their  boyhood.- 

Such  was  the  physical  aspect  of  Baltimore,  in  the  memory  of  an 
old  man,  soon  after  the  peace  with  Great  Britain. 

The  late  John  P.  Kennedy,  in  an  article  written  for  a  privately 
printed  book,  has  given  so  graphic  a  picture  of  the  village  while 

*  The  Park  was,  also,  the  scene  of  less  agreeable  occurrences, —several  duels 
having  been  fought  there  by  the  Hotspurs  of  the  early  time.  Mr.  David  Sterrett, 
we  have  heard,  was  shot  in  one  of  them  by  Mr.  Hatfield,  at  a  spot  in  the  woods  near 
the  present  corner  of  Charles  and  Madison  street,  north  of  Washington's  Monu- 


merging  into  a  metropolis  after  the  Revolution,  that  the  reader  of 
these  sketches  will  be  best  instructed  as  to  the  society  of  that  day  by 
the  transfer  to  our  pages  of  his  excellent  description. 

"It  was  a  treat,"  says  he,  "for  our  ancestors  to  look  upon  this 
little  Baltimore-Town,  springing  forward  with  such  elastic  bound  to 
be  something  of  note  in  the  Great  Republic.  *  *  Market  street 
had  shot  like  a  snake  out  of  a  toy-box,  up  as  high  as  '  Congress 
Hall,'  with  its  variegated  range  of  low-browed,  hip-roofed,  wooden 
houses,  standing  forward  and  back,  out  of  line,  like  an  ill  dressed 
regiment.  Some  houses  were  painted  blue,  some  yellow,  some  white, 
and  here  and  there  a  more  pretending  mansion  of  brick,  with  win- 
dows after  the  pattern  of  a  multiplication  table,  scpiare  and  many- 
paned,  and  great  wastes  of  wall  between  the  stories ;  some  with 
court  yards  in  front,  and  trees  in  whose  shade  truant  boys  and  ragged 
negroes  '  skyed  coppers  '  and  played  marbles. 

"  This  avenue  was  enlivened  with  matrons  and  damsels  ;  some  with 
looped  skirts,  some  in  brocade,  luxuriantly  displayed  over  hoops, 
with  comely  bodices  supported  by  stays  disclosing  perilous  waists, 
and  with  sleeves  that  clung  to  the  arm  as  far  as  the  elbow,  where 
they  were  lost  in  ruffles  that  stood  off  like  feathers  on  a  bantam. 
And  then  such  faces ! — so  rosy,  spirited  and  sharp ; — with  the 
hair  drawn  over  a  cushion, — tight  enough  to  lift  the  eye-brows 
into  a  rounder  curve,  giving  a  pungent,  supercilious  expression  to 
the  countenance  ; — and  curls  that  fell  in  '  cataracts '  upon  the  shoul- 
ders. Then,  they  stepped  away  with  such  a  mincing  gait,  in  shoes 
of  many  colors  with  formidable  points  at  the  toes,  and  high  tottering 
heels  delicately  cut  in  wood,  and  in  towering,  peaked  hats,  garnished 
with  feathers  that  swayed  aristocratically  backward  and  forward  at 
each  step,  as  if  they  took  pride  in  the  stately  pace  of  the  wearer. 

"  In  the  train  of  these  goodly  groups  came  the  gallants  who  up- 
held the  chivalry  of  the  age; — cavaliers  of  the  old  school,  full  of 
starch  and  powder ;  most  of  them  the  iron  gentlemen  of  the  Revolu- 
tion, with  leather  faces — old  campaigners,  renowned  for  long  stories, 
— not  long  enough  from  the  camp  to  lose  their  military  brusquerie 
and  dare-devil  swagger;  proper  roystering  blades  who  had  not  long 
ago  got  out  of  harness  and  begun  to  affect  the  elegancies  of  civil  life  ; 
*  *  *  all  in  three-cornered  cocked-hats,  and  powdered  hair  and 
cues,  and  light  colored  coats  with  narrow  capes  and  long  backs,  and 
pockets  on  each  hip,  small  clothes  and  striped  stockings,  shoes  with 
great  buckles,  and  long,  steel  watch  chains  suspending  an  agate  seal, 
in  the  likeness  of  the  old  soundingboards  above  pulpits.  *  *  *  It 
Avas  a  sight  worth  seeing  when  one  of  these  weather  beaten  gallants 


accosted  a  lady.  There  was  a  bow  which  required  the  width  of  the 
pavement, — a  scrape  of  the  foot  and  the  cane  thrust  with  a  nourish 
under  the  left  arm  and  projecting  behind  in  a  parallel  line  with  the 
cue.  And,  nothing  could  be  more  piquant  than  the  lady's  return  of 
the  salutation,  in  a  curtsy  that  brought  her  with  bridled  chin  and 
most  winning  glance,  halfway  to  the  ground ! 

"  It  was  really  comfortable  to  see  a  good,  housewifely  matron  of 
that  time,  trudging  through  the  town  in  bad  weather,  wrapped 
up  in  a  great  ' roquelairej  her  arms  thrust  into  a  huge  muff,  and  a 
tippet  wound  about  her  shoulders  in  as  many  folds  as  the  serpent 
of  Laocoon,  a  beaver  hat  close  over  her  ears,  and  her  feet  shod  in 
pattens  that  lifted  her  above  all  contact  with  mud  and  water, 
clanking  on  the  sidewalks  with  the  footfall  of  the  spectre  of  the 
'  Bleeding  Nun.' " 

This  picture  of  our  great-grandfathers  and  great-grandmothers,  from 
the  clever  pencil  of  our  estimable  townsman,  has  to  our  eyes,  per- 
haps, a  certain  spice  of  wickedness  and  caricature  ;  but  will  the  Bal- 
timoreans  of  ninety  years  hence  be  less  entertained  or  surprised  by 
the  graphic  delineations  of  the  style  and  fashions  of  Anno  Domini 
1870,  as  displayed  in  the  parlors  and  promenades  of  our  modern 
metropolis  ? 

How  these  respectable  ancestors  of  ours  fared  for  certain  classes  of 
servants,  who  were  not  slaves,  may  be  curiously  seen  in  the  gazettes 
published  about  the  time  of  the  Revolution.  It  is  known  that  it  was 
the  practice  to  send  out  yearly,  from  England  to  this  country,  at  least 
five  hundred  convicts,  who  were  sold  as  menials  for  various  periods  ; 
but  it  is  doubtful  whether  the  readers  of  history  have  very  adequate 
conceptions  of  the  extent  to  which  this  system  affected  the  condition 
and  entered  into  the  family  arrangements  of  our  forefathers.  It  will 
astonish  students  to  discover  the  number  of  advertisements,  relating 
to  these  convicts,  to  be  found  in  the  old  newspapers,  as  well  as  to  the 
class  of  "  redemptioners,"  who  entered  into  engagements  to  serve  in 
payment  for  their  transportation  to  America.  Here  is  an  example 
of  this  species  of  British  merchandise,  culled  from  the  newspaper 
examinations  of  a  friend  : 

"  Baltimore,  November  8, 1774. 

"Just  arrived,  in  the  ship  Neptune,  Captain  Lambert  Wilkes, 
from  London,  a  number  of  likely,  healthy,  indented  servants ;  viz. : 
Tailors,  butchers,  barbers,  masons,  blacksmiths,  tanners,  carpenters, 
tinmen,  stay-makers,  schoolmasters,  brass-founder,  grooms,  brickmaker, 
clothiers,  clerks,  sawyers,  gardeners,  scourer  and  dyer,  watch  and 


clock  makers,  weavers,  printer,  silversmiths,  biscuit  bakers,  several 
farmers  and  laborers,  several  women,  viz. :  Spinsters,  mantua-makers, 
&c. : — whose  Indentures  are  to  be  disposed  of  on  reasonable  terms  by 
John  Cornthwait,  James  Williamson,  and  the  Captain  on  board." 
Immediately  after  this  advertisement  there  is  another,  so  singular  as 
to  be  worthy  of  more  permanent  record  in  a  notice  of  Baltimore : 

"  November  12, 1774 :  '  On  board  the  Neptune,' — (the  same  vessel,) 
— lying  at  Baltimore, — I.  Williams,  late  vintner  in  London,  who  has 
served  as  valet  de  chambre  to  several  noblemen :  his  last  place  was  that 
of  Butler  to  his  Grace  the  Duke  of  Bolton,  and  for  these  few  years 
past  kept  a  large  tavern,  but  through  honest  principles  surrendered 
his  all,  and  was  thereby  reduced  to  bankruptcy.  He  shaves,  dresses 
hair,  is  thorough  master  of  the  Wine-Trade  and  Tavern  business  ; 
likewise  understands  brewing  and  cookery ;  would  willingly  engage 
with  any  Gentleman,  Hair-Dresser  or  Tavernkeeper : — Also,  a  young 
man,  xolio  has  had  a  college  education,  and  whose  principles  will  bear 
the  strictest  scrutiny,  would  be  glad  to  engage  as  an  usher,  or  private 
tutor  in  a  gentleman's  family: — he  can  teach  the  Minuet,  Cotillion,  &c, 
&c,  and  writes  all  the  Law-hands.  Any  gentleman  wanting  such 
persons,  by  applying  to  the  above  ship  within  14  days  from  the  date 
hereof,  will  be  treated  with  on  the  most  reasonable  terms." 

It  may  be  easily  understood  why  these  accomplished  persons  could 
not  quit  the  good  ship  Neptune  to  seek  employment  for  them- 
selves ! 




The  spirit  of  enterprise  that  began  to  manifest  itself  during  the 
war, — which  was  fostered  by  the  influx  of  some  capital  and  popula- 
tion,— by  the  success  of  privateers  that  carried  on  a  lucrative  trade 
with  the  West  Indies  in  the  swift  sailing  craft  of  the  Chesapeake, — 
and  by  the  central  position  of  Baltimore, — at  the  core,  as  it  were,  of 
the  confederacy, — was  not  destined  to  be  immediately  gratified  by 
vast  success  when  the  war  was  over.  Between  the  period  of  the 
cessation  of  hostilities  and  the  absolute  peace,  as  well  as  between  the 
peace  and  the  adoption  of  the  United  States  Constitution,  there  were 
doubts  and  hesitancy  as  to  the  extension  and  security  of  trade.  Im- 
mediately after  the  Revolution,  and,  in  fact,  from  1784  to  1787,  the 
commerce  of  Baltimore  was  languid.  The  country,' — still  unconsoli- 
dated in  absolute  nationality, — was  yet  only  a  Confederacy  of  States, 
and  came  out  of  the  war  with  a  debt  of  forty-four  millions  of  dollars, 
about  eight  millions  of  which  were  due  to  Holland  and  France.  Con- 
gress solicited  the  States  to  raise  revenues  by  duties,  which  the}T 
agreed  accordingly  to  impose  on  some  exports  and  imports,  on  condi- 
tion of  reciprocity  among  themselves ; — three-fourths  of  the  income 
to  pass  into  the  Federal  treasury.  The  duties  collected  at  Baltimore 
in  the  years  between  the  peace  and  the  adoption  of  the  Constitution 
averaged,  according  to  the  best  information  accessible,  about  §200,000 
per  annum ;  and  from  this  sum  an  estimate  may  be  made  of  the  com- 
merce of  our  port.  The  languor  during  these  years  was  attributed 
to  the  general  depression  of  a  nation  emerging  from  war ;  to  debt ; 
to  the  small  tonnage  of  our  vessels ;  to  adverse  European  policy ; 
and  to  the  want  of  capital, — that  great  sinew  and  seconder  of  all  en- 
terprise. Our  shipping  consisted  principally  of  the  smaller  vessels, 
engaged  in  the  West  India  trade,  besides  a  few  larger  ones  which 
were  gradually  constructing  and  beginning  to  partake  in  the  carry- 
ing of  produce  to  foreign  markets.     The  staple  productions  of  Mary- 


land  were  then  tobacco,  corn,  wheat  and  flour, — the  tobacco  trade 
being  principally  conducted  by  foreign  agents,  mostly  with  European 
capital,  and  largely  in  foreign  shipping.  This  trade  has  always 
been  of  great  importance  to  our  State  and  Baltimore,  and  largely 
availed  of  by  foreign  States  for  the  imposition  of  taxes  on  their  own 
people.  Before  -the  Revolutionary  war  it  was  usual  to  ship  tobacco 
for  account  of  the  planters,  who  received  advances  from  the  British 
agents  at  the  "  landings "  on  the  Chesapeake,  and  who  kept  estab- 
lishments, throughout  the  province,  in  the  small  towns  on  the 
rivers,  as  well  as  at  the  Inspection  houses,  where  they  had  stores  for 
the  supply  of  planters.  As  soon  as  the  war  was  over,  the  English 
merchants, — supplied  with  capital  and  familiar  with  the  business, — 
resolved,  if  possible,  not  to  lose  a  traffic  that  had  been  so  profit  able  ; 
and  consecpiently  they  immediately  attempted  to  resume  the  trade 
by  extensive  agencies  at  Annapolis,  Upper  Marlboro',  Bladensburg, 
Elk  Ridge  Landing,  and  other  convenient  spots  on  the  rivers, — 
Baltimore  being  still  secondary  in  this  commerce.  Indeed,  a  great 
proportion  of  the  Maryland  staple  which  was  consumed  on  the  con- 
tinent, especially  in  Holland  and  Germany, — under  the  sway  and 
influence  of  British  capital, — had  to  find  its  way  to  the  ultimate 
markets  in  Europe,  by  way  of  England. 

At  this  period,  however,  Baltimore  began  to  be  visited  by  many 
foreign  ships,  of  other  countries  besides  Great  Britain.  A  large 
commercial  establishment  from  Holland  was  formed  and  settled  here 
in  1784,  and  made  large  purchases  of  tobacco  for  Dutch  account  and 
direct  shipment.  Other  houses  from  Bremen  and  Hamburg  followed 
the  example  about  this  period,  and  partook  of  the  trade  in  a  simi- 
lar way,  still  carrying  principally  in  foreign  vessels  ;  until,  gradually, 
the  Baltimore  merchants  themselves,  with  enlarged  means,  began  to 
participate,  for  their  own  account, — building  ships  of  considerable 
tonnage,  to  carry  the  staple  abroad.  Thus,  by  degrees  the  British 
became  almost  entirely  excluded  from  the  tobacco  trade : — their 
various  establishments,  throughout  the  new  State,  declined  very 
rapidly  and  Anally  vanished;  and  thus,  as  they  disappeared,  the 
tobacco  and  grain  trades  became  concentrated  at  Baltimore,  with  but 
a  small  share  left  for  Georgetown.  The  tobacco  trade  may,  accord- 
ingly, be  said  to  have  been  the  stimulus,  if  not  the  foundation,  of 
Baltimore's  commerce,  which  had  thus  found  the  means  of  inde- 
pendent development,  and  was  soon  augmented  by  intercourse  with 
the  back  country,  as  well  as  by  those  increased  agricultural  settle- 
ments, which,  springing  up  in  the  counties,  began  to  pour  their 
cereals  into  the  growing  mart,  and  to  require,  in  exchange,  the  pro- 

OF     BALTIMORE.  53 

ducts  of  Europe  and  the  East,  as  well  as  the  West  Indies.  Accord- 
ing to  the  Gazetteer  of  1786,  there  were  entered  in  Baltimore  during; 
that  year,  15  ships,  57  brigs,  160  sloops  and  schooners,  as  engaged  in 
foreign  commerce  only. 

The  mode  of  raising  the  taxes  necessary  for  public  expenses  had 
been  by  poll,  or  by  heads  of  families,  and  b}r  laborers  according 
to  their  number;  but  this  being  changed  by  the  constitution,  the 
property,  in  the  town  and  county  of  Baltimore,  was  assessed  at  the 
sum  of  £1,703,622,  or  at  the  relative  rate  of  values  at  that  time, 
$1,542,992 ;  so  that  the  State  tax  was  $17,036,  and  the  levy  of  the 
county  for  the  next  year  (1786)  was  seven  shillings  per  hundred 
dollars,  or  $15,991T60°a.  Mr.  John  O'Donnell  arrived  here  from 
Canton,  China,  on  the  9th  of  August,  17So,  with  a  full  Cargo  of 
India  goods,  constituting  the  first  direct  importation  into  Baltimore, 
the  value  of  which  he  realized  in  this  town.  Regular  packets  were 
established  by  Captain  Joseph  White  and  his  associates,  to  ply  be- 
tween Baltimore  and  Xorfolk  ;  Virginia  beginning  then  to  take  large 
portions  of  her  supplies  from  this  place  through  Georgetown  and 
Norfolk.  Better  accommodations  were  needed  for  the  craft  plying 
on  the  bay  and  river,  and  Harrison's  wharf  was  extended  on  each 
side  of  South  street  by  Daniel  Bowly,  one  of  Harrison's  executors, 
from  whom  it  obtained  the  name  of  "  Bowly's  wharf,"  which  it 
bears  to  this  day.  Pile  driving  machines  were  introduced  to  in- 
crease  and  improve  the  water  frontage  ;  and  the  private  wharves, 
generally,  were  extended  by  such  prudent  merchants  as  Messrs. 
Purviance,  McClure,  the  Ilollingsworths,  and  William  Smith. 

There  was  at  this  time  much  agitation  among  our  people  on  the 
subject  of  a  Charter  for  the  Town,  including  a  Mayor's  Court ;  yet, 
as  the  scheme,  as  proposed,  left  the  citizens  but  little  share  in  their 
own  government,  and  reposed  it,  after  the  fashion  of  old  institutions, 
in  the  hands  of  a  few,  it  was  wisely  opposed,  and  consequently  not 
pressed  by  the  originators.  The  German  Calvinists  erected  the  old 
church  at  the  East  end  of  the  bridge,  which  after  passing  into  the 
hands  of  the  Episcopalians,  was  sold  and  taken  down  some  twenty 
or  thirty  years  ago,  while  portions  of  the  congregation  erected  an- 
other church  on  Conway  street,  under  the  care  of  Mr.  Otterbein, 
which  was  called  the  Evangelical  Reformed.  The  church  at  the 
bridge  was  sold  to  the  Episcopalians  in  1795,  and  it  was  soon  after, 
that  the  society  erected  the  church  in  Second  street,  which  for  so 
long  a  time  sounded  the  hours  for  us  from  its  "  Town  Clock,"  and 
only  yielded  to  the  march  of  civil  improvement  a  short  time  since 
on  the  opening  of  Holliday,  south  of  Baltimore  street. 


The  "  floods"  from  which  onr  city  has  several  times  suffered,  were 
known  in  its  early  history,  and  before  it  either  rose  to  municipal 
honors,  or  had  curbed  the  "  Falls"  with  the  walls  and  buildings 
which  are  now  supposed  to  obstruct  the  free  flow  of  the  waters.  On 
the  5th  of  October,  1786,  there  was  a  great  "freshet;"  "the  tide," 
it  was  said,  "  being  met  by  the  current  of  the  falls,"  and  overflowing 
the  Centre-Market  Space  and  nearly  all  the  made  ground  and 
wharves,  carrying  away  all  the  bridges,  destroying  large  quantities 
of  property  and  merchandise,  and  drowning  a  citizen  who  at- 
tempted to  ford  the  Falls  below  "  Keller's  dam,"  then  existing  near 
the  present  "  Belvidere  bridge."  Market  street  bridge  was  rebuilt 
by  Jacob  Small,  of  wood,  with  a  single  arch  of  ninety  feet  span  ;  but 
on  the  24th  of  July,  1788,  a  terrific  storm  of  wind  and  rain  again 
threatened  these  frail  structures,  and  actually  injured  many  of  the 
wharves  in  the  harbor  by  the  sudden  overflow  of  our  streams. 

These  recurring  risks  of  inundation  and  loss  seem  to  have  caused 
one  of  those  periodical  spasms  of  prudence  and  good  purposes  which, 
on  several  occasions,  have  drawn  the  attention  of  our  people  to  the 
troublesome  water-course  in  our  city's  centre.  Accordingly,  they 
simply  raised  the  level  of  the  existing  wharves,  but  did  not  touch  the 
bridges  until  ten  years  afterwards ;  nor  was  it  until  ten  years  more 
had  elapsed,  that  stone  bridges  of  two  arches  each  were  erected  at  Gay 
and  Market  streets,  and  soon  afterwards,  another,  also  of  stone  and 
of  three  arches,  at  Pratt  street.  Nevertheless,  on  the  9th  of  August, 
1817,  another  freshet  swept  off  the  wooden  crossings  at  Bath  and 
Water  streets,  drifting  the  debris  against  the  bridges  at  Gay  and  Mar- 
ket and  Pratt  streets,  and,  of  course,  so  damming  the  swollen  stream 
that  the  stone  structures  were  not  only  much  injured,  but  the  Centre 
Market  and  the  lowlands  of  the  "Meadow"  and  their  vicinity,  com- 
pletely submerged.*  These  scenes  of  destructive  overflow  have  been 
repeated  by  the  stormy  rise  of  Jones's  Falls  in  1817, 1837,  and  again 
in  1868;  until  our  authorities,  alarmed  by -losses,  which,  with  each 
fresh  deluge,  increase  from  thousands  to  hundreds  of  thousands  of 
dollars,  have  at  last  authorized  the  construction  of  an  improved 
channel  for  the  "  Falls,"  which,  it  is  hoped,  will  hereafter  save  the 

*  The  7th,  8th,  and  9th  of  August,  1817,  were  remarkable  for  the  unusual  fall  of 
rain,  ami  consequent  inundations,  which  extended  on  the  Atlantic  slopes  <>t'  Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland  and  Virginia.  On  the  8th  at  midnight  the  principal  rain  storm 
commenced,  and  continued  with  little  intermission  till  about  noon,  falling  some- 
times in  incredible  torrents.  The  lower  parts  of  the  city  were  inundated  nearly  up 
to  the  second  floors.  Six  and  four-tenths  inches  of  rain  fell,  as  marked  by  the  rain 
gauge.  The  inundation  of  1808  flooded  the  market-house  at  the  Institute  to  the 
height  of  about  eight  feet  from  the  lied  of  the  street. 


city  from  floods,  and  restore  the  value  of  the  "  swamp"  district,  so 
distinctly  marked  on  the  old  town  map  of  1756.  Though  some- 
what out  of  chronological  order,  we  have  thought  it  fitting  to  group 
these  five  deluges  of  Baltimore  in  1786,  1788,  1817,  1837,  and  1868, 
for  the  convenience  of  those  who  are  curious  in  the  history  of  our 
city's  sufferings  from  the  vile  sewer  that  cuts  the  town  in  two, 
discharging  filth  and  sediment  into  the  harbor,  impairing  the 
channels  of  our  bay  and  river,  and  causing  vast  expense  from  the 
incessant  digging  out  by  machinery  of  what  the  worthless  Falls 
as  incessantly  pours  in.* 

But,  to  return  to  our  commercial  history  and  to  the  regular  train 
of  our  narrative. 

Notwithstanding  her  failing  grasp  on  her  ancient  colonies,  Great 
Britain  did  not  relax  the  harshness  of  her  navigation  laws  or  en- 
deavor to  recover  by  policy  what  she  had  lost  by  force.  The  British 
regulations  for  the  fisheries  on  the  banks  of  Newfoundland,  and  the 
closing  of  many  West  Indian  ports,  began  to  be  felt  severely  by  our 
people,  so  that  societies  were  formed  here,  and  in  all  the  northern 
seaports,  to  consider  the  condition  of  affairs ;  some  urging  non-im- 
portation of  British  goods,  others  seeking  the  creation  of  a  paper 
currency,  others  desiring  to  promote  and  protect  domestic  manu- 
factures, while  all,  though  in  different  degrees,  appear  to  have  ad- 
mitted the  necessity  of  strengthening  the  Federal  unity  and  power 
of  the  frail,  war-born  Confederacy.  A  committee  of  correspondence 
was  formed  in  Baltimore,  consisting  of  Adam  Fonerden,  John  Gray, 
and  David  Stodder,  to  devise  means,  by  interchange  of  opinion  and 
action  with  other  States,  for  the  promotion  of  American  industry. 
It  was  acknowledged  at  once,  that  true  independence  was  not 
secured  until  we  became  able  to  satisfy  our  national  needs  within 
the  bounds  of  our  own  country,  and  by  the  recompensed  labor  of 
our  own  people ;  while  it  was  generally  believed  that  our  affluent 
laud  contained  all  the  elements  of  perfect  success,  requiring  only 
time  and  an  increased  population  to  develop  them. 

2s  o  Companies  had  yet  been  chartered  for  insuring  marine  risks,  but 
certain  men  of  business  prepared  policies  of  that  class  which  were 
subscribed  to  a  large  amount  by  merchants  and  others  of  responsible 

*  It  should  be  recorded  in  a  foot-note,  that  it  was  not  until  1789  (a  year  after  one 
of  the  freshets)  that  a  new  channel  was  cut  for  the  Falls  from  Bath  to  Gay  street,  thus 
destroying  the  horseshoe  bend  of  the  stream  already  described.  It  is  to  be  regretted 
that  the  straightening  process  was  not  more  effectually  done  by  competent  engineers, 
at  that  early  day  when  the  borders  of  the  Falls  were  still  vacant,  or  comparatively 


means.  In  1787,  the  Baltimore  Fire  Company  was  incorporated, 
and  followed  by  the  Maryland,  Equitable,  and  other  companies ; 
while  the  turnpikes  to  Washington,  Frederick  and  Eeisterstown 
were  authorized,  though  not  constructed  for  some  time  after.  Balti- 
more (then  Market)  street  was  also  extended  beyond  Col.  Howard's 
addition  on  the  west,  and  an  unsuccessful  attempt  made  to  introduce 
water  into  the  town  by  pipes.  All  these  facts,  dull  as  they  seem  at 
this  distant  day,  display  the  interest  with  which  our  people  were 
beginning  to  regard  their  town  as  a  substantial  mart.  The  main 
things  still  wanting,  as  in  all  new  states  and  nations,  just  emanci- 
pated, were  population  and  capital,  as  well  as  perfect  independence 
and  security  from  the  mother  country,  which  undoubtedly  had  her 
eyes  yet  fixed  on  America  with  a  longing  for  the  recovery  of  her 
trade,  if  not  of  her  absolute  dominion. 

The  amount  of  the  tobacco  crop  of  Maryland  has  always  been 
fluctuating.  Before  the  Revolutionary  War  it  rose  to  20,000  hogs- 
heads yearly  ;  at  the  end  of  the  war  it  did  not  exceed  ten  thousand ; 
since  which  it  ascended,  in  1860,  to  51,000,  and  descended  again  in 
1868,  to  27,064,  rising,  in  1869,  to  27,782;  the  recent  Ml  and  fluctu- 
ation being,  of  course,  attributable  to  the  conditions  of  labor  in 
Maryland,  under  the  disorders  and  results  of  civil  war.  In  this 
early  period  of  our  trade,  the  Colonial  Systems  of  the  European 
powers  were,  of  course,  rigorously  enforced,  in  all  their  possessions 
in  the  West  Indies  and  elsewhere.  Of  course  our  careful  merchants 
were  obliged  not  to  stimulate  domestic  production,  for  fear  of  running 
the  agriculturists  into  excess,  and  consequent  disappointment  and 
debt.  Accordingly,  foreign  trade  became  prudent,  and  the  returns 
of  Colonial  produce  scarcely  sufficed  for  the  consumption  of  the 
country  ;  generally  selling  at  extremely  high  rates ;  and  a  carrying 
trade — except  in  the  staples — was,  of  course,  out  of  the  question. 
The  export  of  flour  from  Baltimore  was  confined  to  the  West  Indies, 
where  it  was  a  prime  necessity,  and  carried  chiefly  in  American 
shipping  of  the  smaller  class.  Wheat  went  in  large  quantities  to 
Spain  and  Portugal,  and,  in  one  or  two  instances,  while  the  ports 
were  open,  to  Great  Britain.  Much  of  the  European  trade  was  con- 
ducted in  foreign  vessels;  and  Indian  corn  seems  to  have  been 
extensively  exported  from  Baltimore  to  Portugal  in  this  way,  as  well 
as  coastwise,  to  the  Southern  and  Eastern  States  in  our  own  craft. 
The  importation  of  European  manufactures  was  limited  to  the  con- 
sumption of  Maryland  and  the  interior  of  the  neighboring  states; 
and,  although  the  general  and  disastrous  "credit  system"  did  not 
yet  exist,  yet  credits  were  in  reality,  already  given  as  inducements 


to  the  country  dealers,  from  whom  collections  were  finally  made 
with  difficulty,  and  often  with  large  losses  to  European  merchants, 
who  wore  over-zealous  in  pushing  their  business.  Even  before  the 
Revolutionary  War,  the  agents  of  these  Eng  ish  houses  had  estab- 
lished their  connections  in  Fredericktown  and  the  western  parts  of 
Maryland,  and  drove  a  thrifty  trade  with  the  rough  hunter-pioneers 
of  the  country,  bordering  on  the  headwaters  of  the  Potomac,  the 
Alleghanies,  and  the  Ohio  river. 

When  the  Federal  Constitution  was  adopted  and  ratified  in  1788, 
and  we  became  in  truth  a  nation,  with  well  denned  national  powers 
fitting  us  to  regulate  trade  and  to  maintain  a  common  defence;  and 
when  the  country's  debt  was  funded ;  public  and  private  confidence 
were  increased,  and  the  springs  of  commercial  enterprise  were  again 
set  in  motion.  The  certificates  of  public  debt,  had,  to  that  time, 
been  selling  at  a  fifth  of  their  nominal  value,  but  becoming  at  once 
worth  par,  and  soon  rising  even  beyond  it,  a  large,  active  capital 
was  forthwith  created.  This  capital  was  naturally  attracted  to  Bal- 
timore, as  evidently  the  true  business  centre  of  the  Chesapeake  and 
Potomac  regions.  Many  vessels  of  large  size  were  built  here ;  though 
most  of  the  larger  shipping  was  constructed  on  the  Eastern  Shore  of 
our  Bay  and  on  West  river,  on  account  of  the  greater  quantity  and 
better  quality  of  the  requisite  materials.  A  simultaneous  deficiency 
in  the  grain  crops  of  Europe,  caused  a  demand  for  Maryland  wheat 
and  flour,  and  made  commerce  therein  extremely  active;  chiefly, 
however,  in  foreign  bottoms,  but  of  course  bringing  here  a  vast 
number  of  foreign  ships.*  It  must  be  noted,  too,  that  this  was  the 
epoch  of  the  first  two  voyages  from  Baltimore  directly,  around  the  Cape 
of  Good  Hope  to  the  Isle  of  France  ;  and  that  hanking  first  crept  into 
Baltimore  with  the  incorporation  in  1790,  of  the  Bank  of  Maryland, 
with  a  capital  of  8300,000 ; — an  institution  that  long  survived  and 
flourished,  but  expired  in  a  mob,  caused  by  excitement  of  its  de- 
frauded creditors,  in  1835.  A  branch  of  the  Bank  of  the  United 
States,  in  Baltimore,  followed  in  1792,  and  the  Bank  of  Baltimore, 

*  Laws  being  passed  by  Congress  to  carry  the  Federal  Constitution  into  effect, 
General  Otho  Holland  Williams  was  appointed  the  first  Collector  of  this  Port, 
with  Robert  Purviance  as  Naval  Officer,  and  Colonel  Rol  ert  Ballard,  Surveyor  ;  and 
in  1789,  a  Society  for  the  Promotion  of  the  "  Abolition  of  Slavery  and  the  relief  of 
Free  Negroes,"  was  organized,  with  Philip  Rogers,  President,  and  Joseph  Town- 
send,  Secretary  ;  but  meeting  with  opposition  in  1792,  it  was  discontinued,  and  the 
building  they  had  erected  on  Sharp  street  for  an  African  school  was  transferred  to 
the  colored  people  for  their  church,  and  by  them  improved  by  additions.  Another 
project,  called  the  Protection  Society,  in  1817,  under  the  auspices  of  Elisha  Tyson, 
was  more  successful  in  serving  the  African  race,  though  not  in  abolishing  slavery. 


in  1795 :  but  the  mercantile  increase  of  the  town  may  be  best  judged 
from  the  list  of  its  shipping,  which,  in  1790,  comprised  27  ships, 
31  brigs,  1  scow,  34  schooners,  and  9  sloops,  carrying  in  all  13,564 
tons;  while,  according  to  the  first  census  taken  by  the  United  States 
Government,  the  population  amounted  to  6,422  white  males,  5,503 
white  females,  323  other  free  persons,  1,255  slaves;  iu  all.  13,503 

The  year  1793  was  the  epoch  of  the  French  Revolution,  which 
was  soon  followed  by  the  outbreak  in  the  Island  of  San  Domingo, 
which  caused  the  foreign  emigration  to  Baltimore  already  men- 
tioned, and  the  influx  of  wealth  and  industry,  directed  into  new 
channels  of  enterprise.  A  large  proportion  of  this  population,  with 
their  property,  remained  for  many  years  in  our  town,  while  many  of 
the  cargoes  brought  by  the  French  ships  were  sold  here,  though 
others  were  transhipped  in  American  vessels.  This,  at  once,  created 
a  considerable  "carrying  trade"  which  was  subsequently  maintained 
\yy  Ug5 — almost  all  of  the  Colonies  of  the  belligerent  European  powers 
being  thrown  open  to  us,  except  the  Spanish  and  British.  The 
Islands  required  assorted  cargoes,  of  which  our  staples  formed  an 
important  share ;  so  that  being  entirely  cut  off  from  the  parent 
countries,  they  became  dependent  on  the  United  States  for  European 
and  East  India  manufactures.  This  trade  we  were  eager  to  seize. 
Baltimore,  from  its  southern  situation,  and  swift  sailers, — besides 
possessing  the  commodities  most  in  demand, — speedily  became  the 
emporium  of  this  colonial  trade.  The  importations  from  Europe 
were  vast ;  agencies  and  houses  from  all  parts  of  the  British  Islands 
and  the  Continent  settled  in  our  town ;  the  tobacco,  and  flour  and 
co'rn  trades  flourished ;  the  importation  of  German  linens  became 
an  important  branch  of  commerce  for  account  of  the  manufacturers 
or  merchants  in  Hamburg  and  Bremen ;  and  ship  building  grew  in 
proportion  to  the  carrying  trade,  which  now  began  to  be  largely 
supported  by  American  capital  and  credit.  Freights  rose  to  £4.10 
sterling,  per  hogshead  of  tobacco,  while,  before  1793,  they  had  been 
but  £2.  Seamen's  wages  were  $30  per  month,  and  all  mechanical 
labor  increased  in  price  proportionally,  rendering  the  industrious 

*  Since  1783,  many  of  the  gentlemen  who  afterwards  hecame  prominent  merchants 
of  Baltimore  had  settled  there  permanently,  and  among  them  we  may  mention  Hugh 
Thompson,  Edward  Ireland,  William  Lorman,  Thomas  Tenant,  John  Holmes, 
Joseph  Thornburgh,  Robert  Miller,  John  Donnell,  Lnke  Tiernan,  Solomon  Birk- 
head,  Solomon  Belts,  James  II.  MeCnlloh,  Stewart  Brown,  Leon  Changenr,  Henry 
Didier,  A.  McDonald,  J.  P.  Pleasants,  Barclay  &  McKean,  James  Corrie  and 
James  Armstrong. 

OF     BALTIMORE.  59 

part  of  our  workmen   extremely  prosperous.     This  new  blood  of 
active  wealth  penetrated  every  branch  of  trade.     Real  estate,  which 
previously   was   of  little   value,   became   productive, — representing 
capital, — and   affording  the  basis  of  credit  which,  of  course,  was 
turned  to  advantage  in  commerce.    While  Baltimore  engrossed  the 
"West  Indian  Colonial  trade, — New  England  took  advantage  of  the 
coasting  trade  and  of  that  which  went   to  the  north  of  Europe, 
supplying  the  market  in  return,  with  the  commodities  of  the  Baltic, 
such  as  hemp,  canvas,  iron  and  tallow.     The   traffic  of  the  New 
Englanders  was  not  considered  profitable  to  Baltimore;  for  though 
it  took  off  our  produce  and  thus  helped  our  market,  it  caused  an 
injurious  drain  of  specie  towards  the  Eastern  States  for  the  benefit 
of  the  East  India  trade  of  their  merchants.     But,  Baltimore  could 
spare  the  competition  in  this  respect,  as  it  had  not  sufficient  capital 
for  such  long  ventures,  though  it  had  the  enterprise  to  embrace  both 
trades.    The  town  increased  in  people  and  prosperity.     In  time,  new 
money  facilities  increased  ;  healthy  capital  came  with  healthy  trade  ; 
insurance  offices  were  incorporated;   and,  while  European  imports 
were  sold  privately,  West  Indian  produce  was  commonly  disposed 
of  in  large  quantities,  if  not  in  entire  cargoes,  at  the  great  auction 
sales  which,  became  celebrated  throughout  the  states  as  a  "specialty" 
of  Baltimore.     Nor,  should  we  forget  in  this  enumeration  of  the 
material  progress  of  Baltimore,  that  our  merchants  and  intellectual 
men  did  not  neglect  their  minds,  nor  the  minds  of  their  children,  in 
this  prosperous  period;  for  it  was  in  1795,  that  they  established  the 
old  Library  Company,  and  under  the  influence  of  Bishop  Carroll  and 
Rev.  Dr.  Bend,  made  that  splendid  collection  of  the  best  works  of 
the  day  and  age,  which,  within  a  few  years  past,  was  merged,  and  is 
stiil  preserved,  in  the  collections  of  the  Maryland  Historical  Society. 
It  was  time  for  the  town,  thus  grown  flourishing,  and  cultivated, 
— the  centre  of  a  polished   society,  unsurpassed  by  its  rival,  An- 
napolis,— to  assert  its  dignity,  and  to  discard  its  village  cognomen. 
Accordingly,  in  1796,  on  the  last  day  of  the  year,  Baltimore  was,  by 
the  General  Assembly,  declared  of  age,  and  became  a  City,  after  an 
adolescence  and  minority  of  sixty-seven  years  from  the  date  of  its 
birth  on  the  "  sixty  acre  lot"  we  long  ago  described.     It  had  earned 
its  manly  emancipation  by  hard  work,  under  provincial  bondage  and 
revolutionary  war,  followed  up  by  prompt  perception  and  use  of  ad- 
vantages, the  founders  had  secured  in  selecting  its  birthplace.     In 
the  six  years  from  1790,  the  town  had  "waxed,  but  never  waned." 
In  this  year,  Judge  Jones,  who  resided  at  North  Point,  on  the  Pa- 
tapsco,  counted,  in  passing  to  Baltimore,  no  less  than  109  ships,  162 


brigs,  350  sloops  and  schooners,  and  5,464  of  the  "  bay  craft,"  or 
small  coasters,  so  well  known  in  the  traffic  between  the  eastern 
and  western  shores  of  the  Chesapeake.  The  shad,  herring,  oyster 
and  other  fisheries  had  grown  to  consequence,  as  ma}^  be  judged 
from  the  large  number  of  these  smaller  vessels.  And,  according  to 
the  published  reports,  the  value  of  merchandise  entered  at  our  Cus- 
tom-house for  exportation  from  1st  October,  1790,  to  1st  October, 
1791,  was  $1,690,930;  same  period  in  1792,  $1,78l,861;  in  1793, 
$2,092,660;  in  1794,  $3,456,421;  in  1795,  $4,421,924;  making,  in 
all,  $13,444,796  ;  while  the  exports  from  the  whole  State  of  Maryland 
for  the  same  time  were  $20,026,126  ;  showing  that  our  City  already 
exported  two-thirds  of  the  whole  amount  sent  forward  by  the  State. 
The  tonnage  of  the  State,  reported  soon  after  the  adoption  of  the 
constitution,  was  36,305  tons  of  registered  and  7,976  tons  of  licensed 
and  of  enrolled  vessels  ;  but,  in  1795,  the  former  was  48,007  tons,  and 
the  latter,  24,470  tons ;  of  which  the  proportion  of  the  District  of 
Columbia  north  of  the  Potomac  was  about  one-seventh.  So  that,  in 
five  years  only,  the  proportion  of  smaller  vessels  which,  at  the  first 
period,  had  been  less  than  one-fourth  of  the  larger  kind,  had  become 
equal  to  one-half  of  the  increased  tonnage,  and  afforded  a  conspicu- 
ous evidence  of  the  great  and  growing  importance  of  the  Chesapeake 
Bay  and  its  fringe  of  opulent  tributaries. 

In  these  years  many  efforts  had  been  made  to  add  institutions, 
societies  and  churches,  some  of  which  were  successful  while  others 
miscarried.  The  p.  oject  for  an  Exchange  failed,  but  the  wharves 
of  Judge  Chase,  of  Mr.  Thomas  Yates,  of  Cumberland  Dugan,  and 
Thomas  McElderry,  were  successful ;  as  was,  also,  the  establishment 
of  several  Lodges  of  Free  Masons,  and  of  a  company  of  mounted 
Volunteers,  under  Captains  Plucket  and  Moore,  and  Samuel  Hollings- 
worth  ;  of  Artillery,  under  Captain  Stodder,  and  of  Riflemen,  under 
Captain  Allen.  In  1794,  the  site  of  a  Hospital  for  the  accommoda- 
tion of  strangers  and  seamen  had  been  selected,  and  an  Asylum  for 
these  purposes  was,  alter  some  time,  erected.  The  yellow  fever  raged 
here  in  that  year,  and  in  1797  and  1799;  recurring  again  in  1800, 
1819,  and  1820.  The  earlier  epidemics  were  the  most  fatal, 
depriving  the  city  of  many  valued  citizens,  and  causing  all  who 
could  escape  from  the  town  to  fly  to  the  adjoining  country,  which 
was  exempt  from  the  malady.  There  the  more  opulent  of  our 
merchants  and  professional  men  selected  sites  for  villas  on  the  sur- 
rounding hills,  and  erected  many  of  the  country  residences  which,  in 
the  march  of  the  city  northward  and  westward,  are  becoming  gradu- 
ally absorbed  within  our  "limits  of  direct  taxation."     It  should  be 

OF     BALTIMORE.  61 

mentioned,  too,  it  was  at  this  period  that  the  old  fort,  erected  in 
preparation  for  the  Revolutionary  War  on  Whetstone  Point,  was 
repaired,  and  the  "Star  Fort"' of  brick  erected,  the  ground  being 
roiled  to  the  United  States,  and  the  work  called  Fort  McHenry,  in 
honor  of  our  Maryland  Colonel,  the  Secretary  of  War.  The  demand 
abroad  for  our  Hour  stimulated  the  "  milling  interests"  of  our  city, 
and  the  abundant  water-power  on  Jones's  Falls  was  taken  advantage 
of  by  the  erection  of  a  new  mill  within  a  mile  of  navigation,  while 
Gwynn's  Falls  was  also  improved  by  a  mill-race,  with  sufficient  fall, 
in  succession,  for  at  least  three  mills,  within  three  miles  of  the  city's 
wharves.  In  consequence  of  these  enterprises  of  the  Penningtons, 
Ellicotts,  Taggerts,  Tysons,  and  Hollingsworths,  the  manufacture  of 
flour  was  greatly  increased,  so  that  but  little  wheat,  in  bulk,  was 
subsequently  exported  from  our  city.  Messrs.  Gartz  and  Leypold, 
some  ten  years  before  this,  had  erected  a  sugar  refinery  in  Peace 
alley,  on  the  east  side  of  Hanover  street,  between  Conway  and 
Camden  streets;  while  Mr.  John  Frederick  Amelung  came  from 
Germany  with  a  number  of  experienced  glass  manufacturers,  and 
erected  an  extensive  factory  on  the  Monocacy,  in  Frederick  county, 
whence,  towards  the  close  of  the  century,  the  works  were  removed, 
enlarged,  and  re-established  on  the  south  side  of  the  Basin,  at  the 
foot  of  Federal  Hill,  under  the  auspices  of  Mr,  John  F.  Friese,  and, 
in  later  days,  of  the  Bakers.  In  1798,  the  property  of  the  city, 
subject  to  taxation,  was  valued  at  £699,519,  9  shillings  and  2  pence ; 
and  the  revenue  of  the  city  from  all  sources,  was  $32,865. 

Nor  were  spiritual  matters  neglected.  The  Presbyterians  and  the 
Baptists  had  erected  new,  or  improved  their  first  Churches.  The 
Methodists,  as  early  as  1784,  procured  from  John  Wesley,  in  Eng- 
land, the  appointment  of  a  "  Superintendent,"  in  the  person  of  Dr. 
Thomas  Coke;  and,  on  Christmas  day,  the  first  great  "conference" 
of  that  Society  was  held  in  Baltimore.  Dr.  Coke,  assisted  by  other 
preachers  who  came  with  him,  constituted  a  new  Church;  and,  on 
the  presentation  of  sixty  preachers,  conferred  equal  powers  with  his 
own  on  the  Rev.  Francis  Asbury.  During  the  following  year  the 
Society  sold  the  original  Church  in  Lovely  lane,  and  built  the  one 
in  Light  street,  which  has  just  yielded  place  for  a  new  highway  in 
modern  Baltimore,  on  the  opening  and  continuation  of  German 
street,  eastwardly,  from  Charles  to  South. 

The  Reverend  Dr.  John  Carroll  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church, 
who,  in  the  early  part  of  the  Revolution  had,  with  Benjamin  Frank- 
lin, Samuel  Chase,  and  his  nephew  Charles  Carroll  of  Carrollton, 
been  employed  by  the  Congress  in  a  political  mission  to  Canada, 


was  consecrated  Bishop  in  England,  and  returned  to  America  in 
1790,  to  reside  in  Baltimore.  The  original  Catholic  Chapel  on  Sara- 
toga street,  has  been  already  mentioned.  In  1796,  a  small  ecclesias- 
tical edifice  was  built  on  Fell's  Point,  and,  eleven  years  afterwards, 
succeeded  by  St.  Patrick's,  on  the  present  Broadway.  Other  Roman 
Catholic  Churches  were  erected  as  the  demands  of  the  increasing 
population,  of  that  creed,  required ;  and,  among  them,  we  may 
especially  single  out  for  its  remarkable  beauty,  grace  and  symmetry, 
the  Chapel  of  St.  Mary,  erected  by  Maximilian  Godefroy,  for  the 
Society  of  St.  Sulpice  which  had  established  a  College  for  lay 
students,  and  a  Seminary  for  theological  studies,  on  the  extensive 
grounds  still  owned  and  occupied  by  it,  between  Paca  street  and 
Pennsylvania  avenue.  It  was  not  until  1806,  that  the  foundations 
of  the  great  Metropolitan  Church,  or  Cathedral,  were  laid  according 
to  the  designs  of  Mr.  Benjamin  H.  B.  Latrobe ;  the  completion  and 
consecration  of  which,  however,  in  1821,  Dr.  Carroll,  who  had 
become  an  Archbishop,  did  not  live  to  witness. 

The  European  governments  were  not  slow  in  perceiving  the  avidity 
with  which  "  Young  America  "  threw  herself  into  commerce,  and 
took  advantage  of  the  political  quarrels  and  wars  which  ensued  from 
the  French  revolution.  They  were  surprised,  perhaps,  to  see  that 
a  nation  of  farmers,  planters  and  traders,  could  so  quickly  transform 
itself  into  an  energetic  community  of  sailors  and  merchants.  They 
saw  that  our  peaceful  neutrality  was  rapidly  strengthening  us  in 
wealth,  material  power,  and  all  the  elements  of  national  solidity 
which  would  soon  make  the  new  a  formidable  rival  of  the  old  world, 
at  least  on  the  sea.  "While  they  quarrelled,  fought,  failed  to  produce 
the  necessaries  of  life,  and  destroyed  each  other's  fleets  and  com- 
merce, we  rested  quietly  as  observers  of  the  conflict,  both  producing 
and  carrying  for  any  belligerent  who  wished  to  buy  and  had  the 
ability  to  pay  for  his  purchases.  Each  nation,  however,  while  it 
was  willing  to  receive  from  us,  was  unwilling  that  his  enemies 
should  be  furnished;  and  hence  the  weapons  with  which  they 
assailed  our  commerce,  by  real  and  "paper"  blockades  as  well  as  by 
"  Decrees  and  Orders  in  Council."  But  these,  instead  of  alarming 
or  deterring  our  seamen  and  merchants,  stimulated  them  to  sock 
means  for  their  evasion.  They  were  brave,  bold  and  willing  to 
incur  personal  and  pecuniary  risks.  Baltimore,  however,  was  pecu- 
liarly successful  by  reasons  of  the  fleetness  of  her  craft.  The  great 
inland  navigation  of  the  Chesapeake  and  its  affluents,  had,  at  an 
early  colonial  period,  excited  the  rivalry  of  the  people  dwelling  on 

OF     BALTIMORE.  63 

our  waters  in  the  construction  of  fast  sailing  vessels.  The  model 
of  what  was,  at  that  clay,  known  as  the  "  Virginia  Pilot  Boat,"  was 
unsurpassed  elsewhere  in  America,  and  not  even  approached  in 
Europe.  The  schooners  and  brigs  built  in  this  style,  and  larger 
vessels  erected  on  the  same  principles,  and  commanded  by  expert 
and  daring  masters,  soon  became  the  sovereigns  of  the  West  Indian 
trade,  and  even  of  some  of  the  European  traffics ;  so  that,  in  the 
hands  of  intelligent  merchants,  they  were  the  instruments  of  extra- 
ordinary enterprise  and  success.  No  one  resource  contributed  so 
much  to  the  rise  of  Baltimore  as  these  "  skimmers  of  the  seas,"  and 
it  is  strange  that  their  mould  was  for  many  years,  unmatched  out- 
side of  the  Chesapeake  Bay.  The  secret  of  the  Maryland  builders 
was  in  the  construction  of  schooner- rigged  craft,  which  would  "lay 
their  course  "  within  four  or  four  and  a-half  points  of  an  adverse 
wind,  while  they  made  comparatively  little  lee-way ;  so  that,  when 
they  got  the  "  weather-gage,"  or  "  to  windward  "  of  pursuers,  it 
was  vain  for  vessels  of  any  other  construction  or  model  to  follow  or 
chase  them. 

Baltimore's  commerce  in  such  vessels  continued  with  uninter- 
rupted success  and  profit  from  the  outbreak  of  the  European  wars 
to  the  peace  of  1801.  The  great  trade  of  our  city  with  San  Domin- 
go, and  the  West  Indies  generally,  furnished  a  surplus  of  colonial 
merchandise,  which  was  not  commonly  carried  from  the  Islands  to 
Europe,  but  concentrated  here,  to  furnish,  with  our  staples,  cargoes 
for  the  various  markets  of  England  and  the  Continent.  This,  of 
course,  employed  an  increased  amount  of  shipping;  and  Baltimore 
became  the  regular  entrepot  between  Europe  and  the  West  Indies. 

Our  town,  at  this  epoch,  began  to  participate  in  the  East  Indian 
trade.  At  the  best  period  of  the  Batavian  traffic,  Baltimore  came 
in  for  a  considerable  share.  Several  ships  were  engaged  in  the  Ben- 
gal and  Coromandel  commerce ;  but  it  was  late  when  attention  was 
pointedly  directed  to  China.  The  commerce  with  Canton  from 
Baltimore  never  flourished,  as  there  was  much  difficulty  in  dispos- 
ing of  the  return  cargoes;  and,  in  this  respect,  the  Northern  States 
obtained,  and  long  held  the  advantage  over  Baltimore,  and  will 
probably  continue  to  hold  it,  until  the  direct  importations  of  San 
Francisco,  are  poured  into  our  city  by  the  shortest  line  of  railroad, 
about  the  fortieth  degree  of  northern  latitude !  But,  if  we  had  no 
quantities  of  Indian  or  Chinese  merchandise,  European  manufac- 
tures were  accumulated  in  vast  amounts  ;  indeed  Baltimore  became 
the  great  American  market  for  European  goods :  a  single  house 
paying  $300,000  import  duties,  in  one  year,  on  German  linens  alone. 


Unfortunately,  however,  this  successful  carrying  trade,  tempted  our 
merchants  to  permit  a  system  of  long  or  liberal  credits  on  sales  of 
merchandise,  creating  a  large,  and  sometimes  fictitious  paper  capital, 
which  was  again  employed  in  fresh  enterprises.  Still,  every  thing 
seemed  adding  to  the  wealth  of  the  city,  though  it  is  not  to  be  denied 
that  some  wild  speculations  and  consequent  losses  occasionally  embar- 
rassed the  prosperous  march  of  our  merchants.  According  to  the 
first  census,  taken  by  the  General  Government,  in  1790,  the  popula- 
tion of  Baltimore  town,  of  all  descriptions,  was  13,503;  while  the 
census  of  1800,  showed  it  to  be  31,5  14  ;  being  an  increase  of  18,011 ; 
in  ten  years,  demonstrating  that  the  city  had  actually  doubled  its 
numbers  in  seven  years  and  a  half  of  this  decade! 

Yet  it  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  all  these  results  were  always 
serenely  accomplished.  The  vessels  of  our  merchants,  swift  as  they 
were,  still  were  not  omnipotent ;  so  that  the  "  decree"  and  "  orders 
in  council,"  were  not  simply  political  vexations  that  could  be  evaded 
or  avoided,  but  occasional^  became  harmful  by  the  captures  and 
depredations  the}T  sanctioned,  whenever  the  foreign  cruisers  caught 
a  tardy  sailer.  Many  merchants  became  their  own  insurers,  when 
they  owned  a  craft  of  unquestionable  swiftness  ;  but  others  thought 
it  better  to  pay  the  high  premiums  demanded  for  war  risks,  though 
they  did  not  like  these  significant  sums  to  go  out  of  Baltimore  to  the 
underwriters  of  Xew  York  and  Philadelphia.  Accordingly,  Insur- 
ance Companies  were  established  here;  and,  notwithstanding  the 
large  depredations  on  our  trade,  these  domestic  institutions  paid 
enormous  dividends  to  the  stockholders.*  The  tempting  risks  of 
insurance,  with  exorbitant  premiums  in  wTar  time,  were  but  types 
of  the  temper,  into  which  the  successful  trade  we  have  described, 
betrayed  many  of  our  people.  Enterprise,  at  times,  degenerated  into 
adventure.  The  unequalled  success  of  some  encouraged  others  to 
engage  in  commerce  without  knowledge  of  its  principles  or  practical 
details.  This  created  unwise  competitions  for  certain  articles,  always 
enhancing  the  prices  and  generally  ending  in  losses,  if  not  in  the  ruin 
of  the  wilder  speculators.  Still,  this  gambling  in  merchandise,  while 
it  unsettled  markets,  often  amounted  to  nothing  more  than  a  change 
of  its  ownership, — the  loss  being  simply  that  of  the  fictitious  values 
given  to  merchandise  by  reckless  adventurers.  ITence,  the  commu- 
nity, at  large,  were  gainers,  especially  when  the  object  of  competition 
happened  to  be  a  staple  product  of  the  country  ;  for,  in  that  case,  the 

*  Baltimore  Ins.  Co.,  Maryland  Ins.  Co.,  established  1795  ;  Chesapeake,  Union 
and  Marine  Companies  in  1804  ;  Patapsco  ami  Universal  Companies  in  1813. 


farmer  or  planter,  was  generally  sure  to  realize  for  himself  the 
imaginary  value  affixed  by  the  speculator.  Very  often,  too,  the 
adventurous  losers  happened  to  be  foreigners,  with  whom  there  was 
but  little  sympathy  : — a  signal  instance  of  which  happened  in  the 
article  of  tobacco  about  the  year  1798,  when  the  exorbitant,  specu- 
lation prices  of  this  staple,  caused  such  losses,  introduced  so  many 
vile  practices  in  the  trade,  and  so  unsettled  the  values'  of  inferior 
qualities,  that  its  cultivation  was  for  a  time  abandoned,  in  favor  of 
wheat.  Xevertheless,  with  these  few  blemishes  on  its  prosperity,  the 
period  from  1793  to  the  end  of  that  century,  has  been  characterized 
to  us  by  an  experienced  merchant  of  the  olden  time,  as  the  "  zenith 
of  Baltimore's  prosperity ;"  for,  although  much  of  the  increase  of 
population,  improvement,  wealth,  and  general  prosperity,  became 
apparent  in  after  years,  yet  they  were  all  the  results  of  the  substan- 
tial benefits  of  those  seven  or  eight  years  of  opportunities  wisely 
seized  by  intelligent  enterprise. 

Xor  was  it  seafaring  success  and  European  trade  alone  that  made 
Baltimore  populous  and  rich  ; — these  gave  it  a  monopoly  of  the 
American  grain  and  tobacco  trade,  but  its  capacity  to  sell  and  deliver 
by  land,  as  well  as  its  capacity  to  produce  and  carry  by  sea,  made 
it  the  most  accessible  mart  of  foreign  merchandise  and  produced 
its  opulence.  Hence  the  extension  of  settlements  in  the  "  \Vestern 
Country,"— as  the  borders  of  the  Ohio,  and  the  intermediate  region 
were  then  called, — caused  a  great  influence  on  our  prosperity,  and  soon 
began  to  demonstrate  (as  water  demonstrates  its  natural  channels 
in  descending)  that  Baltimore  was,  and,  in  fact,  still  is  the  original 
and  natural  terminus  of  our  internal  trade,  indicated  by  the  physical 
geography  of  the  country.  Baltimore  had  alreadj^  drawn  to  herself 
not  only  the  greater  part  of  "Western  commerce,  but  also  of  the 
adjacent  states ;  insomuch  that  the  secondary  ports  on  the  Chesa- 
peake and  its  affluents,  declined  and  finally  became  tributary  to  our 

The  navigation  of  the  Mississippi  was  still  unopened,  and  steamers, 
as  yet,  were  undreamed  of.  Baltimore  approached,  nearer  than  any 
other  seaport,  to  the  Western  navigable  waters ;  while  all  the  great 
roads,  from  the  richest  countries  of  the  interior,  penetrating  Mary- 
land, Virginia,  the  Carolinas,  and  Pennsylvania,  concentrated  natu- 
rally at  this  point  as  the  nearest  outlet.  Thus  our  metropolis, 
young  as  she  was,  having  commerce  with  all  the  world,  was  able  to 
supply  every  demand  on  the  most  favorable  terms,  and  this  demand 
became  regular,  various  and  extensive. 

The  growth  of  trade  required  the  addition  of  banking  capital,  and 


accordingly  new  banks  were  incorporated.  One  of  the  principal 
modes  of  disposing  of  the  large  cargoes  of  foreign  produce — 
European  as  well  as  Colonial — was,  at  that  early  time,  necessarily, 
by  auction  ;  for  Baltimore,  of  course,  could  not  consume  its  imports, 
and  was  from  its  vast  accumulations  of  merchandise,  owing  to  its 
carrying  trade  and  facile  position  in  the  country,  really  the  great 
continental  wharf  of  the  new  Confederacy.  The  auction  houses 
were  limited  to  three  only,  operating  on  a  large  scale  in  disposing 
of  cargoes.  Most  of  the  Colonial  produce,  either  for  consumption 
or  exportation,  was  thus  sold,  and  so  even  the  East  Indian  and 
Chinese  cargoes,  as  well  as  the  assorted  importations  from  France 
and  the  Mediterranean,  especially  wine,  brandy  and  gin ;  while 
British  manufactures  were  seldom  disposed  of  except  by  private  sale. 
Thus,  the  Treaty  of  Amiens,  in  1801,  found  our  citizens  exten- 
sively and  profitable  occupied  with  commerce  all  over  the  world, 
and  it  was,  luckily,  the  short  duration  of  the  peace  that  prevented 
many  of  those  bad  results,  which  commonly  befal  enterprises  begun 
in  war,  and  winding  up  after  an  abrupt  cessation  of  hostilities. 
The  colonial  system  was,  at  once,  rigorously  enforced  by  the 
European  states,  so  that  our  vessels  were  nearly  shut  out  from  the 
West  Indian  Islands.  Accordingly,  our  redundant  shipping  remained 
unemployed,  our  seamen  idle,  and  business  grew  languid  in  compari- 
son with  the  preceding  era  of  adventurous  prosperity.  Fortunately, 
during  this  short  truce  of  arms,  a  partial  failure  of  the  grain  crops 
occurred  in  Europe,  so  that  an  opening  of  the  British  ports  introduced 
considerable  activity  into  this  branch  of  commerce,  and  relieved  our 
prolific  State.  But  the  recommencement  of  warfare  in  1803,  again, 
for  a  short  period,  cleared  the  field  for  mercantile  enterprise,  which 
was  rewarded  by  success  nearly  equal  to  the  prosperity  of  the  first 
epoch.  Our  trade,  however,  was,  perhaps,  not  as  extensive  and 
prompt  as  it  would  have  been,  had  not  much  capital  been  withdrawn 
from  active  commerce,  in  the  two  years'  interval  of  peace,  while, 
much  also  had  been  lost  or  was  locked  up  by  failures.  Vexed  and 
depredated  on  as  our  merchants  had  been,  between  1788  and  1800, 
the  resumption  of  hostilities  was  a  signal  for  fresh  molestations  by 
the  belligerents.  Neutral  commerce — which  might  then  have  been 
considered  exclusively  American  commerce — was  excluded  by  all 
the  military,  naval  and  diplomatic  machinery,  that  could  be  devised 
to  intimidate  our  enterprise,  and  thwart  our  adventurous  traders. 
Blockades  and  Orders  in  Council  by  England,  were  retaliated  on  by 
a  variety  of  prohibitory  decrees  by  France —the  scheme  growing 
into  what  was  termed  the  "■Continental  System,"  and  almost  shut- 


ting  us  out  from  all  adventures,  that  were  not  conducted  under 
every  kind  of  hazard  and  disadvantage.  Yet,  during  this  time, 
and  with  but  short  interruption  since  the  revolution  in  San 
Domingo,  a  close,  active  and  extensive  intercouse  with  that  island, 
was  carried  on  from  Baltimore,  notwithstanding  the  risks  and 
prohibitions.  Our  swift  vessels,  were  again  our  best  friends;  and 
the  merchandise  the}'  carried,  to  and  fro,  was  lucrative  on  account 
of  the  very  risks  which  attended  its  transportation.*  About  this 
time,  especially,  the  trade  was  conducted  extensively,  in  armed 
vessels  ;  and  a  great  portion  of  San  Domingo  produce — then  princi- 
pally coffee,  was  concentrated  at  Baltimore,  where  it  would  have 
become  a  vast  resource  for  the  carrying  craft  of  the  country,  had  it 
not  been  for  the  belligerent  vigilance,  which  naturally  became  more 
and  more  severe  with  the  continuance  of  the  wars.  Nevertheless, 
under  all  these  difficulties,  Baltimore  enterprise  did  not  relax.  Our 
merchants  still  had  their  swift  schooners,  and  their  daring  captains 
who  often  and  successfully  eluded  all  impediments,  until  the  vexa- 
tions became  insupportable,  producing  the  Embargo  Act  of  1808, 
as  a  retaliatory  measure  f  This  act  suspended  all  our  commerce  for 
nearly  eighteen  months  ;  but  it  had  the  salutary  effect  of  enabling 
our  merchants  to  collect  their  widely  scattered  property  from  distant 
parts  of  the  world ;  so  that  when  the  embargo  was  removed,  the 
state  of  the  continent  of  Europe  left  hardly  a  single  port  open  for 
our  trade,  which,  it  ma}'  be  supposed,  was  resumed  not  only  with 
embarrassment,  but  with  more  caution  than  before.  All  the  coasts 
of  Europe,  from  the  Elbe  to  the  Turkish  frontier,  with  the  exception 
of  the  Spanish  Peninsula,  were  effectually  blockaded  ;  so  that  we 

*  The  Exports  fiom  Maryland— nearly  all  from  Baltimore — from  October, 
1805,  to  October,  1806,  were  : 

Domestic  produce, $3,001,131 

Foreign  produce,        10,919,774 

Total, $14,580,905 

The  receipts  into  the  U.  S.  Treasury,  from  this  port  for  1800,  were  $1,224,897 
"         "  "  "  "  1807,     "        1,440,527 

\  Early  in  1807,  a  company  was  organized  in  Baltimore,  to  procure  regular 
supplies  of  Calcutta  and  Chinese  merchandise,  in  demand  among  us,  and  for  which 
we  had  hitherto  been  indebted  to  New  England  merchants.  Robert  Gihnor,  Senior, 
was  President,  and  James  A.  Buchanan,  Vice  President.  The  ships  London  Packet 
and  William  Bingham,  were  sent  out  and  returned  during  the  embargo.  The 
company,  it  is  said,  realized  a  substantial  dividend  ;  but  was  then  dissolved.  The 
receipts  from  customs  at  Baltimore,  in  1807,  was  $1,440,527,  and  from  postages 

The  assessed  valuation  of  taxable  property  in  Baltimore,  in  1808,  was  $2,522,870. 


wore  thoroughly  excluded,  except  by  special  licenses,  which  then 
began  to  be  granted,  for  "  valuable  considerations,"  by  the  French 
government.  With  these  licenses,  and  our  Clipper  craft,  Baltimore 
continued  almost  always  to  elude  the  British  cruizers  or  blockades, 
and  thus  our  commerce  with  the  interdicted  states  of  the  old  world 
became  almost  a  monopoly.  Both  outward  and  homeward  cargoes 
were  extremely  valuable ;  the  former  consisting  of  Colonial  produce 
aa  well  as  flour,  tobacco  and  cotton — which  then  bore  high  prices  on 
the  European  Continent ;  while  the  return  cargoes  of  French  fabrics, 
(then  substituted  for  those  of  England,  excluded  by  the  non-inter- 
course of  the  United  States,)  produced  much  of  the  future 
substantial  wealth  of  this  community. 

Notwithstanding  the  hazard  of  these  voyages,  the  nature  of  the 
risks  and  the  modes  of  avoiding  them  were  so  well  understood,  that 
insurances  were  effected,  either  with  the  regular  companies  or  with 
private  persons,  by  which  means  a  greater  number  of  individuals 
became  interested,  and  information  was  more  generally  diffused. 
The  business  of  "  underwriting"  became  lucrative  and  important, 
and  obtained  a  great  degree  of  reputation  for  those  who  pursued  it 
properly.  Premiums  for  these  hazardous  voyages  were,  of  course, 
high — ranging  from  25  to  35  per  cent,  for  the  single  passage — which 
the  enormous  profits  enabled  the  merchant  to  pay  with  entire  con- 

The  war  on  the  Peninsula  of  Spain  required  large  supplies  of  pro- 
visions, which,  from  the  termination  of  the  Embargo  to  the  beo-innino; 
of  our  war  with  England,  in  1811,  afforded  employment  and  relief  for 
that  part  of  our  merchant  marine  that  could  not  be  safely  engaged 
in  the  trade  we  have  been  describing.  The  flour  and  salted  provi- 
sions— staples  abundantly  supplied  by  Baltimore  in  great  perfection 
— gave  our  people  an  opportunity  to  furnish  these  necessaries  of 
life :  an  opportunity  and  benefit  which,  by  no  means,  pertained  to 
the  greater  eastern  marts  of  the  United  States. 

Such  was  our  commercial  condition  until  1811  and  even  1812; 
when  the  war  which  was  declared  against  Great  Britain  did  not,  at 
first,  much  affect  trade  as  it  was  then  situated.    The  commerce  with 

*  The  exports  of  Maryland,  principally  from  Baltimore,  of  domestic  and  foreign 
produce,  which,  in  1S07,  amounted  to  $14,308,984  fell,  in  1808,  to  $2, 721,100,  and 
rose  again,  in  1809,  to  $6,627,826.  In  March,  1800,  Congress  raised  the  embargo, 
and  trade  revived.  The  tonnage  of  that  period  (of  Baltimore)  was  102,4;)4,  and  of 
the  whole  State  148,892.  In  1810,  the  population  of  Baltimore  and  precincts  was 
46,555.  White  males,  19,01.1;  white  females,  17,147 ;  other  free  persons,  5,671  ; 
slaves,  4,672. 


France  became  rather  more  active  and  general,  while  the  British 
cruisers  did  not  molest  homeward  bound  ships  on  legal  voyages ;  nor 
did  the  British  Government  decline  to  grant  special  licenses  for  trade 
in  provisions  to  the  Peninsula.  It  was  imperative  on  her  to  feed 
plentifully  her  soldiers  in  Spain.  A  large  importation  of  British 
manufactures  took  place  at  this  conjuncture,  owing  to  some  cessation 
of  non-intercourse,  which  had  been  contingent  on  a  revocation  of 
certain  British  orders  in  council.  This  happened  to  be  a  seasonable 
supply,  when  the  country  was  very  destitute  of  that  kind  of  mer- 
chandise, and  yielded  immense  profits  to  all  concerned. 

But,  with  the  war  declared  and  active,  Baltimore,  even  in  its  first 
year,  began  already  to  feel  the  advantage  she  had  in  her  fleet  and 
superior  vessels.     The  enemy's  ships  occupied  only  the  entrance  of 
the  Chesapeake,  so  that  our  craft  navigated  the  bay  as  unmolested 
as  on  the  ocean.     Numerous  privateers  were  fitted  out,  and  soon 
came  back  successful,  making  valuable  prizes,  carrying  the  greater 
part  of  them,  unharmed,  into  ports  of  the  United  States.     Compara- 
tively, indeed,  it  may  be  asserted,  that  commerce  was  rather  relieved 
by  the  war  from  the  restraints  imposed  on  "neutrality."     Every 
enterprise   now  became  lawful,  except  direct  intercourse  with  the 
enemy.     But,  if  we  could  slip  out  to  sea  in  our  smaller  craft,  we 
were  not  allowed  to  navigate  our  larger  vessels  without  greater  risks 
than  were  justifiable.     At  the  close  of  1811,  a  blockade  of  the  Dela- 
ware and  Chesapeake  was  declared,  and  all  the  licensed  ships  return- 
ing from  the  Spanish  Peninsula  were  turned  off  from  the  entrance  of 
our  bay  to  New  York  or  some  eastern  port,  so  that,  during  the  war, 
Baltimore  was  stripped  of  her  larger  vessels.     As  the  conflict  lasted, 
the  enemy  became  more  vigilant  in  its  second  and  third  years — 
getting  entire  possession  of  our  Chesapeake — making  it  next  to  im- 
possible to  get  our  small  and  swiftest  vessels  to  sea,  and  absolutely 
impossible   to   re-enter   the   Capes   and   return  to  Baltimore.     The 
British  knew  both  our  people  and  the  capacity  of  their  craft,  and 
accordingly  aimed  to  imprison  the  Baltimoreans  within  their  own 
State,  and  reduced  them  to  obedience  by  shutting  them  hermetically 
from  the  pursuit  of  a  commerce  for  which  they  were  so  apt  and 
greedy.     Yet,  the  enemy  mistook  the  character  of  our  townsmen. 
The  irresistible  blockade  was  only  a  stimulus  of  our  forefathers'  in- 
vention.    Enterprise  was    not  abandoned.     If  they  could   not  ply 
their  trade  from  their  own  town  directly,  they  resorted   to  more 
accessible  ports,  so  that  it  may  be  now  truthfully  said  of  this  period, 
that  "  the  commerce  of  the  United  States  became  the  commerce  of 
Baltimore."     Our  people  were,  in  fact,  irrepressible  in  enterprise, 


either  in  peace  or  war;  a  characteristic  which,  without  boasting,  may 
be  attributed  to  them,  (with  few  intermissions,)  from  the  Indepen- 
dence to  the  present  day.  Mr.  Niles,  in  his  "  Register,"  asserts  that 
three-fourths  of  the  commerce  of  the  United  States  had  been  prose- 
cuted from  Baltimore  or  from  other  parts  of  the  country,  on  account 
of  Baltimore  merchants,  in  vessels  of  the  Chesapeake  construction. 

Events  took  place  about  this  time  which  had  a  marked  effect  on 
the  subsequent  commercial  interests  of  our  City.  The  first  Bank  of 
the  United  States,  established  in  1791,  had  hitherto,  with  the  banks 
in  the  chief  cities,  furnished  a  uniformly  circulating  medium,  suffi- 
cient for  all  the  legitimate  purposes  of  commerce.  But  when  the 
charter  of  the  National  Bank  expired  in  1811,  and  a  renewal  of  it 
was  refused,  a  great  number  of  local  banks  were  created  throughout 
the  United  States.  The  enemy's  early  blows  were  struck  at  the 
heart  of  the  country  ;  so  that  with  the  Chesapeake  shut,  and  Bal- 
timore and  the  secondary  ports  in  the  neighborhood  excluded  from 
the  sea,  commerce  retreated  to  Eastern  and  Southern  cities  which 
were  still  comparatively  unmolested.  So,  it  was  soon  perceived  that 
the  specie  of  the  intermediate  ports  between  the  North  and  East 
would  be  drawn  to  places  of  greater  activity,  to  the  harm  of  the 
local  banks  whence  it  was  drained,  and,  of  course,  to  the  detriment 
of  the  commerce  of  which  it  had  been  the  basis.  Recourse  was 
consequently  had  to  suspension  of  specie  payments  by  the  banks  of 
the  Middle  and  Southern  sections  of  the  Union.  It  was  a  measure 
dictated  by  necessity,  and  would  certainly  have  been  wise,  if  proper 
moderation  had  been  practiced  in  the  creation  of  fresh  supplies  of 
currency.  It  happened,  at  this  time,  too,  that  British  exchange  was 
cheap  all  over  the  mercantile  world,  and  especially  so  in  America, 
falling  as  low  as  twenty  per  cent,  under  par,  and  seldom  being  better 
than  ten  per  cent,  below  it,  This  gave,  naturally,  a  wide  margin  for 
fictitious  values  to  the  new  currency  issued  by  the  greedy  banks, 
which  felt  no  longer  the  salutary  restraint  of  specie  equivalents. 

The  wants  of  the  general  government  tor  war  purposes  constantly 
increased,  and  could  only  be  supplied  in  this  medium.  The  loans, 
if  required,  were  taken  up  by  individuals  who  were  favored  by  the 
banks ;  and  thus  the  very  exigencies  of  the  nation,  and  the  facility 
with  which  they  were  gratified,  became  the  means  of  augmenting 
the  illusory  value  of  a  currency  which  was  poured  into  the  mar- 
ket in  such  quantities  that  its  redemption  in  coin  could  only  be 
expected,  if  ever,  at  a  very  remote  period.  This  inflation  was 
aided  by  the  exorbitant  increase  of  prices  of  every  species  of  foreign 
merchandise.     Market  values  became  double  or  threefold  of  what 


they  had  been  before  the  war.  But  the  banks  made  large  dividends 
and  large  discounts;  so  that,  as  merchandise  was  constantly  changing 
hands,  the  successful  game  in  these  "counters"  was  increased  in 
amount  in  proportion  as  it  increased  in  risk.  Banks,  of  course, 
multiplied  not  only  in  the  cities,  but  in  the  country  ;  and  thus  other 
property,  besides  ordinary  merchandise,  became  swelled  in  value; 
and  in  turn,  was  assumed,  with  its  inflation,  as  the  basis  of  credits 
and  discounts.  Banks  and  the  credit  system  seemed  to  have  solved 
the  long  sought  problem  of  the  "philosopher's  stone."  Everybody 
wanted  to  be  as  wealthy  as  his  neighbor.  Loans  were  no  longer 
limited  to  merchants,  or  credit  to  commercial  men.  Farmers,  me- 
chanics, tradesmen,  every  one  who  could  borrow  on  whatever  he 
could  pledge,  rushed  frantically  into  the  arena  where  the  rest  were 
scrambling  for  riches;  and  when,  at  last,  the  "day  of  accounting" 
came,  it  is  only  surprising  that  even  a  wreck  was  left  of  what,  in 
truth,  was  little  more  than  ink  and  paper.  The  merchandise, 
which,  with  its  exaggerated  values,  had,  during  suspension,  been 
the  basis  of  credit,  was  of  course,  mostly  consumed,  so  that  the  real 
estate  and  its  improvements  were  the  chief  relics  of  this  period  of 
delusion  and  enchantment.  These,  luckily,  could  not  be  destroyed, 
though  they  might  change  hands ;  so  that,  with  whatever  still 
existed  of  substantial  material  wealth  among  the  prudent  who  had 
not  been  deluded  by  the  phantom  of  credit,  and  with  augmented 
population  and  improved  property,  Baltimore  still  possessed  her 
enterprise  and  zeal  to  enable  her  to  escape  from  the  crash  at  its 
crisis.  This  narrative  of  the  first  great  calamity  that  assailed  our 
commerce  does  not  apply  exclusively  to  the  period  of  the  war,  or  to 
our  city,  though  Baltimore  was  a  principal  focus.  It  pervaded  the 
whole  county,  for  the  whole  country  was  equally  affected  by  the 
destruction  of  the  first  Bank  of  the  United  States  and  the  creation 
of  the  unregulated  local  banks.  It  was  natural  that  such  wild  and 
visionary  principles  of  finance  and  trade  should  end  in  a  common 
distress,  which  was  not  permanently  relieved,  as  we  shall  see,  until 
several  years  after  the  peace  with  Great  Britain.  The  only  benefit, 
or  good  result  from  the  banking  of  those  days,  is  to  be  found  in  the 
facts  that,  the  United  States  Government  was  largely  indebted  to 
it,  as  we  have  said,  for  the  means  of  carrying  on  the  war  during  the 
last  two  years  of  its  duration,  and  that  the  Government's  responsi- 
bility for  its  loans  remained  as  a  source  of  security  and  future  credit 
for  the  people. 

The  trade  of  our  city,  during  the  war,  was  modified  and  other- 
wise affected ;  so  that  while  we  could  no  longer  ship  our  staples  of 


tobacco  and  flour,  the  Chesapeake  being  sealed  against  our  larger 
vessels,  an  extensive  intercourse  by  land,- — North,  South  and  "West — 
by  wagons,  took  the  place,  especially  of  the  coasting  trade,  which 
had  also  been  suspended.  Besides  this,  the  supply  of  the  American 
armies  required  large  transportation,  and  greatly  increased  consump- 
tion; and  accordingly,  there  was  no  surplus  of  provisions  left  un- 
profitably  on  our  hands.  A  modification  had  also  gradually  taken 
place  in  the  two  principal  staples  of  Maryland, — flour  and  tobacco. 
The  steadily  increasing  demands  for  the  armies  of  Europe,  had 
caused  the  price  of  wheat  in  America  to  rise  proportionably ;  nor, 
for  several  years  before  our  war  with  Great  Britain,  did  it  fall 
below  two  dollars,  and  sometimes  even  more,  per  bushel.  Tobacco, 
on  the  other  hand,  had  never  entirely  recovered  from  the  crisis  of 
1798-1799,  before  mentioned,  when  its  culture  was  so  greatly  dimin- 
ished for  that  of  wheat.  Nevertheless,  the  quantity  of  this  staple, 
accumulated  during  our  war,  was  large,  so  that  the  warehouses  of 
Baltimore  were  full,  and  the  prices  low.* 

The  reputation  of  Baltimore  for  unequalled  prosperity  and  local 
advantages,  attracted  great  attention  in  all  parts  of  the  Union  as 
soon  as  peace  was  made  in  1815,  and  commerce  resumed  its  chan- 
nels. An  influx  of  sanguine  and  enthusiastic  immigrants  imme- 
diately took  place,  and  activity  pervaded  all  classes,  and  every 
branch  of  industry.  Founding  the  hopes  of  enterprise  on  former 
success,  foreign  commerce  was  resumed  with  avidity.  Our  ship- 
ping was  collected  from  the  ports  of  the  United  States,  where  it  had 
been  dispersed  and  sheltered  during  the  war;  while  a  large  accession 
to  our  tonnage  had  been  made  by  prize-ships  captured  from  the 
British,  as  well  as  by  purchase  from  Northern  ports  of  the  Union. 
The  trade  to  China,  Batavia,  Bengal,  and  other  parts  of  Asia  was 
resumed  extensively ;  all  the  vast  accumulations  of  produce  in  the 
country  were  exported  to  suitable  markets,  and  an  equally  vast  im- 
portation of  European,  and  especially  British,  manufactures  was  of 
course  made,  in  return.  Still  unrestricted  in  their  issues,  the  banks 
granted  almost  unlimited  facilities  to  the  enterprising,  thus  creating 
"a  system  of  accommodation  by  the  interchange  of  paper  responsi- 
bilities," the  fatal  tendency  of  which  was  never  thought  of  as  long 
as  the  banks  themselves  were  not  pressed.     The  experiences  of  disas- 

*  Tlio  assessrd  value  of  property  in  Baltimore  and  its  precincts  in  1813,  was 
$4,2K0,040 ;  but  that  the  City  Assessors  of  those  clays  were  lenient  appraisers,  is 
shown  by  the  fact  that  the  valuation  of  $3,32;>,848  worth  of  the  same  property, 
lying  exclusively  in  the  city,  which  was  made,  in  pursuance  of  an  act  of  Congress, 
at  current  rates,  swelled  the  value  to  $31,270,20!)  ! 

OF     BALTIMORE.  73 

ter  had  not  yet  been  sufficiently  warning.  The  high  price  of  pro- 
visions for  the  supply  of  the  army  during  the  war,  and  the  creation 
of  a  great  number  of  country  banks,  had  heretofore  enabled  debtors 
to  pay  not  only  arrears  which  had  been  considered  desperate,  but  to 
make  fresh  and  extensive  purchases,  as  well  as  to  give  them  a  new 
credit,  which,  of  course,  they  used  to  its  full  extent.  Real  estate  went 
beyond  its  former  extravagant  prices ;  yet  the  increased  population 
could  hardly  be  accommodated ;  so  that  extensive  improvements  in 
buildings  were  made  while  rents  in  the  city  became  exorbitant.  It 
was  about  this  time  that  Baltimore  was  embellished  with  many 
public  edifices;  and  especially  (appropriate  as  the  crown  of  its 
successful  commerce)  by  the  splendid  Mercantile  Exchange,  which 
still  exists,  though,  in  our  day,  has  been  sold  to  the  United  States 
Government  for  a  Post  Office  and  Custom  House.  The  new  Court 
House,  begun  in  1805,  had  been  already  finished  in  1809,  when  the 
old  one,  that  encumbered  the  centre  of  Monument  Square,  was  taken 
down.  The  Medical  College,  on  Lombard  street,  a  part  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Maryland,  was  completed  in  1812.  In  1809  a  public  foun- 
tain was  erected  on  North  Calvert  street,  and,  in  this  year,  permission 
was  given  for  the  erection  of  "  Washington's  Monument,"  which  was 
commenced,  but  not  completed  for  many  years  after.  In  1813,  the 
first  steamboat,  called  "The  Chesapeake,"  was  put  on  the  line  from 
Baltimore  to  Philadelphia,  by  way  of  Frenchtown,  the  passengers 
crossing  thence  in  stages  to  ]STew  Castle,  on  the  Delaware.  This  was 
the  enterprise  of  the  late  General  William  McDonald  and  his  asso- 
ciates, who  owned  the  old  "Packets"  to  Frenchtown,  on  the  Elk 
river,  and  who,  at  once,  applied  the  invention  on  the  Patapsco,  which 
Fulton  had  proved,  on  the  North  river,  to  be  successful.  In  1813, 
the  Masons  laid  the  corner-stone  of  their  old  temple,  lately  abandoned 
for  the  new  one  on  North  Charles  street.  It  was  in  1811,  that  Heze- 
kiah  Niles  established  here  that  wonderful  repository  of  valuable 
information,  which  was,  for  more  than  forty  years,  continued  by  him, 
his  heirs,  and  Mr.  Jeremiah  Hughes,  in  our  city,  under  the  name  of 
"  Niles's  Register,"  and  will  forever  remain  a  storehouse  of  facts  for 
the  historians  and  politico-economists  of  America.  Social  life  had 
improved  with  all  the  vast  resources  of  luxury  and  wealth.  The 
young  men  of  the  city  were  liberally  educated  at  excellent  schools 
established  by  learned  persons  who  came  from  abroad  ;  at  St.  Mary's 
College,  established  by  Bishop  DuBoing ;  or  in  the  universities  of 
Northern  States  or  of  Virginia.  Every  leading  merchant  had  his 
villa  on  the  heights  surrounding  the  city,  as  well  as  his  dwelling  in 
the  city,  which  he  occupied  during  the  winter,  and  made  renowned 


not  only  for  its  hospitality,  but  for  the  accomplishments  of  the 
beautiful  women  who  presided  over  it.  Indeed,  everything  bore 
the  external  aspect  of  great  prosperity. 

In  the  meantime,  Europe  was  convulsed  by  the  short,  final  strug- 
gle for.  the  Empire  in  France.     This  did  not  last  long  enough  to 
have  any  material  influence  on  commerce,  except  to  leave  it  languid. 
The  European  nations,  at  the  first  pacification,  had  already  begun  to 
become  their  own  carriers ;  so  that  when  our  shipping  returned  from 
those  long  or  far  distant  voyages,  undertaken  directly  after  our  war 
with  England,  we   had    no   longer  those   exclusive   vents  for  our 
Asiatic  or  Colonial   cargoes   which   we  once   entirely  commanded. 
Almost  all  of  these  enterprises,  it  is  said,  ended  in  loss.     Men  began 
to  see  that  the  peace  of  Europe,  and  our  consequent  deprivation  of 
the   exclusive  carrying  trade,  and  all  its   profits,  would  unveil  a 
delusion  as  to  the  permanence  of  a  prosperity  that  had  bewildered 
every  one.     The  wheel  of  fortune  began  to  turn  slower.     The  banks 
anticipated  a  quicker   demand  for  the  forgotten   metals  than  was 
desirable.     The    circulating   medium,  or   "currency,"   Buffered,   in 
exchange,  from  sixteen  to  twenty  per  cent,  discount  between  Boston 
and  Baltimore.    This  loss  extended  in  various  degrees  to  the  country 
banks  in  proportion  as  they  lost  credit ;  traders  in  the  interior,  were 
constant  losers  by  the   decline  of  the  currency  around  them,  and 
consequently  were  unable  to  pay  the  wholesale  dealers,  from  whom 
they  had   bought,  except  in  the   depreciated   medium,  which   had 
diminished  in  value  since  the  date  of  their  purchases.     This  pro- 
duced great  inconvenience;   and  the   equalization  of  the  currency 
throughout  the  land  was,  of  course,  the  problem  of  the  time.     Gold 
and  silver  coin  had  nearly  disappeared  in  the  Middle  States,  or  it 
was  locked  up  by  the  few  provident  men  who  had  foreseen  disaster. 
There  was   no  danger  of  drain  of  the  precious   metals  on  foreign 
account ;   for   the  price  was   generally  too   high   in   proportion  to 
European  exchange,  especially  with  England,  whose  bills  remained 
nearly  at  par  with  our  paper  currency  as  long  as  specie  payments'  by 
the  Bank  of  England  was  suspended.     It  would,  accordingly,  have 
been  quite  safe  to  suffer  this  paper  medium  to  subsist,  under  proper 
modifications  and  provisions  for  its  gradual  reduction  or  redemption, 
as  the  national  finances  would  permit.     But,  there  were  men  who 
believed  that  the  establishment  of  a  new  National  Bank,  was  the 
panacea  lor  nil   monetary  maladies;   and,  accordingly,  the  Bank  of 
the  United  States  was  re-established   upon    the    principle    that    its 
paper,  (which  was  to  supply  the  whole  country  with  an  equalizing 
medium,) should  be  redeemable  in  gold  and  silver.     How  this  was  to 


be  done,  under  the  circumstances  of  the  country,  and  especially  of 
the  Middle  States  or  of  Baltimore,  without  a  ruinous  subversion  of 
credit  and  order,  was  a  mystery  to  those  of  our  merchants  who 
reflected  calmly,  and  perhaps  disinterestedly,  on  the  matter.  Yet, 
on  this  principle,  the  new  Bank  of  the  United  States  went  into 
operation,  and  several  millions  of  dollars  of  specie  were  'purchased 
abroad  to  stock  its  vaults  with  the  metallic  basis  of  credit.  It 
became,  of  course,  necessary  for  the  State  banks  to  prepare  likewise 
for  coin  payments ;  especially  as  orders  from  the  United  States 
Treasury  to  the  Collectors,  were  abrupt  and  positive,  forgetting 
entirely  the  relief  which  those  very  banks,  by  means  of  their  paper 
currency  alone,  had  been  able  to  afford  the  Government  in  its  utmost 
need  during  the  war  of  1812.  Neither  the  banks  nor  commerce  were 
prepared  for  so  sudden  a  curtailment  of  discounts  as  this  measure 
required,  and  devices  to  stay  disaster,  if  not  to  overcome  it,  were 
invented  in  all  quarters  with  more  or  less  success,  frequently  with 
positive  ruin.  Institutions  and  individuals  pressed  each  other ; 
there  was  a  scramble  for  gold  and  silver ;  and,  for  the  most  part, 
whatever  of  private  credit  remained,  was  employed  in  hazardous 
enterprises  for  the  purpose  of  raising  money  for  the  moment. 

The  facilities  offered  by  the  Bank  of  the  United  States  for  sub- 
scribing to  its  stock,  and  paying  by  instalments,  in  the  very  money  of 
the  bank  itself,  induced  many  men,  who  had  influence  in  procuring 
facilities,  to  embark  deeply  in  the  venture,  believing  doubtless  in  its 
rapid  rise  in  value.*  In  reality,  and  quite  naturally,  the  stock 
advanced  in  price ;  and  the  delusion  of  successful  adventure,  tempted 
the  adventurers  still  deeper  in  the  game.  Bat  the  gold-phantom — 
borrowed  from  abroad — soon  fled  back  from  the  American  to  its 
European  vaults !  The  borrowing  Bank  of  the  United  States 
speedily  began  to  feel  the  same  malady  that  affected  the  community 
and  other  banks.  It  had  to  press  its  debtors ;  the  value  of  its  stock 
became  diminished ;  things  went  back  faster  than  forward  ;  the 
administration  of  the  institution  became  unpopular ;  no  sympathy 
was  felt  for  its  embarrassments  ;  a  harsh  investigation  probed  its 
situation  and  prostrated  its  credit ;  so  that  in  a  short  time  the  stock 
fell  from  125  to  90  per  cent.,  which  was  an  immediate  loss  to  the 

*  Subscriptions  to  the  new  Bank  of  the  United  States  were  opened  for  a  capital  of 
$28,000,000;  $4,014,100  of  which  were  subscribed  here,  in  the  name  of  15,610 
persons,  principals  and  proxies.  A  branch  was  opened  in  Baltimore  in  1817 ; 
James  A.  Buchanan,  President,  and  James  W.  McCulloh,  Cashier  ;  upon  which,  the 
banks  generally  resumed  the  specie  payments  which  had  been  stopped  for  several 


mass  of  stockholders  of  upwards  of  twelve  millions.  It  sealed 
the  fate  of  many  who  had  made  a  desperate  grasp  in  this  wheel  of 
fortune :  and,  with  their  fate,  Baltimore  was  most  sensibly  linked 
and  affected  in  1818  and  1819.  Many  of  our  citizens  had  incau- 
tiously»adventured  the  principal  part  of  their  means  in  this  vaunted, 
but  ill-contrived,  and  ill-managed  institution ;  so  that  the  city  met 
a  severe  loss  in  the  reverses  of  its  people.  They  were  prostrated  by 
the  blow  ;  and  it  is  from  this  period  that  the  falling  off  in  the  pros- 
perity of  Baltimore  may  fairly  be  dated.  There  was,  indeed,  no  real 
want  of  sound  capital  or  just  credit,  but  the  foundations  of  confi- 
dence and  faith  between  men — that  essence  of  real  commerce — 
seemed  to  have  been  totally  destroyed.  Taught  severe  lessons  by 
excessive  enterprise,  which,  by  surprising  success,  had  often  degen- 
erated into  over-trading  if  not  speculation,  men  grew  wary ;  and 
they  who  escaped  the  storm  were  terrified  and  became  timid.  The 
exuberance  of  a  commercial  spirit  that  had,  in  twenty  years,  built 
up  a  metropolis  with  a  rapidity  unequalled  in  the  annals  of  the 
whole  world,  was  due,  not  only  to  the  superior  central  situation  of 
Baltimore,  but  to  the  fact  that  "among  the  inhabitants  by  whom 
the  business  of  the  city  was  transacted,  scarcely  one  was  a  native. 
They  had  come  together  from  various  quarters  of  the  world,  from 
England,  Scotland,  Ireland,  Germany ,KHolland,  New  England,  and 
the  Middle  and  Southern  States.  Each  emigrant  had  his  personal 
motives ;  but  it  was  the  spirit  of  enterprise  that  brought  him  here, 
and  without  it  he  would  have  staid  at  home."  Baltimore,  in  the 
founding  of  the  nation,  was  a  national  ^geographico-commercial 
and  trading  focus  of  concentration  ;  and  it  would  be  well  for  us  and 
our  friends  everywhere  to  recur  to  these  facts  oftener  than  we 
do,  when  appalled,  and  in  some  degree  paralyzed,  by  the  efforts 
of  rival  cities  or  rival  states.  Enterprise  and  aggregation  from 
abroad,  uniting  fresh  blood  and  fresh  spirit  in  the  employment  of 
capital,  were  the  predominant  characteristics  of  the  men  who 
thronged  to  Baltimore  immediately  after  the  Revolutionary  War ; 
and  who,  uniting  and  inter-communicating  their  knowledge  of  the 
markets  and  commercial  proceedings  of  the  countries  whence  they 
emigrated,  gave  that  wonderful  and  long-continued  impulse  to 
business,  which  was  only  injured  by  its  unwise  excess.  This  une- 
qualled prosperity,  with  the  few  drawbacks  we  have  noticed,  lasted 
until  1815.*     From  that  time,  the  temper  of  our  people  and  the 

*Tlic  arrivals  hero  from  sea  in  1816  were  07  foreign  and  436  American  vessels  ;  the 
tonnage,  registered  and  licensed,  was  104,960  tons.  In  this  year  the  Gas  Company 
erected  its  works,  and  was  the  lust  in  the  country  to  give  a  general  city  supply. 

OF     BALTIMORE.  77 

former  nature  of  their  trade,  were  unsuited  for  the  altered  condition 
of  Europe  on  the  cessation  of  the  wars  that  had  deluged  it  with 
blood  for  twenty-five  years.  The  conditions  of  foreign  peace  had  not 
been  anticipated:  the  future  had  not  been  guarded  against;  we  had 
lived  and  believed  too  much  in  the  present  and  actual  alone ;  so  it 
was  well  said  by  a  resident  of  those  days,  that  "the  very  enterprise, 
which  in  other  times  wrought  so  much  for  public  and  private  good, 
now  opened  a  broad  road  to  ruin  and  disaster." 

Nevertheless,  during  the  period  we  have  been  describing,  there 
were  important  fluctuations  in  the  principal  staple  commodities  of 
the  United  States,  creating  great  commercial  activity,  and  often  em- 
ploying advantageously  large  amounts  of  capital  and  shipping. 

After  the  convulsions  of  Europe  subsided,  the  manufactories  of 
the  Old  World  recmired  a  prompt  and  increased  supply  of  our  raw 
staples.  Cotton  was  the  first  product  of  America  that  felt  the 
influence  of  this  fresh  demand,  so  that  shipments  directly  after  the 
war  yielded  large  profits,  while  the  home  prices  rose,  correspond- 
ingly, to  a  figure  that  had  never  been  reached  before.  The  price  of 
"  upland  cottons  of  Louisiana"  was  from  thirty-three  to  thirty-five 
cents  per  pound,  and  those  of  South  Carolina  (then  not  so  much 
valued  as  the  cottons  of  Louisiana)  were  nearly  as  high  in  the  market. 
As  this  continued  for  two  seasons,  the  greater  part  of  two  crops  was 
sold  at  these  extraordinary  rates:  but,  at  the  close  of  1817,  the 
prices  suddenly  fell  with  the  demand  in  Europe,  so  that  as  much, 
if  not  more,  money  than  was  gained,  is  said  to  have  been  lost  by 
the  speculators.  Although  this  is  not  a  staple  of  our  State,  still 
Ualtimoreans,  whose  vigor  and  capital  had  not  been  exhausted,  par- 
took largely  in  the  trade,  and  doubtless  suffered  in  a  corresponding 

"While  war  lasted  for  so  many  years  in  Europe,  the  Continent  had 
almost  abandoned  the  use  of  Maryland  tobacco,  finding  substitutes 
for  the  soothing  weed  so  much  cherished  by  the  soldiers  of  later  days. 
This,  of  course,  reduced  the  cultivation;  and  a  reduced  cultivation, 
naturally  contributed  to  a  reduction  of  consumption.  Accordingly, 
the  first  shipments  of  our  formerly  lucrative  staple,  found  indifferent 
encouragement  from  foreign  merchants.  Nevertheless,  the  taste  for 
the  article  had  only  been  dormant.  The  appetite  for  it  returned  with 
the  new  temptation ;  and  when  the  factories  and  manufactures  were 
re-established  after  peace,  and  labor  began  to  be  recompensed  once 
more,  the  demand  was  at  once  restored.  Competition  soon  became 
great ;  and  the  European  prices  rising  even  higher  than  the  prices  of 
cotton  had  done,  there  was  consecmently  a  simultaneous  increase  of 


rates  on  this  side  of  the  Atlantic,  which  were  maintained,  with  occa- 
sional fluctuations,  for  several  years.  It  certainly  revived  the  culti- 
vation of  tobacco  in  Maryland,  so  that  yearly  crops  which,  at  the 
close  of  the  war,  hardly  exceeded  10,000  hogsheads,  rose  progres- 
sively to  15,000, 16,000, 20,000,  and  30,000.  Baltimore  became  almost 
exclusively  the  market  for  this  State ;  large  warehouses  being,  as  we 
have  seen,  built  for  inspection,  storage,  and  convenience  of  sale.  The 
article  seldom  passed,  at  that  time,  directly  from  the  planter  to  the 
exporter,  but  was  commonly  purchased  by  local  speculators,  who  at- 
tended at  the  inspection  houses  ;  and  no  commodity  required  more 
intimate  knowledge  of  qualities,  or  a  closer  attention  to  the  smaller 
peculiarities  of  its  trade.  It  was  not,  therefore,  surprising  that  it 
proved  ruinous  to  adventurers  who  were  neither  perfect  judges  of 
the  article,  nor  strictly  attentive  to  every  particular,  so  as  to  guard 
against  imposition  in  a  commodity  which  then  varied  from  two 
dollars  and  a  half  to  twenty  dollars  per  hundred.* 

A  failure  of  grain  crops  in  England  opened  the  British  ports  to 
our  flour  in  1817,  1818,  and  1819 ;  and  kept  the  staple  at  what  then 
were  high  prices, — eight  to  ten  dollars,  and  sometimes  upwards, — 
employing  our  larger  tonnage  in  the  transportation  of  the  needed 
breadstuff's.  As  colonial  restrictions  at  that  time,  excluded  our 
shipping  from  the  West  Indies,  and  as  countervailing  laws  prevented 
them  from  furnishing  their  colonies,  in  their  own  vessels,  directly 
from  the  United  States,  a  great  part  of  the  supply  was  forced  to 
reach  the  colonies  by  way  of  England ;  and  thus  the  new  as  well  as 
the  old  world  demanded  our  fleet  carriers  for  their  necessaries  of  life. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  such  frequent  and  unexampled  conjunc- 
tures in  trade,  commerce,  war  and  opportunity,  as  we  have  been 
describing  in  the  growth  of  Baltimore,  and  especially  in  the  disposal 
of  its  staples,  must  have  been  of  vast  benefit  to  us  and  the  country 
at  large  by  the  accession  they  brought  to  local  and  national  wealth. 
Though  money  was  lost,  it  was  lost  to  individuals,  not  to  the  com- 
monwealth. Speculation  changed  ownership  of  capital,  but  did  not 
destroy  it.  Hence  it  would  be  wrong  to  infer  that  the  commercial 
community  partook  exclusively  of  the  benefit.  Indeed,  the  experi- 
enced merchants  declared  that  almost  all  the  benefits  of  commerce  in 

*  The  gross  revenue  of  the  Government  accruing  here  in  1815  from  customs  was 
$4,200,500,  including  *2S,l<i2  from  tonnage.  The  tonnage  of  the  District  is  stated 
to  have  heen  107,  l;37.  The  Post-office  revenue  for  the  same  period  in  Baltimore  was 
$58,885.  Postage  received  here  by  the  United  States  Government,  $51,410.  The 
Maryland  tobacco  crop  of  1818  was  32,2;34  hogsheads  ;  13,377  of  which  wero 
shipped  from  this  port,  and  from  Georgetown  8,715  ;  and  some  from  other  places. 


the  staple  productions  enriched  the  agriculturist  only,  the  share  of 
the  merchant  being  mainly  and  generally  in  the  carrying  of  the 
articles  to  their  ultimate  markets ;  in  fact,  that  the  merchant  was 
but  little  more  than  the  medium  by  which  the  cultivator  realized, 
without  personal  hazard,  the  benefits  of  foreign  markets,  to  whose 
risks  and  fluctuations  the  merchant  was  continually  exposed. 

"We  have  alluded  to  the  introduction  of  steamboats  on  the  Pa- 
tapsco:  their  introduction  on  the  Western  rivers,  also,  about  this 
epoch,  gradually  effected  a  change  in  the  intercourse  between  the 
Western  and  Atlantic  States.  Baltimore,  being  the  commercial 
mart,  as  we  have  shown,  nearest  by  land  to  the  then  Western  navi- 
gable waters,  was  the  principal  source  of  supply  of  most  of  the 
"Western  and  of  all  Southwestern  States.  To  them  we  sent  all  the 
heavier  kinds  of  merchandise,  and  all  those  colonial  supplies  known 
in  trade  under  the  generic  name  of  "groceries."  These  branches  of 
traffic  opened  others  of  lesser  but  still  important  value  to  our  citi- 
zens. But,  when  steam  became  the  motive  power  on  the  Ohio,  the 
Mississippi,  and  their  affluents,  the  people  west  of  the  Alleghanies 
be^an  no  longer  to  look  for  the  slow  "  Conestosra  wagons"  that 
brought  their  commodities  over  the  old  "  Braddock's  road"  or  modern 
turnpikes  to  Pittsburgh ;  or  by  the  other  well-known  early  routes 
southwestwardly  through  Virginia.  Their  intercourse,  though  cir- 
cuitous, was  less  toilsome  and  more  continuous  and  cheaper  by  water 
than  by  land.  New  Orleans  became  the  "El  Dorado"  of  the  West; 
and  to  that  new  city  they  directed  their  attention  as  their  future 
great  mart  of  exchange  and  supply.  Baltimore,  of  course,  felt  this 
commercial  change  more  sensibly  than  any  of  her  neighbors.  The 
opening  of  the  navigation  of  the  Mississippi  was  a  heavy  blow  to  her 
trade.  Her  customers  not  only  diminished  in  numbers,  but  many  of 
them  tempted  by  a  new  market,  became  delinquent  to  the  old.  Nor 
was  this  change  effected  by  the  Western  steamers  alone.  The  facili- 
ties of  traveling,  as  well  as  of  transporting,  had  increased  even  more 
rapidly  by  their  introduction  on  the  Eastern  rivers.  Philadelphia 
and  New  York  became  accessible  to  the  Western  merchants  without 
the  old-fashioned  delays  and  hazard  of  broken  bones  in  the  stage 
coaches,  which  had  induced  the  men  of  1805  and  1810  to  make 
their  wills  before  they  ventured  to  cross  the  Susquehanna,  Dela- 
ware, or  Raritan,  on  Northern  journeys.  In  fact,  the  Western 
trader  had  two  or  more  new  Eastern  markets  bidding  for  and  tempt- 
ing him  as  a  purchaser,  and  he  discovered  that  he  could  get  his  mer- 
chandise transported  by  sea  and  river  from  New  York,  on  cheaper 
terms  than  formerly,  by  land,  from   Baltimore.     New  York,  also, 


generally  offered  a  better  market  for  such  Southwestern  produce 
as  was  not  sold  at  New  Orleans  ;  and  thus,  steam  first  began  to 
outflank  our  city,  both  North  and  South,  in  its  contest  for  that 
"Western  continental  commerce  which  its  geographical  position 
originally  gave  it,  and  to  which  its  geographical  position — and 
steam  again — must  ultimately  bring  it  back.  New  York  soon  com- 
menced her  canals,  to  compete  with  the  Mississippi,  by  tapping 
the  headwaters  of  the  "Western  rivers.  It  will  be  seen  that,  in  a 
few  years,  warned  by  these  enterprises,  Baltimore  lost  confidence 
in  turnpikes  over  mountains,  (whether  national  roads  or  private 
speculations,)  and  commenced  teaching  the  world  how  to  make 
railways,  by  originating  that  great  first  link  of  the  westward 
chain,  which,  lying  between  the  Baltimore  and  the  Ohio  river, 
must  finally  bind  our  city  and  San  Francisco. 

In  the  meanwhile,  the  revolutions  in  South  America  against  the 
power  of  Spain,  opened  a  commerce  to  foreign  nations  that  had  been 
altogether  closed  to  them  by  Spanish  policy.  It  opened  a  new  as 
well  as  a  rich,  though  somewhat  perilous  trade,  which  our  citizens 
were  not  slow  in  availing  themselves  of.  Whenever  our  vessels 
were  not  excluded  from  within  the  South  American  ports,  they  were 
sure  to  find  their  way  through  the  external  difficulties.  The  Rio 
de  la  Plata,  the  coasts  of  Venezuela  and  New  Grenada,  or  what  is 
commonly  called  the  "  Spanish  Main,"  were  the  principal  scenes  of 
our  activity.  Provisions,  mainly,  constituted  the  cargoes  until  the 
emigation  of  the  Portuguese  Court  to  Brazil,  when,  under  the 
influence  of  new  habits  of  consumption,  a  fresh  and  great  market 
was  opened  for  our  flour.  The  coasts  of  Chili  and  Peru  were 
successively  frequented  by  our  trade  in  food  as  well  as  domestic 
and  foreign  fabrics ;  and  taught  new  tastes  by  the  revelation  of 
modern  civilization  through  liberation  from  Spanish  thraldom. 
All  these  countries  have,  at  various  times  been,  since  then,  tribu- 
taries to  our  trade  and  incentives  to  our  enterprise.  Our  fleet 
schooners  were  some  of  the  first  to  penetrate  the  western  as  well 
as  the  eastern  empires  of  Spain,  profiting  by  the  accumulations  of 
silver  and  gold  which  the  people  had  managed  to  hoard.  Our 
privatecrsmen  even  did  not  hesitate  to  employ  their  "  clipper" 
craft,  and  to  hold  commissions  under  the  insurgent  governments  ; 
nor  did  they  fail  in  making  rich  captures  in  their  cruises  along 
the  coasts.  Among  the  provinces  of  old  Spain,  Mexico,  alone, 
wanted  few  or  none  of  our  staples,  but  its  people  were  rich,  (in 
spite  of  the  Spanish  emigration  with  all  its  wealth,)  and  were 
eagerly  tempted   by  the  new-fashioned  European  productions  and 

OF     BALTIMORE.  81 

manufactures  with  which  they  were  now  first  made  acquainted. 
Our  proximity  enahled  us  to  take  immediate  advantage  of  the 
Mexican  revolution,  under  all  the  difficulties  of  dangerous  navisra- 
tion,  of  want  of  safe  and  accessible  harbors,  and  of  the  exactions 
at  Vera  Cruz  by  the  Spanish  forces  commanding  the  fortress  of 
San  Juan  d'Ulloa.  Baltimore  shared,  perhaps  equally  with  Phila- 
delphia, in  the  trade  with  Mexico,  and  enjoyed  an  ample,  if  not 
preponderating  proportion  of  the  commerce  of  the  whole  continent 
of  South  America. 

We  considered  it  best  to  sketch  continuously  the  history  of  Balti- 
more's chief  commercial  prosperity  during  the  forty  years  following 
the  first  peace  with  England,  comprising  the  periods  of  the  great 
Napoleonic  wars  in  Europe  and  of  our  second  war  with  Great 

That  war,  it  is  well  known,  was  not  at  first  yielded  to  with 
universal  assent  by  the  people  of  the  United  States.  It  was  opposed 
in  different  parts  of  the  country,  and  from  diverse  motives,  some 
of  which  were  commercial  and  some  political.  A  meeting  of  citi- 
zens of  Baltimore  belonging  to  the  Democratic,  party  of  that  day, 
was  called  ;  and  on  assembling  in  great  numbers,  a  large  committee 
offered  the  Government  of  the  United  States  a  pledge  of  support  in 
case  of  war  with  England  or  France,  or  with  both.  On  the  18th 
of  June,  1812,  the  war  against  England  was  declared,  and  on  the 
20th  a  vast  collection  of  people,  professing  to  be  offended  by  the 
opposition  to  the  war  made  by  the  "  Federal "  party  and  its  news- 
paper organs,  attacked  and  demolished  the  office,  the  presses,  and 
the  types  of  the  "  Federal  Republican,"  at  the  northwest  corner  of 
Gay  and  Second  streets.  A  week  afterwards,  one  of  the  editors  of 
that  paper,  Mr.  A.  C.  Hanson  and  several  friends,  having  printed 
their  gazette  in  Georgetown,  brought  the  issue  to  Baltimore  and 
distributed  it  from  the  dwelling,  in  South  Charles  street,  of  Mr. 
Jacob  Wagner,  who  was  the  other  editor  of  the  "  Federal  Republi- 
can." They  were  prepared  and  proposed  to  defend  themselves  and 
their  house.  In  the  evening  an  affray  occurred  ;  but  after  killing 
one  person  and  wounding  others,  among  the  assailants,  one  or  two 
mortally,  the  house  on  South  Charles  street  was  surrendered  by  its 
defenders  to  the  city  authorities,  while  the  editors  and  their  friends 
to  the  number  of  twenty-two,  were  in  the  morning  conducted,  under 
a  guard  of  militia  and  city  officials,  for  safety,  to  the  jail  ;  where, 
on  the  following  night,  the  imprisoned  gentlemen  were  again 
assailed  by  the  mob,  and  torn  from  the  violated  prison.     The  refu- 


gees,  generally,  were  beaten  and  wounded,  while  Genl.  Lingan,  of 
Georgetown,  was  killed,  and  Mr.  Thompson  tarred  and  feathered, 
carted  to  Fell's  Point  amid  the  jeers  of  the  crowd,  and  otherwise 
treated  with  shocking  cruelty.  The  mob  seems  to  have  had  its 
sway,  for  many  peaceful  and  influential  citizens  were  either  timid 
and  shunned  the  scene  of  contention,  or  were  absent  in  the  country 
or  at  watering  places.  The  rioters,  by  help  of  darkness  and  some 
artifice,  eluded  whatever  efforts  were  made  to  restrain  them,  and 
supposing  themselves  masters  of  the  city,  proceeded  to  hunt  out  and 
expel  all  who  were  distasteful  to  them.  But,  at  last,  threatening  to 
break  open  the  post  office,  where  the  offensive  paper  had  been  sent 
for  distribution  by  mail,  they  were  finally  dispersed,  and  tranquillity 
restored  to  the  city,  by  the  imposing  force  whose  earlier  employment 
would  have  saved  so  much  outrage  and  slaughter.  The  times  were 
turbulent  and  bitter,  and  the  political  animosities  rankled  deeply. 
Presentments  were  found  by  the  Grand  Jury  against  many  indi- 
viduals of  both  parties,  but  all  were  acquitted  and  discharged,  the 
Federal  defenders  of  Wagner's  house  in  Charles  street,  electing  to 
be  tried  at  Annapolis,  doubtless  distrusting  the  impartiality  of  their 
fellow-citizens  of  Baltimore. 

The  sentiment  here,  however,  was  doubtless  patriotic  in  the  ma- 
jority of  citizens ;  and  the  continuance  of  the  war,  especially  with 
the  impediments  it  threw  in  the  way  of  Baltimore's  progress  by  the 
close  blockade  of  the  Chesapeake  Bay,  served  ultimately  to  unite 
our  people  in  that  "era  of  good  feeling"  which  we  remember  in  our 
youth,  to  have  prevailed  politically  throughout  the  country.  Several 
citizens  took  commissions  in  the  regular  army.  Among  these  were 
General  William  H.  Winder,  George  E.  Mitchell,  Colonel  Hindman, 
Stephen  W.  Presstman,  Frank  Belton,  R.  C.  Nicholas,  and  that 
heroic  Marylander,  Nathan  Towson,  who  died  in  the  service  long 
afterwards,  and,  as  chief,  made  that  organization  of  the  Pay  Depart- 
ment of  our  Army,  which  proved  so  efficient  in  the  late  war. 
Stephen  H.  Moore,  long  known  among  us,  marched  as  Captain,  at 
the  head  of  a  company  of  volunteers,  to  the  Canadian  frontier. 
Captains  Barney,  Boyle,  Stafford,  Leveley,  Richardson,  Wilson  and 
Miller,  fitted  out  privateers ;  and  in  1813,  when  Admiral  Warren 
entered  the  Chesapeake  with  the  British  Squadron,  it  was  no  longer 
thought  proper  to  await  the  preparations  which  might  be  made  by 
the  General  Government,  but  that  Baltimore  itself  should  under- 
take its  defence.  Accordingly,  a  Committee  of  Supply,  consisting 
of  Messieurs  Mosher,  Luke  Tiernan,  Henry  Pay  son,  John  C.  White, 
James  A.  Buchanan,  Samuel  Sterrett  and  Thorndick  Chase  was  ap- 

OF     BALTIMORE.  83 

pointed  and  authorized  to  spend  twenty  thousand  dollars  in  guard- 
ing our  city.  This  sum  was  soon  found  to  be  insufficient.  A  meeting 
of  the  citzens  was  therefore  called  in  their  wards  and  precincts,  and 
forty  gentlemen  selected,  who  advised  a  loan  not  exceeding  half  a  mil- 
lion of  dollars,  and  an  addition  to  the  Committee  of  Supply  of  Colonel 
John  Eager  Howard,  George  Warner,  John  Kelso,  Robert  Gilmor, 
Christopher  Deshon,  William  Patterson  and  Mr.  Burke.  Commo- 
dore Barney  was  appointed  to  command  a  flotilla,  and  was  joined 
by  Solomon  Rutter,  R.  M.  Hamilton,  T.  Dukehart,  and  others,  who 
fitted  out  the  little  squadron  of  13  barges  and  the  schooner  Scorpion, 
and  about  500  men  early  the  next  spring,  and  proceeded  down  the 
bay  to  watch  and  harass  the  enemy. 

In  April,  1813,  General  Pike  took  York,  on  Lake  Ontario,  but 
lost  his  life  ;  Lieutenant  Xicholson  also  fell,  and  Captain  Moore  was 
desperately  wounded  by  the  explosion  of  the  enemy's  works.  In 
June,  a  nigbt  attack  on  Generals  Winder  and  Chandler,  at  Stony 
Creek,  in  Canada,  was  successfully  repulsed;  yet  both  of  our  gene- 
rals were  taken  prisoners.  In  this  action,  Towson,  Hindman 
and  Xicholas  distinguished  themselves  conspicuously  and  were  pro- 

In  July,  1814,  the  battles  of  Chippewa  and  Bridgewater  were 
fought,  also  in  Canada  ;  and  there  again,  Colonels  Towson  and  Hind- 
man  contributed  essentially  to  the  success  of  our  arms,  and,  after- 
wards, defended  the  long  besieged  Fort  Erie  whilst  possessed  by  us. 
General  Winder  being  exchanged,  was  appointed  Commanding  Offi- 
cer of  this  district,  and  made  preparation  to  defend  his  native  State. 
That  veteran  of  the  Revolutionary  War,  General  Samuel  Smith, 
took  the  lead  in  organization  and  command.  Towards  the  middle 
of  August,  it  was  ascertained  that  Admiral  Cochran's  fleet  had 
entered  the  bay  with  the  army  commanded  by  General  Ross,  intend- 
ing doubtless  to  strike  a  blow  at  the  National  Capital  and  at  Balti- 
more, and  thus  to  hold  the  central  parts  of  the  Union.  The  landing  of 
the  British  forces  took  place,  and  their  march  towards  Washington 
began.  The  militia  that  had  been  ordered  to  hold  itself  ready,  was 
directed  to  proceed  in  that  direction.  General  Tobias  Stansbury,  with 
the  11th  Brigade  of  County  Militia,  inarched  towards  the  District  of 
Columbia,  including  in  his  command  the  5th  Regiment  of  Baltimore 
Volunteers  under  Colonel  Joseph  Sterrett ;  a  Battalion  of  Riflemen 
under  Major  William  Pinkney ;  and  two  companies  of  Artillery, 
commanded  by  Captains  Magruder  and  Myers.  But  our  efforts  were 
not  successful.  The  American  troops  assembled  at  Bladensburg 
under  General  Winder,  were  overpowered  by  the  British,  who  pro- 


ceeded  at  once  to  Washington,  burnt  the  public  buildings  and  prop- 
erty, and  returned  triumphant  to  their  shipping  in  the  Patuxent 
river.  Our  valiant  little  band,  sadly  battered  and  diminished,  re- 
turned to  Baltimore,  in  anticipation,  of  course,  of  an  attack  on  the 
city.  The  corporation  was  aided  by  a  Committee  of  Vigilance  and 
Defence.  Light  entrenchments  were  hastily  thrown  up  on  the  north- 
eastern side  of  the  town  on  "  Hampstead  Hill ;"  a  redoubt  or  small 
additional  fort  was  placed  on  the  south ;  several  large  vessels  were 
sunk  at  the  entrance  of  the  harbor  betwixt  Fort  McHenry  and  the 
Lazaretto ;  the  banks  suspended  specie  payments  ;  and  much  valu- 
able property  was  taken  by  the  numerous  families  that  fled  to  the 
interior  for  protection.  General  Samuel  Smith  was  conspicuous  for 
his  services  during  this  hasty  arming  for  the  defence  of  the  city 
which  should  long  since  have  had  the  care  of  the  Government. 
Every  body,  white  and  colored,  worked  on  the  entrenchments.  From 
the  city  itself,  volunteers  poured  forth  for  all  the  military  organiza- 
tions. There  were  detachments,  also,  of  Virginia  militia  and  volun- 
teers, with  Commodores  Rodgers  and  Perry,  and  Captain  Spence  of 
the  Navy,  together  with  a  few  dragoons,  regulars  and  seamen,  under 
General  Winder  ;  a  company  of  volunteers  from  Hagerstown,  Mary- 
land, and  three  others  from  York,  Hanover  and  Lancaster,  Pennsyl- 

On  the  11th  September,  1814,  the  British  squadron  appeared  off 
North  Point,  and  landed  General  Ross's  forces,  while  the  fleet  pro- 
ceeded further  up  the  river  to  bombard  Fort  McHenry.  The  two 
attacks,  by  land  and  water,  were  however  successfully  repulsed  by 
the  militia  and  volunteers  at  the  battle  of  North  Point,  under 
General  Strieker,  and  the  regulars  and  volunteer  artillery  at  Fortr 
McIIenry  under  Major  Armistead  ;  so  that  the  squadron  abandoned 
its  fire  and  on  the  14th  proceeded  down  the  river,  to  re-embark 
the  retreated  land  forces  which  had  lost  their  Commander-in-Chief, 
General  Ross. 

The  rapid  and  successful  defence  of  Baltimore, — due  to  Smith, 
Strieker,  Armistead,  and  the  brave  officers,  militia  men,  and  volun- 
teer citizens  who  obeyed  their  orders  in  the  field  and  in  the  entrench- 
ments,— was  not  without  fatal  results  to  several  of  our  worthiest 
citizens,  who  fell  either  in  the  field  or  in  the  fort,  while  others,  who 
escaped  with  their  lives,  bore  honorable  wounds  and  maimed  limbs, 
as  tokens  of  their  patriotic  self-sacrifice.  But  their  memory  is  indel- 
ibly recorded  for  posterity's  example.  On  the  anniversary  of  the 
Battle,  in  the  following  year,  the  foundation  stone  was  laid  of  the 
superb  monument  which  bears  their  names,  in  letters  of  imperishable 

OF     BALTIMORE.  85 

brass,  and  which  was  completed  by  the  general  and  voluntary  sub- 
scription of  their  grateful  fellow  citizens.* 

The  battle  of  New  Orleans  had  been  fought  and  gained  by  our 
troops  under  General  Jackson,  on  the  8th  of  January,  1815,  and  on 
the  17th  of  the  next  month,  a  treaty  of  Peace  with  Great  Britain 
was  ratified,  and  next  day  promulgated.  The  news  of  the  victory  at 
New  Orleans,  as  well  as  of  the  treaty,  was  received  in  Baltimore  with 
joy,  by  men  of  all  parties  ;  the  houses  of  our  citizens  were  brilliantly 
illuminated,  and  every  one  assented  to  the  "  Thanksgiving  for  the 
restoration  of  Peace,"  which  was  ordered  by  the  General  Govern- 

~No  notice  of  the  war  of  1812  would  be  complete,  especially  one 
that  recounted  the  part  borne  by  Baltimore  in  the  conflict  with 
England,  without  mention  of  the  remarkable  services  rendered  by 
our  seamen  and  captains,  in  the  craft  for  which  our  bay  and  city 
were  celebrated.  What  they  had  been  in  peace,  they  continued  to 
be  in  war — the  "skimmers  of  the  sea;" — save  that  instead  of  bear- 
ing with  their  swift  wings  the  merchandise  of  friendly  commerce, 
they  carried  the  weapons  that  destroyed  the  merchandise  of  our 
enemy.  Congress  authorized  the  President  to  "  issue,  to  private- 
armed  vessels  of  the  United  States,  commissions,  or  letters  of 
marque  and  reprisal,"  in  such  manner  as  he  should  think  proper. 
Baltimore  soon  availed  herself  of  these  commissions,  for  her  fleet 
brigs,  schooners,  and  pilot  boats ;  and,  indeed,  most  of  the  future 
"privateering"  was  carried  on  in  vessels  built  either  here  or  in  this 
vicinity.  Usually  manned  with  fifty  seamen,  besides  officers ;  carry- 
ing from  six  to  ten  guns,  with  a  "  Long  Tom,"  on  a  swivel,  in  the 
centre  of  the  craft ;  armed,  besides,  with  muskets,  cutlasses,  and 
boarding-pikes;  they  were  directed  to  "capture,  burn,  sink,  or  de- 
stroy," the  property  of  an  enemy,  wherever  it  might  be  found,  either 
on  the  high  seas  or  in  British  ports.  The  first  prize,  after  the 
declaration  of  war,  was  sent  into  Baltimore  by  the  Dolphin,  Captain 
Stafford,  and  proved  to  be  a  British  schooner  valued  at  $18,000. 
Others  soon  followed  this  lead ;  but,  as  a  sufficient  sample,  in  such  a 
narrative  as  this,  of  the  successful  prowess  of  our  commanders,  and 
the  superiority  of  our  craft,  it  may  be  recorded  that  Commodore 
Joshua  Barney,  in  a  cruise  of  forty-Jive  days,  seized  and  captured 
fourteen   vessels — nine   of    which   he   destroyed — of  an   aggregate 

*  The  original  Subscription  Book  for  this  Monument,  was  lately  found  in  removing 
the  papers  from  the  old  City  Hall,  and  at  present  is  in  the  keeping  of  the  City 
Register.     It  should  be  preserved  sacredly  in  the  Library  of  the  new  City  Hall. 



capacity  of  2,914  tons,  manned  by  166  men,  and  valued,  as  prizes, 
at  $1,289,000.  The  result  of  the  Commodore's  two  cruises  in  the 
"  Possie,"  was  3,698  tons  of  shipping  captured,  estimated  at  a  mil- 
lion and  a-half  of  dollars,  and  two  hundred  and  seventeen  prisoners  ! 
The  Dolphin,  commanded  by  Stafford;  The  Falcon;  The  Globe, 
commanded  by  Murphy;  The  Highflyer,  commanded  by  Gavit ; 
The  Comet,  under  "  the  boldest  of  privateersmen,"  Captain  Thomas 
Boyle ;  The  Nonsuch,  under  Captain  Leveley ;  all  "  gave  good 
accounts  "  of  the  enemy  ;  one  of  Boyle's  earliest  exploits  being  the 
capture  of  the  British  armed  ship  Hopewell  of  14  guns,  ship  and 
cargo  sent  into  Baltimore  and  valued  at  $150,000  I  His  brave  and 
successful  adventures  in  1813,  in  his  "  Comet "  and  afterwards  in 
the  famous  "Chasseur,"  "ubiquitous  as  the  Flying  Dutchman," 
sometimes  on  the  coasts  of  Spain,  Portugal  and  France ;  then  in  the 
British  and  Irish  channels ;  and  anon,  among  the  West  Indian 
Islands,  have  become  matters  of  history,  and  fairly  rank  him  with 
the  greatest  of  our  naval  commanders.  The  "  Chasseur  "  captured 
no  less  than  eighty  vessels,  three  of  which  alone  were  valued  at 
$400,000  ;  and  it  was  Boyle  who  issued  the  burlesque  Proclamation 
in  the  British  Channel,  in  which  he  declared  "  all  the  ports,  harbors, 
bays,  creeks,  inlets,  &c,  &c,  of  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland  in  a  state  of  rigorous  blockade  "  by  the  Chasseur; 
a  proclamation  which  he  sent  to  London  in  a  cartel,  and  desired  "  to 
be  posted  up  at  Lloyd's  Coffee  House !"  Nor  was  this  proclamation 
so  ridiculous  as  it  now  seems  to  the  sober  readers  of  1870,  for  the 
fear  inspired  in  England  by  the  daring  and  success  of  American 
privateers,  indescribable  to  people  of  our  day,  may  still  be  judged 
of  from  the  fact  that  "thirteen  guineas  for  one  hundred  pounds, 
was  paid  to  insure  vessels  across  the  Irish  Channel  V 




The  periods  we  have  been  describing  comprise  the  history  of 
Baltimore's  wonderful  and  rapid  growth  in  the  years  succeeding 
independence  of  Great  Britain.  This  growth  was  so  vast  that  it 
has  been  said  to  be  unexampled  in  the  history  of  cities.  It  was 
due,  first,  to  the  position  of  the  city,  geographically,  in  relation  to 
the  population,  productions  and  internal  trade  of  the  whole  coun- 
try ;  secondly,  to  the  assemblage  here  of  mercantile  men  and  others 
endowed  with  unusual  energy,  enterprise  and  talent,  from  all  parts  of 
North  America  and  Europe,  to  take  advantage  of  the  two  foremost 
staples  of  flour  and  tobacco ;  thirdly,  to  the  ship-building  of  our 
bay,  which  adapted  a  certain  class  of  vessels  for  freight  and  fleet- 
ness  ;  and  fourthly,  to  the  pertinacious  aptitude  with  which  our  able 
citizens  improved  their  advantages,  at  all  hazards,  during  the  long 
European  wars,  employing  their  skill  not  only  in  domestic  trade,  as 
from  a  central  distributing  point,  but  for  a  world-wide  commerce. 
The  men  and  their  opportunities  were  remarkable.  They  were  men 
who  knew  that  the  greatest  success  in  the  pursuit  of  wealth  is  not 
to  be  obtained  by  a  community  from  one  branch  of  business,  exclu- 
sively, but  that  importation  as  well  as  exportation  must  combine 
with  supply,  distribution,  freight,  and  commissions,  in  order  to 
create  a  substantial,  enduring  mart ;  in  other  words,  that  local  pros- 
perity, to  be  lasting,  must  depend  on  variety.  Accordingly,  it  is 
not  strange  to  see  that  the  handful  of  2,000  people  dwelling  in  the 
Baltimore-Town  of  1756,  had  increased  to  only  about  5,000  at  the 
Revolution;  but,  under  independence,  had  grown  to  62,738  in  1820, 
an  increase  of  16,183  from  1810,  and  of  almost  50,000  from  1790. 
This  was  the  unwonted  civic  growth,  which  was  properly  chronicled 
by  one  of  our  soberest  historians — Dr.  Jared  Sparks — as  "  un- 
equalled in  the  history  of  cities."  This  was  the  time  when  the 
great  and  early  commercial  houses,  founders  of  our  prosperity, 
still    controlled  it,  though  many  of  them   were  crippled  and  dis- 


heartened  by  the  financial  misfortunes  we  have  described,  conse- 
quent on  the  calamities  of  the  Bank  of  the  United  States  and  of 
the  fatal  "accommodation  system"  that  had  been  practiced.  This 
was  the  time,  too,  when  the  trade  of  Baltimore  was  in  the  hands 
of  men,  whose  names,  at  least,  should  be  most  respectfully  preserved 
in  a  work  that  purports  to  sketch  its  history.  The  leaders  in 
mercantile  circles  were,  then,  Smith  and  Buchanan,  the  Gilmors, 
William  Patterson,  the  Wilsons,  Hollins  &  McBlair,  Dugau,  the 
Browns,  the  Olivers,  the  McKims,  the  Thompsons,  Yon  Kapff  & 
Brune,  Mayer  &  Brautz,  Thomas  Tennant,  Henry  Payson,  William 
Lorman,  Henry  Schroeder,  the  Konigs,  Carrere,  the  McCullohs, 
the  Hotfmans,  Luke  Tiernan,  the  Ettings,  Garrett,  Talbot  Jones, 
Jacob  Albert,  Taylor  &  Keys,  Coale,  Strieker,  Sterrett,  Harrison, 
Williamson,  the  Appletons,  and  others  perhaps,  whose  names  do 
not  recur  to  us  as  we  write  this  rapid  catalogue. 

In  other  ancillary  occupations,  and  in  the  professions,  engaged 
in  practice,  or  in  manufacturing,  or  in  agricultural  pursuits,  or  in 
political  life,  were  such  men  as  General  Smith,  Edward  Johnson, 
William  Pinknej^,  John  Purviance,  Bland,  Hoffman,  Meredith, 
Mitchell,  Jennings,  the  AVinchesters,  and  Nicholsons,  Colonel  J.  E. 
Howard,  the  Carrolls  (of  both  families),  Hughes,  Pennington,  Cooke, 
the  Ellicotts  and  Tysons  (pre-eminent  in  many  things),  Calhoun, 
Montgomery,  Winder,  the  Revs.  Drs.  Bend,  Kemp,  Inglis,  Glendy, 
Dorsey,  Hollingsworth,  Morris,  Kell,  Giles,  Moale,  Gibson,  Moore, 
Rogers,  Doctors,  Davidge,  Donaldson,  Alexander,  Gibson,  De  Butts, 
McDowell,  and  many  more,  all  of  whom,  and  in  all  classes,  are  still 
recollected  when  named,  as  persons  of  distinct  individuality,  men  of 
mark,  of  public  spirit,  prompt  and  prominent  in  every  scheme  of 
merit  and  enterprise. 

The  area  of  Baltimore,  built  over  at  that  time,  was,  of  coarse,  by 
no  means  co-extensive,  even  as  a  skeleton,  with  the  present  occupied 
limits.  The  thickly  inhabited  parts  of  the  city  in  the  west  were 
then  confined  between  Jones's  Falls  and  Greene  street,  and  between 
the  Basin  and  Mulberry  street;  while,  in  the  east,  from  the  Falls  to 
the  extreme  end  of  Fell's  Point  at  Waters's  Wharf,  there  were  wide 
gaps  along  the  "Causeway,"  east  of  Harford  Run;  while,  thence, 
north  of  Baltimore  street  and  cast  of  Broadway,  the  county  was 
still  open  or  occupied  by  villas  and  burying  grounds.  West  of  the 
Falls  and  north  of  Saratoga  street,  the  improvements  were  scattered. 
■-1  Howard's  Park"  was  still  a  wood,  nor  had  the  wealthy  been  per- 
mitted yet  to  purchase  sites  for  future  residences  among  its  unfelled 
timber.     At  that  day,  Hanover  street  was  the  "Faubourg  St.  Ger- 

OF     BALTIMORE.  89 

main"  of  our  city — the  quiet  haunt  of  the  older  aristocracy — and, 
at  its  intersection  with  Baltimore  (then  Market)  street,  stood  the 
famous  "Indian  Queen  Inn,"  kept  by  Gadsby,  and,  afterwards,  by 
David  Barnum,  and  almost  as  renowned  among  Baltimore  "  hostel- 
ries  "  as  the  old  "Fountain  Inn"  of  Light  street,  in  which  was 
shown  the  untouched  room  of  Washington  and  the  Presidents,  until 
the  building  fell,  in  the  march  of  improvement,  during  the  present 
year.  Many  leading  families  still  dwelt  in  Sharp,  Camden,  Barre, 
and  Conway  streets.  South  Charles  street  was  still  occupied  by 
some  of  the  French  refugees  and  their  descendants ;  while,  north  of 
Market  street,  it  had  become  a  fashionable  quarter,  as  were,  also, 
Lexington  and  Fayette  streets  leading  from  it  to  the  "  Monument 
Square,"  in  which  the  Smiths,  the  Buchanans,  the  Swarms,  the  Gil- 
mors,  Williamses,  Beattys  and  Taylors,  had  erected  those  stately 
mansions  now  hardly  discernible  in  the  Police  Buildings,  the 
Mayor's  temporary  Headquarters,  Guy's  Hotel,  the  Gilmor  House, 
and  the  restaurants  and  sporting  houses  that  have  usurped  the 
homes  of  the  long  dead  builders.  A  few  merchants  of  eminence 
still  kept  near  the  water  on  Lombard  street,  where  General  Samuel 
Smith,  Sherlock,  Robert  Gilmor,  Junior,  the  Dugans  and  Hollinses 
had  their  costly  and  elegant  homes,  which  are  now  couverted  into 
offices  or  have  yielded  place  for  wide  rows  of  substantial  ware- 
houses. The  old  Baltimore  Library  Company,  a  noble  institution  in 
its  day,  occupied  the  Holliday  street  floor  of  the  "Assembly  Rooms," 
— still  standing  at  the  corner  of  Fayette — now  the  ricketty  and 
unworthy  tenement  of  the  City  College,  but  then  the  "Almacks" 
of  Baltimore,  and  the  resort  of  all  the  beau  monde  of  our  city  during 
the  regular  "Assemblies"  of  every  winter,  and  especially  renowned 
as  the  scene  of  the  "  Silver  Supper,"  spread  therein  after  the  ball 
given  in  the  adjoining  and  connected  theatre  in  honor  of  Lafayette, 
when  he  last  visited  us,  in  October,  1824. 

The  city  was,  of  course,  adorned  by  many  fine  residences,  the 
result  of  the  wealth  acquired  by  our  people;  but,  as  yet,  no  section 
had  been  fixed  on  as  pre-eminently  popular,  suitable,  or  fashionable 
for  an  exclusive  residence  quarter.  The  consequence  was  a  melange 
of  old  and  new,  of  brick  and  board,  of  architectural  taste  and 
rude  simplicity.  Many  of  the  streets  were  long  unsightly  from  the 
un uniformed,  militia-review  appearance  they  presented  of  tall  and 
short,  of  ragged  and  elegant,  until  the  new  comers  gave  tone  to  the 
district  by  improving  not  only  the  taste  but  the  value  of  the  property 
of  the  earlier  inhabitants,  thus  enabling  them  to  adorn  their  lots 
with   costlier  buildings.     It  was  not  until  towards  the  end  of  the 


third  decade  of  this  century  that  the  emigration,  northwardly, 
along  Franklin  and  Charles  streets,  began  to  denote  the  fashionable 
tendency  towards  "the  Park,"  which,  since  then,  has  been  shorn  of 
its  forest,  leveled  into  squares,  cut  into  streets,  and  covered  with 
churches,  institutions  of  learning,  and  thousands  of  exquisite  resi- 
dences, forming  one  of  the  choicest  dwelling  districts  in  our  country. 
Up  to  that  period  Washington's  Monument,  still  not  quite  finished, 
loomed  up  on  a  stack  of  bare  slopes,  washed  by  gullies  descending 
from  the  Monument's  base  to  the  natural  drain  now  known  as 
Centre  street.  The  Cathedral  and  the  Unitarian  Church,  stood 
"solitary  and  alone"  in  the  midst  of  unoccupied  spaces,  while  a 
house  here  and  there,  dotted  the  distances  towards  Mulberry  and 
Saratoga  streets.  In  fact,  the  town  seemed  to  be  thinking  about 
its  next  step,  and  seriously  engaged  in  making  up  its  mind.  At 
best,  it  was  a  sort  of  outline  sketch  of  proposed  grandeur.  In  the 
"New  Town"  all  improvements  were  but  "straggling"  from  Sara- 
toga street  northwardly,  from  Eutaw  street  westwardly,  from  Barre 
street  southwardly,  and  from  Gay  street  eastwardly ;  while  in  the 
"Old  Town,"  all  north  of  Baltimore  street,  was  nearly  as  bare 
of  edifices  as  "Hampstead  Hill"  or  "Callow's  Barrow." 

This  is  a  time— before  the  introduction  of  railways — when  it  is 
proper  to  make  mention  of  some  three  or  four  Old-Baltimore  institu- 
tions, which  are  fast  fading  away  in  the  world's  progress:  we  mean 
the  vast  blue,  white-canvased  Conestoga  wagons,  their  grand  Penn- 
sylvanian  horses,  the  Stage  Coaches,  and  the  Taverns  or  Inns,  with 
their  conspicuous  "  signs,"  their  substantial  fare,  wide  yards,  and 
liberal  stables;  and  the  frocked  wagoners  and  teamsters  who  drove 
or  tended  their  stalwart  beasts,  for  burthen  or  for  market.  These 
Taverns  and  their  signs  were  frequent  reminders  to  Englishmen  of 
the  country  inns  found  in  every  British  town  and  hamlet ;  and,  alas  ! 
but  few  of  them  remain  among  us  of  the  present  generation.  These 
were  still  the  times  of  horseback  and  saddle-bag  traveling.  Most 
of  our  citizens  who  have  not  passed  far  beyond  middle  life,  will  still 
remember  the  "Golden  Horse,"  which  swung  so  gaudily  at  the 
northwestern  corner  of  Franklin  and  Howard  streets;  and  the 
"  White  Swan,"  which  still  floats,  like  a  dim  ghost  of  its  former  self, 
on  the  sign,  a  square  beyond,  at  the  southeastern  corner  of  Franklin 
and  Eutaw,  while  the  "Golden  Lamb"  reclined  on  its  rich  yellow 
fleece,  until  a  few  years  ago,  at  the  northwestern  corner  of  Paca  and 
Franklin  streets,  until  it  was  supplanted  by  a  confectionery;  or 
the  "Black    Horse,"  and  some  other  country  inns,  beyond  the  turn 

OF     BALTIMORE.  91 

of  Franklin  street  into  Pennsylvania  avenue.  Then  there  was  the 
"Hand  Tavern"  and  yard,  still  surviving,  on  Paea  near  Lexington, 
giving  refuge  to  the  market  people  and  their  wagons  and  cattle  ;  and 
the  chained  "  Black  Bear"  Inn,  designed  for  the  same  purposes, 
next  to  the  corner  of  Howard,  on  Saratoga,  street,  where  the  Bevans 
now  cut  and  carve  their  marble  mantels  and  tombs.  The  more  aris- 
tocratic "General  Wayne"  Inn, — Cugle  &  Frost's  stylish  "hostelrie" 
for  Western  travelers,  horse-dealers,  and  cattle-drovers, — was  at  the 
corner  of  Paca  and  Baltimore  streets,  where  the  revolutionary  hero 
still  faintly  survives  on  the  weather-beaten  sign,  which  we  remember 
seeing  raised  to  its  present  place  more  than  forty  years  ago.  The 
"  May  Pole  "  was  still  further  south  of  this,  on  Paca  and  German, 
and  the  "  Three  Tuns  Tavern,"  yet  beyond,  at  the  corner  of  Paca 
and  Pratt.  These  were  the  main  houses  of  entertainment,  cattle 
yards,  and  stables,  for  horse-dealers,  wagoners,  and  cattle  men,  west 
of  the  Falls ;  while  "  Old  Town"  had  its  famous  "  Bull's  Head,"  on 
Front  street,  the  w'  Rising  Sun,"  on  High  street,  and  the  well-known 
"  Habbersett's,"  whose  hospitable  doors  and  excellent  tables  were 
always  open  to  the  dealers  and  farmers  of  Harford  county  especially. 
The  old  "Fountain  Inn,"  with  its  limpid,  gushing  sign,  was  always 
the  pet  of  the  Eastern  Shoremen,  (so  accessible  as  they  came  up 
Light  street  from  the  Basin,)  long  after  it  ceased  to  be  the  pet  of 
the  Presidents,  after  Jefferson's  day  and  the  rise  of  the  "  Indian 
Queen,"  under  Gadsby's  auspices,  and,  long  subsequently,  to  "  Bar- 
num's,"  in  the  Square,  and  "  The  Eutaw  House,"  which  were  the 
two  first  inns  that  wholly  discarded  the  old-fashioned  index  of  a 
"sign."  At  most  of  these,  in  the  day  of  turnpikes,  the  daily, 
tri-weekly,  or  weekly  Stage«,Coach  called  regularly,  with  sounding 
horn,  to  take  up  the  passengers  "booked"  at  the  office.  The 
Western  taverns  were  filled  with  staunch,  rough  teamsters  and 
drovers ;  and  the  tavern  yards,  generally  occupied  by  fat  cattle  for 
the  shambles,  and  splendid  horses,  for  sale,  trade,  or  swap ;  while 
westwardly  from  Howard  street,  along  Franklin  to  its  junction 
with  Pennsylvania  avenue,  and  out  the  avenue  to  George  street, 
and  often  beyond  it,  in  the  busy  season,  one-half  of  this  great  high- 
way was  nightly  blocked  up  by  the  ponderous  Oonestoga  wagons, 
and  their  superb  teams  feeding  or  munching  in  a  trough  fastened  to 
the  wagon-poles.  Xext  day  they  delivered  their  flour,  whiskey,  and 
provisions  along  Howard  and  other  streets,  and  quickly  reloaded  with 
groceries,  dry  and  fancy  goods  for  the  West,  and  speedily  set  forth 
with  their  four  or  six-in-hand  team,  each  animal  tinkling  his  jolly 
crest  of  a  dozen  bells  along  the  narrow  defiles  of  the  Alleghanies, 



the  drivers  cracking  their  huge  savage  whips,  giving  notice  of  each 
other's  approach  in  the  many  passes  of  the  mountains  or  valleys. 

But  Baltimore  was  to  take  a  fresh  start  in  the  race  of  prosperity. 
She  had  been  temporarily  disheartened  and  crippled,  but  not  de- 
stroyed ;  for  her  natural  resources  could  not  be  taken  away,  and  the 
people  who  had  improved  them  in  earlier  days  were  still  at  hand  to 
engage  in  new  operations.  The  men  of  enterprise  and  talent  were 
still  there,  and  though  not  so  young  or  hopeful,  were  nevertheless 
not  without  zeal  and  enterprise,  tempered  by  experience.  They  saw 
that  a  change  had  come  over  the  spirit  of  American  trade,  not  only 
by  the  cessation  of  war  at  home  and  in  Europe,  but  that  great  ma- 
terial improvements  in  transportation,  steam,  and  the  rivalries  of 
successful  trade  were  operating  on  the  minds  of  younger  men  of 
equal  intelligence,  in  other  sections  of  the  nation ;  and  that,  when 
success  creates  rivals,  peace  not  only  affords  but  stimulates  the  means 
for  successful  rivalry.  They  saw  that  labor,  patience,  capital  were 
to  take  the  place  of  that  rapid,  daring,  war-commerce,  which  had 
so  magically  assisted  the  fortunes  of  American,  and  especially 
Baltimore  merchants,  for  twenty  or  thirty  years.  They  saw  that 
enterprise,  to  be  repaid,  must  be  content  with  slower  processes,  and 
that  the  clipper  of  our  Bay  was  no  longer  the  Aladdin  of  their 

With  this  patience  at  heart,  though,  of  course  reluctantly  ad- 
mitted, an  auspicious  change  took  place  in  the  commercial  affairs 
of  Baltimore  between  1820  and  1825.  Capital  and  enterprise 
again  became  active.  The  extensive  establishments  and  ventures 
became  more  limited,  but  were  still  significant  in  both  foreign  and 
domestic  trade.  The  tables  of  exports  of  foreign  and  domestic  pro- 
duce from  Baltimore  in  1822  and  1823,  disclose  a  substantial  and 
less  speculative  commerce  with  Holland,  England,  France,  Germany, 
Sweden,  Turkey,  Italy,  the  West  Indies,  South  America,  and  the 
British  possessions  in  America.    The  values  of  this  trade  were  large: 



Domestic  articles  in  Foreign  vessels, 












In  1824  the  increase  of  exports  was  still  greater,  as  the  trade  to 
Europe  and  the  West  Indies  gained  considerably,  while  the  com- 
merce with  South  America,  in  particular,  began  to  advance  very 
rapidly.  Baltimore  was  then,  undoubtedly,  still  the  largest  flour 
market  in  the  world,  sending  forth  in  1822,  205,345  barrels;  and 
244,950  in  1823.  Of  tobacco,  we  shipped  to  foreign  countries, 
19,250  hogsheads  in  1822,  and  21,733  hogsheads  in  1823  ;  as  well  as 
large  quantities  of  provisions  and  manufactured  goods.  The 
inspections  of  flour  in  Baltimore  for  1822,  displayed  a  total  of 
413,231  barrels,  while  the  inspections  of  Philadelphia  for  the  same 
period,  showed  but  270,527  ;  being  little  more  than  two-thirds  the 
amount  for  the  same  year  in  Baltimore. 

In  the  city,  and  within  the  compass  of  twenty  miles  around  it, 
there  were  upwards  of  sixty  grain  mills,  of  various  descriptions,  in 
which  it  was  said  that  fully  a  million  and  a  quarter  of  dollars  were 
invested.  This,  of  course,  was  an  element  of  great  prospective 
wealth,  especially  as  the  water  power  for  manufactures,  within  the 
radius  of  those  twenty  miles,  at  Patapsco  Falls,  Great  Gunpowder 
Falls,  Little  Gunpowder  Falls,  Jones's  Falls,  Gwynn's  Falls,  Herring 
Run,  Union  Run,  Winter's  Run,  and  the  Patuxent,  was  capable  of 
running  1,013,000  spindles.  Hence,  the  new  direction  of  enterprise 
and  capital  began  to  find  manufactures  an  important  branch  of  Bal- 
timore industry  with  so  much  water  power  at  command,  eight  of 
these  streams  being  certainly  capable  of  giving  motion  to  ma- 
chinery. The  first  three  cotton  factories  established  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  Baltimore,  the  Union,  the  Powhatan  and  the  Washington, 
were  formed  during  the  commercial  restrictions  before  the  war  with 
England  in  1812  ;  and  though  successful  as  long  as  these  restrictions 
lasted,  they  soon  felt  the  depressing  influence  of  foreign  competition 
when  they  ceased  ;  yet,  though  they  drooped  awhile,  they  were  not 
abandoned,  for  the  people  in  many  quarters  had  become  habituated 
to  the  goods  produced  in  this  vicinity,  and,  in  spite  of  the  cheapness 
of  foreign  fabrics,  preferred  the  American,  in  consequence  of  their 
more  durable  qualities.  The  Cotton  Factory  Companies  in  this 
vicinity  in  1824,  were  the  Union,  on  the  Patapsco,  with  two  fac- 
tories ;  the  Powhatan,  on  Gwynn's  Falls,  with  one  factory;  the 
Warren,  on  the  Great  Gunpowder,  with  two  factories;  the  Patapsco, 
on  the  Patapsco,  with  one ;  the  Washington,  on  Jones's  Falls, 
with  one;  the  Lanvale,  on  Jones's  Falls,  with  one;  the  Maryland,  on 
the  Little  Gunpowder,  with  one  ;  the  Thistle,  on  the  Patapsco,  with 
one ;  the  Ivy,  on  the  Patapsco,  with  one ;  the  Savage,  on  the 
Patuxent,  with  one  ;  and  the  Eagle,  (run  by  steam,)  in  the  city  of 


Baltimore,  with  one;  in  all  13  factories,  running  27,004  spindles, 
565  power  looms,  6  printing  tables,  and  employing  2,800  persons. 
On  these  same  streams  there  were  also  52  flour  mills,  6  iron  works, 
1  woollen  and  carding  factory,  2  paper  mills,  3  powder  mills,  2 
copper  works,  27  saw  mills,  1  chocolate  factory,  and  2  old  iron 
works,  no  longer  in  operation.  The  greater  part  of  the  yarn  then 
manufactured  was  wrought  into  cloths  either  at  the  factories  or  by 
hand-looms  in  and  about  the  city.  The  Western  and  Southwestern 
States  consumed  large  quantities  of  these  fabrics,  wThile  the  South 
American  trade  began  to  demand  them  for  the  Spanish  and  Bra- 
zilian provinces,  as  well  as  for  Mexico.  Our  manufacturing  interests 
seemed  to  be  firmly  established  ;  and  so  prosperous  was  the  enter- 
prise that  the  Eastern  States  began  soon  to  establish  Eastern  men 
among  us  to  bring  their  fabrics  into  a  Middle  State  market  which 
was  becoming  perhaps  a  dangerous  rival  in  that  species  of  Xew 
England's  industry.* 

The  resources  of  Chesapeake  Bay  and  its  affluents,  from  land  and 
water,  were  considered  of  themselves  sufficient  to  support  a  great 
city;  and,  though  most  carelessly  and  uneconomically  used,  (so  far, 
at  least,  as  the  fisheries  and  oyster'  interests  are  concerned,)  have 
within  late  years  demonstrated  this  fact,  as  the  statistics  of  our 
trade  will  hereafter  disclose.  But  our  commerce  was  not  to  be 
so  confined  or  restricted.  The  shipments  of  1822  and  1823  showed 
that  we  had  no  crushing  rivalry  to  contend  with  in  trade  that  cir- 
cumstances had  so  greatly  changed.  Our  ships  went  principally  to 
the  Spanish  Main,  to  Buenos  Ayres,  to  Brazil,  to  Chili,  Peru  and 
Mexico,  and  this  species  of  commerce,  in  succeeding  years,  has  fixed 
itself  upon  a  fair  basis  of  equality,  so  far  as  our  enterprise  and 
capital  were  able  to  support  it  in  competition  with  other  ports.  A 
commerce  with  India  and  China,  has  been  maintained  also,  at  times, 
on  Baltimore  account,  from  other  cities,  and  occasionally  directly. 
It  is,  we  think,  nevertheless,  quite  evident  to  any  one  who  surveys 
the  entire  iield  of  Maryland  foreign  commerce,  since  the  collapse 
after  the  last  war  with  Great  Britain,  that  our  commercial  enter- 
prise never  assumed  again  entirely  the  proportions  it  showed  in  the 

*  Manufactures  (except  of  flour  and  pig  iron)  had  been  condemned  and  dis- 
couraged by  the  British  government,  so  that,  before  the  Revolution  we  may  be  said 
to  have  been  little  more  than  agricultural  consumers  of  the  productions  of  old 
England.  We  were  allowed  to  fish  and  to  farm,  and  to  buy  British  commodities 
when  wo  could  pay  for  them  ;  but  our  domestic  industry  was  forbidden.  There 
were  attempts  at  woollen  factories  in  Dorchester  county,  but  unsuccessful;  and 
in  171!)  there  were  eight  furnaces  and  nine  forges  in  the  Province.  We  exported 
y>i(j  iron  profitably  to  England  before  and  after  the  war  of  1770. 

OF     BALTIMORE.  95 

years  before  it.  Our  people  seem  to  have  been  impressed  with  the 
idea,  since  then,  that  the  first  duty  of  Baltimore  was  to  recover  pos- 
session of  the  internal  trade  of  the  country;  and  hence  probably 
more  reliance  has  been  placed  on  the  magical  change  which  the 
"  Internal  Improvement"  system  was  to  produce,  as  soon  as  fresh 
modes  of  communication  were  opened  with  the  growing  West 
and  its  dependencies.  The  idea  seems  to  have  been  that  if  we 
could  soonest  reach  the  vast  Western  trade  by  the  shortest  route, 
we  should  command  it;  and  that  Baltimore  would  be  re-established, 
and  advance  to  continental  supremacy.  While  waiting  these  long 
years  for  the  fruition  of  this  hope,  it  is  possible  that  the  commerce 
and  manufactures  of  our  city  have  not  advanced  as  rapidly  as  they 
might  have  done  under  different  inspirations ;  yet,  certain  it  is, 
that,  ever  since  1824,  1825,  the  minds  of  our  people  have  been 
greatly  concerned  with  canals  and  railways,  and  the  supreme  results 
they  were  to  produce  for  Baltimore  and  Maryland.. 

The  only  Western  public  roads  practicable  for  wheeled  vehicles,  as 
late  as  1772,  were  those  from  Fredericktown  to  Annapolis  and  Balti- 
more. The  road  to  Annapolis,  from  the  superior  trading  facilities 
of  that  place  over  those  of  Baltimore  before  the  Revolution,  was  the 
first  made  by  the  settlers.  It  ran  by  Sandy  Spring,  an  old  settle- 
ment founded  by  James  Brooke  before  1730.  The  road  to  Balti- 
more, which  passed  the  Patapsco  Falls  three  miles  above  the  Mills, 
was  not  in  operation  until  1760.  There  were  many  "bridle  roads" 
traversed  on  horseback,  or  with  packs;  and  numerous  "rolling- 
roads;*  adjacent  to  navigable  streams,  used  by  the  neighboring 
planters  for  the  transportation  of  their  tobacco,  which,  tightly 
packed  in  staunch  hogsheads,  hooped  in  the  most  substantial  way, 
were  slowly  rolled  by  at  least  two  laborers  to  the  place  of  shipment. 
Several  of  these  primitive  roads  are  yet  distinguishable  in  Harford 
county,  and  one  is  still  so  designated  near  Elk  Ridge  Landing,  a  port 
which,  in  those  days,  was  the  favorite  depot  of  the  farmers  of  the 
vicinage,  whence  their  commodities  were  taken  in  seagoing  vessels 
of  light  draft  directly  to  Europe.*  After  the  Revolutionary  War 
things  improved,  and  the  trains  of  pack-horses  were  gradually 
abandoned,  as  that  well-remembered  institution,  the  "  Conestoga 
Wagon,"  came  into  use  with  improved  thoroughfares.  Between 
1805  and  1810  three  turnpikes  were  chartered  by  Maryland,  leading 
from  Baltimore  to  Western  Maryland  and  different  parts  of  Pennsyl- 

*  The  relatives  of  the  writer  have  loaded  vessels  in  1795  for  Holland,  with  tohacco, 
on  the  Patapsco,  a  few  yards  east  of  the  spot  where  the  viaduct  of  the  railroad  to 
Washington  now  crosses  that  river  near  the  Relay  House. 


vania ;  and  their  roads  to  York,  Reisterstown  and  Frederick  were 
built  most  thoroughly,  so  as  to  resist  the  weight  and  wear  of  the 
enormous  burthens  of  produce  brought  over  them  to  this  market. 
The  average  cost  of  these  roads  was  from  8,000  to  10,000  dollars  a 
mile.  Subsequently,  four  other  turnpikes  were  finished  to  Wash- 
ington, Belle  Air,  Havre  de  Grace,  and  the  Falls ;  so  that  in  1825, 
there  were  seven  broad,  substantial,  well-built  avenues  proceeding 
hence  North,  South,  East  and  West.  The  great  National  road  from 
Wheeling  to  Cumberland,  too,  was  continued  by  the  banks  of  our 
city,  and  three  other  banks  in  the  west  of  Maryland.  These  insti- 
tutions being  required  by  the  State,  as  a  condition  of  renewal  of 
their  charters,  to  make  fifty-eight  miles  of  this  road  on  the  same 
construction  as  the  "  National." 

But  new  ideas  of  progress  were  soon  to  change  the  slow  systems  of 
conveyance  by  horse  and  mule,  by  roads  and  sails.  Turnpikes,  and 
even  canals,  were  to  give  place  to  steam  and  railways. 

In  December,  1823,  a  town  meeting  was  held  in  the  rotunda  of 
the  Exchange,  (now  our  post-office  building,)  to  take  the  opinion 
of  the  people  on  the  subject  of  canals,  and  especially  to  discover 
whether  the  citizens  preferred  a  canal  to  be  made  first  to  the  Susque- 
hanna river  or  to  the  Ohio.  A  great  majority,  it  seems,  preferred 
the  canal  to  the  Susquehanna.  Accordingly,  an  act  was  passed  by 
the  Assembly  then  in  session  authorizing  the  corporation  of  the  city 
to  make  a  canal  to  the  head  of  tide-water  on  the  Susquehanna,  and 
thence  to  the  Conewaga  falls  in  Pennsylvania,  if  such  an  extension 
should  be  permitted  by  the  Legislature  of  that  State.  Another 
act  was  also  passed  incorporating  a  company  to  make  a  canal  from 
the  tide-water  of  the  Potomac  to  the  Ohio  river,  if  assented  to  by 
the  national  government  and  the  States  through  which  the  canal 
would  pass.  In  the  Assembly  of  the  next  year,  1824,  the  act  of  the 
Virginia  Legislature,  incorporating  the  Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Canal 
Company,  was  confirmed ;  and  in  1825,  stock  to  the  amount  of  the 
State's  interest  in  the  Potomac  Canal  Company,  with  5,000  addi- 
tional shares,  were  to  be  vested  in  the  new  Company  on  the  part  of 
Maryland.  A  similar  number  of  shares  was  to  be  taken  in  the  Sus- 
quehanna Company,  then  again  incorporated,  the  old  Susquehanna 
Canal  Company's  interest  being  secured  in  the  new  one.  At  the 
session  of  our  Assembly  in  18 20,  another  act  incorporated  the  Penn- 
sylvania and  Maryland  Canal  Company. 

The  proposed  Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Canal  had  been  cherished  up 
to  this  year  as  the  best  scheme  for  the  interests  of  Baltimore  and  the 
West ;  but,  in  July  of  1826,  the  estimates  of  the  probable  cost  and 


difficulty  of  constructing  such  a  canal  over  the  mountains  were  made 
and  published  by  an  able  engineer,  General  Bernard,  and  the  hopes 
of  our  citizens  immediately  fell.  They  became  satisfied  that  the 
completion  of  the  work,  even,  would  be  of  no  practical  advantage 
to  our  city,  so  long  as  the  eastern  terminus  of  the  work  was  on 
the  Potomac.  For  several  months  there  was  much  doubt  and  much 
consultation  among  our  mercantile  leaders,  until  finally,  it  may  be 
said  that  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  was  inaugurated  at  a 
private  meeting  of  about  twenty-five  or  thirty  influential  men  at 
the  residence  of  Mr.  George  Brown,  on  the  12th  of  February,  1827. 
An  act  of  our  Assembly,  comprising  a  charter,  drawn  up  by  John 
VanLear  McMahon,  Esq.,  was  passed  immediately,  (in  fact,  the  first 
railroad  charter  obtained  in  the  United  States,)  and,  the  proposed 
amount  of  stock  being  speedily  taken,  the  Company  was  duly  organ- 
ized on  the  12th  of  April,  1827,  with  Philip  E.  Thomas,  President, 
George  Brown,  Treasurer,  and  twelve  directors,  (Charles  Carroll  of 
Carrollton  at  their  head,)  of  whom  but  one  survives  in  1870.  But 
this  project,  so  successfully  inaugurated,  and  now  in  such  success- 
ful operation,  did  not  obliterate  the  Pennsylvanian  schemes  of  our 
people.  The  Susquehanna  connections  were  always  favorites  with 
Baltimoreans  ;  and  accordingly,  the  Baltimore  and  Susquehanna  Rail- 
road Company  was  chartered  by  our  Assembly  on  the  13th  of  Febru- 
ary, 1828  ;  and  when  the  books  tor  subscription  were  opened  here  in 
March  of  that  year,  such  was  the  anxiety  to  secure  shares  that  more 
than  double  the  amount  of  the  proposed  capital  was  at  once  under- 
written. In  1854,  this  road  was  consolidated  with  the  York  and 
Cumberland  Railroad;  and  now,  under  the  name  of  the  "  Northern 
Central,"  unites  at  Harrisburg  with  the  Pennsylvania  Central  and 
its  great  communications  with  the  West,  while,  by  other  routes,  it 
preserves  its  connections  with  the  lakes  at  Erie  and  with  Northern 
and  Eastern  New  York.  The  Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Canal  was  not 
abandoned  in  this  change  of  system  ;  but  it  stopped  wisely  at  the 
foot  of  the  Alleghany  Mountains  at  Cumberland ;  and,  instead  of 
fulfilling  its  original  and  boasted  destiny  of  wielding  the  whole  com- 
merce of  the  West,  has  long  divided  its  operations  between  politics 
and  the  carrying  of  coal  and  grain  to  Georgetown  from  Western 
Maryland  and  Virginia.  It  was  not  until  some  years  after,  that  the 
bill  was  passed  authorizing  the  construction  of  a  canal  to  tide  on  the 
Susquehanna,  or  that  the  canal,  and  afterwards  a  railroad,  were 
made  between  the  Delaware  and  the  Chesapeake.  The  corner-stones 
of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  and  of  the  Chesapeake  and  Ohio 
Canal — the  great  rivals  of  that  day — were  both  laid  with  imposing 


ceremonies  on  the  4th  of  July,  1828,  Charles  Carroll  of  Carrollton 
officiating  for  the  road,  and  President  John  Quincy  Adams  for  the 
canal.*  Of  the  impracticability  of  the  latter  enterprise,  General 
Bernard,  as  we  have  seen,  had  apprised  the  speculative  dreamers  of 
1826,  1827,  and  the  truth  of  his  calculations  has  been  entirely  veri- 
fied by  the  test  of  practical  experience  after  vast  and  unrepaid  ex- 
penditures by  states  and  individuals. 

On  the  14th  December,  1829,  thirty-seven  persons  were  drawn,  by 
one  horse,  in  a  car  with  four  friction  wheels,  invented  by  Mr.  Ross 
Winans,  at  the  rate  of  ten  miles  an  hour.  This  was  done,  to  the 
amazement  of  crowds,  on  bar  iron  rails,  imported  duty  free,  fastened 
on  pine  scantling  and  supported  by  cross  ties  of  locust  and  cedar,  on 
the  first  track  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad,  which  had 
been  completed  from  the  depot,  on  AYest  Pratt  street,  near  the 
Washington  road,  to  G-wynn's  Falls.  This  was  regarded  as  an 
astonishing  victory  at  a  time  when  the  speed  of  locomotive  engines 
did  not  exceed  six  miles  per  hour  ;  nor  was  it  yet  determined  what 
sort  of  propulsive  power  would  be  most  advantageously  employed  on 
railways.  Accordingly,  in  1830,  our  old  friend,  Evan  Thomas,  brother 
of  the  President  of  the  road,  was  not  deterred  from  displaying  his 
car  called  the  "^Eolus,"  which,  rigged  with  sails,  was  driven  by 
the  winds,  and  used  to  attract  eager  crowds  of  youngsters  and  old 
folks,  who,  like  ourselves,  considered  these  thiugs  the  solved  marvels 
of  the  age. 

While  these  material  improvements  were  devising  for  the  future, 
Baltimore  took  other  steps  for  intellectual  advancement.  The 
Academy  of  Sciences,  of  which  Robert  Gilmor  was  President,  the 
Maryland  Institute  of  Arts,  W.  Stewart,  President,  and  the  First 
Athenseum  Library  and  Reading  Rooms  were  incorporated,  and 
the  Athenreum  building  erected  at  the  corner  of  St.  Paul  and 
Lexington  streets — destroyed  by  fire,  in  1835.  Besides  these,  acts  of 
incorporation  were  obtained  lor  the  Pennsylvania,  Delaware  and 
Maryland  Steam  Navigation  Company;  the  Fireman's  Insurance 
Company  ;  the  Lafayette  Beneficial  Society ;  the  Patapsco  Fire  Engine 
Company;  the  xEtna  Company,  for  the  manufacture  of  iron  ;  and 
the  Seaman's  Union  Bethel.  Charters  were  also  granted  for  the 
American  Insurance  Company;  the  Maryland  and  Virginia,  and 
Baltimore  and  Potomac  Companies;  the  Baltimore  Pittston  Coal 
Company;  the  Elysville  Manufacturing  Company;   the  Baltimore 

*  The  corner-stone  of  the  Baltimore  and  Susquehanna  Railroad  was  laid  on  the 
9th  of  August,  1821),  one  hundred  years  from  the  date  of  the  passage  of  the  law  for 
the  laying  out  of  Baltimore-Town  in  172!). 


Flint  Glass  Company ;  the  Maryland  Mining  and  Iron  Companies, 
and  the  Shot  Tower  Companies,  one  of  whose  towers — two  hundred 
and  thirty-four  feet  high — still  remains  at  the  corner  of  Front  and 
East  Lafayette  streets.  On  the  21st  of  September,  1829,  the  first 
public  school  was  opened  in  our  city,  and  the  system  inaugurated 
which,  with  various  changes,  has  proved  materially  useful  to 
thousands  of  our  citizens.  In  March,  1827,  William  Patterson,  one 
of  our  wealthiest  and  most  active  commercial  men,  presented  to  the 
city  two  squares  of  ground  on  Ilampstead  Hill  for  a  public  walk, 
which,  with  additions  since  made  by  purchase,  is  now  known  as 
"  Patterson  Park,"  and  includes  within  its  boundaries  a  few  of  the 
remaining  earthworks  thrown  up  for  the  defence  of  Baltimore  during 
the  war  of  1812.  In  that  year,  too,  (1827,)  the  population  had  out- 
grown its  customary  supply  of  ice  from  home  resources,  and  began 
first  to  import  it  from  the  Northern  States.  In  1832  and  1834,  we 
did  not  escape  from  the  Asiatic  Cholera  which,  at  that  time,  was 
running  its  course  around  the  world ;  the  visitation  of  1832  being 
more  disastrous  and  of  longer  continuance  than  the  subsequent  one. 
In  1835,  the  stock  debt  of  the  city  was  but  about  one  million  of 
dollars,  chiefly  for  internal  improvements ;  and  it  was,  in  this  year, 
that  another  effort  was  made  in  favor  of  the  Chesapeake  and  Ohio 
Canal,  and  the  Susquehanna  Railway.  The  branch  railroad  to 
"Washington  City  was  also  opened  successful^'  at  this  time ;  and 
vast  gambling  speculations  took  place  in  the  stock  of  the  Canton 
Land  Company,  shares,  on  which  $54  had  been  paid,  selling  as  high 
as  $260  in  Northern  cities,  whose  people  were  momentarily  bewildered 
by  the  prospect  of  realizing  immense  fortunes  by  the  sale  of  lots  iu 
this  finely  seated  property  on  our  eastern  limits.  In  this  year,  too, 
Baltimore  suffered  from  the  riots  consequent  on  the  failure  of  the 
Bank  of  Maryland  and  of  several  other  money  institutions,  in  which 
large  numbers  of  our  people  had  either  deposited  or  invested.  The 
mob  destroyed  much  private  property  (for  which  the  tax-payers 
were  subsequently  obliged  to  recompense  the  owners,)  before  the 
disgraceful  outrage  was  finally  suppressed,  mainly  by  the  tact  and 
courage  of  the  veteran,  General  Samuel  Smith,  who,  at  the  age  of 
eighty,  headed  the  well  disposed  citizens,  and  produced  order  from 
the  chaos  of  several  days'  rioting. 

Internal  improvements  by  canal  and  railway  advanced  slowly, 
for  it  was  discovered  that  the  science  of  railroads  was,  in  reality, 
to  be  developed  while  the  roads  themselves  were  building.  In  many 
respects,  indeed,  our  Baltimore  and  Ohio  and  Susquehanna  railways, 
were  the  pioneer  roads  of  the  world,  as  they  certainly  were  of  the 


United  States.  In  1836,  the  stock  of  the  Susquehanna  Tide  Water 
Canal,  was  taken  in  the  month  of  June,  and  in  1837,  the  Philadel- 
phia, Wilmington  and  Baltimore  Railway  was  completed  and  put  in 
successful  operation,  the  passengers  crossing  the  Susquehanna  at 
Havre  de  Grace  in  a  steamer,  specially  constructed  for  them,  their 
baggage  and  heavy  freight. 

On  the  11th  of  May,  1837,  the  banks  of  this  city,  following  those 
of  Philadelphia  and  ISTew  York,  suspended  specie  payments,  and 
continued  the  suspension  until  the  13th  of  August,  1838.  On  the 
10th  of  October,  1839,  they  again  suspended  and  refused  specie  until 
February,  1841,  when  they  resumed  payment — but  for  eight  days  only. 
The  final  and  lasting  resumption,  did  not  occur  until  the  2d  of  May, 
1842.  The  interruption  of  specie  payments  during  these  disastrous 
years,  gave  opportunities  for  all  sorts  of  speculations  and  inventions, 
for  the  supply  of  what  could  or  would  pass  among  the  people  for 
money.  This  was  the  reign  of  foul  rags,  coarsely  called  "  shin- 
plasters"  whose  speculative  inventors  palmed  them  on  the  credulous 
public,  and,  of  course,  failing,  inflicted  serious  losses  on  the  com- 
munity. "  Orders  "  for  money  were  issued,  also,  by  the  Corporation 
of  Baltimore,  and  by  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  Company ; 
and,  for  a  long  time,  furnished  the  only  reliable  fractional  currency 
during  the  specie  suspension.  But,  through  all  these  perilous  times, 
Baltimore  sustained  herself  bravely  and  successfully,  improving  the 
city,  and  doing  a  fair  share  of  general  business ;  and,  while  other 
cities  reeled  before  the  storm,  passed  through  it  without  serious 
calamity.  From  that  time  onward,  until  1857,  our  progress  was 
equal,  though  slow  and  substantial,  receiving,  indeed,  considerable 
impetus  from  the  opening  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad,  to 
the  Ohio  River  in  1853 ;  of  the  Susquehanna  Road  ;  of  the  Tide- 
water Canal,  and  of  the  continuation  of  our  railway  systems,  as  far 
as  St.  Louis,  (918  miles,)  in  June,  1857.  But  1857,  will  be  remem- 
bered by  American  merchants,  as  an  unfortunate  and  disheartening 
year  in  commercial  experience.  Since  the  crisis,  twenty  years  before, 
of  1837,  there  had  been  no  revulsion  in  monetary  and  mercantile 
affairs,  so  embarrassing  as  that  through  which  the  trading  com- 
munity then  passed.  Property  of  all  kinds,  real  and  personal, 
depreciated  beyond  previous  experience  ;  and,  of  course,  labor  fell 
with  commodities ;  while  loans  of  money  demanded  exorbitant 
premiums.  This  was  the  high-day  of  shavers  and  brokers  and 
unconscionable  moneyed-men.  The  calamity  afflicted  the  old  world 
as  well  as  the  new.  "  The  best  and  the  worst  mercantile  houses 
were   alike   prostrated   by  the  tempest,"  writes  a  commercial   au- 

OF     BALTIMORE.  101 

thority,  "  and  thousands  who  stood  deservedly  high  in  means  and 
credit  at  the  opening  of  the  year,  were  reduced  to  comparative 
dependence  or  real  indigence."  The  causes  of  these  disasters  were 
attributed  to  the  usual  initiatives  of  "  hard  times ;  "  viz.,  a  mania  for 
fancy  stock  speculations ;  a  gambling  in  the  values  of  commodities  ; 
a  manifest  increase  of  consumers  over  producers;  and  gross  defects  in 
the  banking  system  of  the  country. 

But,  in  1857,  as  in  1837,  Baltimore  fairly  sustained  her  credit 
throughout  the  fatal  year,  the  number  of  failures  occurring  here,  dur- 
ing that  period,  not  averaging  more  than  one  to  twenty  for  those  in 
all  the  other  leading  commercial  cities  of  the  United  States.  That 
we  were  not  without  trade  of  significance,  in  that  year,  is  shown  by 
the  fact  that  we  exported  $1 1,398,918,  in  commodities,  and  imported 
to  the  value  of  $11,054,676,  while  the  extension  of  our  railway  to 
the  Ohio,  already  mentioned,  put  us  in  communication  (though  not 
yet  perfectly)  with  most  of  the  Western  and  Northwestern  States, 
by  continuous  lines  of  railway  extending  over  five  thousand  miles. 
The  prosperity  and  the  general  advancement  of  the  city  were 
still  further  demonstrated  by  the  census  returns  for  1850,  which 
showed  that  in  the  decade  between  that  year  and  1840  our  popula- 
tion had  been  augmented  by  the  extraordinary  increase  of  66,741, 
the  whole  number  of  inhabitants  being  169,054.  This  was  a  greater 
relative  increase  than  in  any  of  the  decades  between  1790 — the  date 
of  the  first  national  census — and  1850,  the  augmentation  being 
12,611,  between  1790  and  1800  :  of  9,469,  between  1800  and  1810  ;  of 
27,155,  between  1810  and  1820  ;  of  17,887,  between  1820  and  1830 ; 
and  of  21,688,  between  1830  and  1840. 

The  growth  of  the  city  was  indeed  perfectly  visible  to  the  most 
careless  observer.  As  we  had  in  1816,  been  the  first  city  of  the 
Union  to  introduce  the  general  use  of  gas  as  an  illuminating  material, 
and,  in  1827  to  require  the  incorporation  of  the  first  great  railroad, 
so  we  were  the  first  to  enjoy  the  electric  telegraph  which  was  tested 
and  established  between  Washington  and  Baltimore  in  1844.  But 
in  late  years,  the  taste  and  desire  for  building  and  civic  adornment, 
was  extensively  indulged,  and,  of  course,  indicated  the  substantial 
character  of  our  prosperity,  as  well  as  the  city's  attractiveness  to 
people  who  came  here  from  abroad  to  dwell  and  augment  our 
population  in  addition  to  the  natural  increase  of  our  numbers.  The 
religious  societies  added  to  the  beauty  of  our  architecture  by  the 
erection  of  several  splendid  churches  and  ecclesiastical  establish- 
ments, among  which  we  may  particularly  notice  the  new  Presby- 
terian Church  on  Madison  street  at  its  intersection  with  Park 


street,  and  St.  Alphonsns's,  at  the  corner  of  Park  and  Saratoga. 
The  Jesuit  College  and  Church,  were  added;  the  Athenaeum,*  con- 
taining the  rooms  of  the  Maryland  Historical  Society  and  the 
apartments  of  the  Mercantile  Library  Association ;  the  Boundary 
avenues,  or  Boulevards,  were  laid  out,  and  in  some  few  quarters, 
opened  ;  the  Maryland  Institute  for  the  promotion  of  the  Mechanic 
Arts,  was  opened  on  the  21st  October,  1851 ;  the  fire-alarm  tele- 
graph; the  uniformed  and  well  established  Police  system;  the 
lakes,  reservoirs,  and  supply  of  water  from  Jones's  Falls;  the 
complete,  paid,  Steam  Engine  Fire  Department;  the  City  Passenger 
Railway ;  the  superb  new  City  Hall,  one  of  the  noblest  municipal 
edifices  in  the  country ;  the  Bay  view  Poor  Asylum ;  the  Moses 
Sheppard  Asylum,  a  generous  private  charity ;  the  Peabody  Insti- 
tute with  its  great  Library  and  various  establishments  of  music, 
art  and  general  science ;  the  Asylum  for  the  Blind ;  the  excellent 
House  of  Refuge ;  the  splendid  Homes  for  Aged  Men  and  for  Aged 
Women;  the  Asylum  for  the  Orphan  Children  of  the  late  war, 
and  the  Plome  for  its  Soldiers ;  the  various  private  hospitals  under 
the  kind  auspices  of  religious  societies ;  the  Concordia  Opera  House ; 
the  generous  Homes  for  Friendless  Boys  and  Girls ;  the  passenger 
railways  to  Catonsville  and  Towsontown,  and  to  the  Powhatan 
factory ;  and  the  Agricultural  Fair  and  Cattle  Show  Grounds,  and 
the  Race  Course,  where  we  expect  to  renew  the  triumphs  of  the 
turf  for  which  Baltimore  was  once  renowned. 

Our  fellow  citizen,  Johns  Hopkins,  whose  active  commercial  life 
has  been  rewarded  with  vast  wealth,  has  taken  initiatory  legal  mea- 
sures for  the  endowment  of  an  University  and  of  charitable  Insti- 
tutions, which  will  probably  absorb  several  millions  of  his  great 
fortune,  and  bestow  on  Baltimore  establishments  of  learning  and 
beneficence,  whose  advantages  will  be  certainly  commensurate  with 
the  broad  designs  of  their  respected  founder.  In  all  directions  the 
city  has  extended  in  beauty,  elegance  and  comfort.  The  Jones's 
Falls  enlargement  and  improvement,  costing  millions  perhaps,  will 
be  a  vast  relief  and  embellishment,  as  well  as  security  for  the  city. 
There  is  to  be  a  superb  new  hotel  on  the  ruins  of  the  old,  historic, 
"  Fountain  Inn."  A  new  theatre  and  a  new  opera  house  are  to  be 
built  forthwith ;  and  it  is  hoped  that  the  McDonough  Educational 
Institution  will  soon  erect  an  accessible  and  suitable  edifice,  for  the 

*  Tho  Athcmeum  Building,  completely  finished,  was  a  free  gift  of  the  citizens  to 
the  Maryland  Historical  Society  and  the  Baltimore  Library  Company  or  the  sur- 
vivor. The  Library  being  now  merged  in  the  Historical  Society,  the  Athemeum 
is  the  property  of  that  Institution. 

OF     BALTIMORE.  103 

reception  of  the  poor  boys  whom  the  donor — so  many  years  ago — 
designed  to  receive  in  our  city  or  its  neighborhood,  the  benefits  of 
his  devised  estate. 

No  park  in  America  vies,  we  believe,  with  the  hundreds  of  acres 
of  woodland  and  lawn,  hill  and  dale,  of  our  exquisite  "  Druid  Hill." 
The  property  of  one  family  for  near  a  century,  and  maintained  as  a 
private,  hereditary  domain,  adorned  and  cherished  by  its  tasteful 
owners,  it  was  a  ready-made  park  for  our  city  when  the  authorities 
determined  to  buy  it  in  1860.  The  cent  contribution  of  every  citizen 
or  sojourner  who  rides  in  our  City  Passenger  railcars,  suffices  to  pay 
for  and  support  this  lifegiving  lung  of  our  metropolis,  so  that  when 
the  beauty  of  the  lake,  soon  to  be  completed,  is  added  to  the  natural 
charms  of  the  forest  scenery,  Baltimore  may  boast  of  a  crowning 
embellishment,  that  will  be  jealously  cared  for  and  prized  by  our 
people  through  succeeding  ages.  The  cent  tax,  has  already  produced 
for  our  parks  the  vast  sum  of  $758,887. 

The  visions  of  Canton  Company  Stock  speculators  of  thirty  years 
ago,  though  not  entirely  realized,  are  still  demonstrated  to  have 
been  more  than  "baseless  fabrics,"  by  the  wharves,  factories,  dwell- 
ings, and  hum  of  business  covering  the  once  vacant  spaces  at  the 
base  of  those  eastern  hills  which  are  now  crested  with  the  groves 
and  avenues  of  Patterson  Park.  There  is  no  longer  the  stir  of 
ship-building  on  Fell's  Point,  but  it  has  only  changed  quarters  for 
the  shores  of  Federal  Hill  and  Locust  Point,  on  the  southern  side  of 
the  basin  and  harbor.  There,  too,  a  fresh  town  has  sprung  up  on 
the  "  Whetstone  Peninsula,"  with  long  lines  of  paved  streets, 
houses,  public  buildings,  quays,  coal  wharves,  and  extensive  piers 
and  fire-proof  warehouses  for  the  European  steamers  from  Bremen 
and  England,  connected  with  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad. 
Still,  onward,  the  city  stretches,  over  the  peninsula,  to  the  Middle 
Branch  and  Fort  McIIenry  on  south  and  east;  and,  on  the  west, 
threatens  still  to  include  "  Moale's  Point"  in  the  city's  limits,  in 
spite  of  the  denunciations  of  that  ancestor  of  the  family,  who,  in 
1729,  refused  his  lands  for  the  site  of  the  future  metropolis.  North- 
westwardty  and  westwardly;  northwardly  and  eastwardly,  the  city 
has  run  out  its  streets  and  avenues ;  the  forest  has  been  felled  ;  the 
hills  as  well  as  the  level  grounds  that,  at  our  last  descriptive  outline 
of  Baltimore,  were  still  bare  in  1820-1825,  are  now  covered  with 
substantial  improvements,  slowly  but  securely  won  by  the  patient, 
unostentatious  accretions  of  wealth  and  people  during  the  last  thirty 
years.  Large  numbers  of  private,  individual  houses  (not  vast  and 
crowded  lodging  houses)  have  been  built  for  and  are  occupied  by 


the  working  classes;  demonstrating  the  demand  for,  as  well  as  the 
recompense  of  labor,  in  our  community.  The  old  "Howard's  Park" 
is  tilled  with  residences  and  public  buildings  of  a  richer  character,  in 
substantial  comfort  and  taste,  comparing  favorably  with  the  dwell- 
ing-quarters of  more  boastful  capitals.  The  observer  of  this  busy 
and  beautiful  scene  from  the  top  of  the  "  Washington  Monument," 
in  the  centre  of  these  luxurious  dwellings,  whence  the  whole  pano- 
rama of  Baltimore  is  distinctly  visible,  now  beholds  a  magniticent 
city  nestling  under  the  sheltering  slopes  around  the  head  waters 
of  the  branches  of  the  Patapsco,  where  our  ancestors  planted  them- 
selves so  confidently  one  hundred  and  forty-one  years  ago.  From 
the  still  wooded  heights,  north  of  the  Northern  Boundary  avenue, 
to  the  waters  of  the  Basin  and  across  the  Peninsula  to  the  Middle 
Branch,  the  space  is  densely  packed,  quite  four  miles  in  width,  with 
solid  improvements  while,  from  Canton  and  Fell's  Point,  on  the 
east,  to  the  House  of  Refuge  and  Druid  Hill  Park,  on  the  west 
and  nothwest,  seven  or  eight  miles  in  length,  the  substantial  build- 
ings are  centrally  quite  as  dense,  and  only  scattering  in  parts  of  the 
extreme  outskirts. 

Baltimore's  progress  was  thus  rapid,  sound  and  elastic  until  the 
winter  of  1860-1.     People  were  eager  in  predicting  the  city's  pros- 
perity for  years  to  come.     Real  estate  maintained  a  steady,  equable 
advance  in  value,  according  to  the  relative  situation  of  property  in 
business  or  residence  districts.     But,  in  1861,  the  sad  civil  war  broke 
out,  and  though  Maryland  did  not  become  the  theatre  of  battle  until 
the  Confederate  invasion  of  1863,  its  border  situation  made  it  an 
object  of  contest  from  a  very  early  day,  not  only  by  both  sections — 
North  and  South — but  by  the  people  of  the  State  themselves.    A 
"Middle  State"  and  a  "Slave  State,"  the  sympathies  of  the  citizens 
were  divided  in  many  instances,  and  positively  devoted  to  the  South 
in,  perhaps,  a  majority  of  cases.     There  was  a  decided  anxiety  to 
avoid  an  armed  conflict,  and  many  citizens  cherished  the  impossible 
idea  of  "  neutrality "  in  such  a  war.     The   city  of  Baltimore    was, 
through  business  relations  and  personal  affiliations,  greatly  allied  to 
the  South  and  its  "institution."     Yet,  conventions  held  here  in  1860 
and  early  in  1861,  failed   to   elicit  a  positive  decision  in  favor  of 
"secession,"  which  was  openly  discussed  and  voted  on  in  Southern 
States.     The  views  of  leading  men,  on  both  sides,  were  very  variant 
as  to  action  as  well  as  to  policy  ;  many  regarding  procrastination  and 
compromise  as  wise  and  practicable.    But,  the  events  of  April,  1861, 
precipitated  the  question  in  this  city,  on  the  19th  of  that  month,  by 
the  violent  interruption  of  a  Massachusetts  regiment  in  its  passage 

OP     BALTIMORE.  105 

through  our  streets  en  route  to  Washington,  on  the  call  of  President 
Lincoln  for  75,000  volunteers.  War  was  inevitable  after  the  capture 
of  Fort  Sumter.  Baltimore,  as  an  objective  military  position,  was 
one  of  the  most  important  in  the  Union;  and,  accordingly,  the 
United  States  Government  immediately  began  to  occupy  it  and  its 
neighborhood,  as  well  as  different  parts  of  the  State,  with  sufficient 
troops  to  ensure  peace  within  our  territory.  The  consequence  was 
that  large  numbers  of  our  j^ounger  men  went  over  the  border  and 
took  up  arms  for  the  South,  abiding  there  the  fate  and  hardships  of 
arms  and  privation,  until  the  end  of  the  war,  in  1865.  The  State 
and  the  city,  during'the  whole  period,  were  in  the  hands  of  citizens 
devoted  to  the  Union  cause;  and  large  numbers,  black  and  white, 
enlisted  in  the  armies  of  volunteers  raised  by  the  General  Govern- 
ment for  the  national  defence. 

As  in  all  states  and  communities,  when  war  of  opinion  ends  in 
war  of  arms,  the  violence  and  diversity  of  opinion  were  correspond- 
ingly great ;  but,  for  the  sake  of  all : — 

"Peraget  tranquilla  protestas 
Quod  molenta  nequit :  mandataque  fortius  urget 
Imperia  quies  !" — 

The  city  of  Baltimore,  though  its  prosperity  suffered  from  the 
civil  war,  still  had  certain  partial  compensations  in  the  increased 
knowledge  obtained  by  our  countrymen  of  its  geographical  import- 
ance, of  the  value  of  Maryland  lands,  streams  and  mines,  as  well 
as  in  the  temporary  depot  trade  in  military  supplies  and  troop  trans- 
portation. But  the  war  stopped  the  great  trade  of  Baltimore  with 
the  South,  and  broke  the  city's  connection  with  the  West.  Since 
the  conflict  ended,  the  revival  of  this  suspended  prosperity  has  been 
steady  and  firm ;  nor  can  any  one  observe  our  thronged  streets,  our 
crowded  cars,  our  packed  vans,  the  gay  crowds  of  pleasure-seekers 
in  our  parks,  the  wide  awake,  healthy  alacrity  of  our  people  at  all 
times,  the  rows  of  comfortable  houses  built  and  building  in  every 
direction,  without  being  aware  of  Baltimore's  substantial  growth. 

Prior  to  1820,  we  were  rich  from  foreign  and  domestic  trade, 
combined  and  nearly  monopolized  in  Baltimore.  We  are  now 
endeavoring  to  reassert  our  lost  supremacy,  mainly  through  the 
continuation  and  increase  of  the  Internal  Improvement  System, 
initiated,  as  related,  soon  after  the  disasters  we  have  heretofore 

Before  the  days  of  sea-going  and  ocean-crossing  steamers,  it  waa 
objected  to  Baltimore  that  it  was  "  not  a  sea-port,"  being  at  the  end 


of  two  hundred  miles  of  inland  navigation ;  and  it  was  replied  that 
London,  Paris,  Antwerp,  Bremen,  Dresden,  Berlin  and  Hamburg, 
the  great  European  trade  cities,  and  Amsterdam,  the  great  financial 
centre  of  the  continent,  were  not  sea-ports.  But,  since  the  era  of 
sea-going  steamers,  the  geographical  fact  is  of  no  appreciable,  prac- 
tical importance,  the  vehicle  of  transportation  being  continuous. 

And  so  we  return  to  the  great  idea  of  the  founders  of  Baltimore, 
in  1729,  that  in  truth,  it  is  the  original,  and  natural,  terminus  of 
internal  American  trade,  on  the  Atlantic  seaboard,  indicated  by  the 
geography  of  the  country. 

The  canal  and  railway  companies,  incorporated  over  forty  years 
ago,  have  been,  and  are  still  striving  to  demonstrate  this.  Their 
success  in  sustaining  the  city  amid  all  the  rivalries  of  trade,  of  com- 
peting States  and  cities,  amid  the  disasters  of  war,  with  the  small 
capital  of  a  comparatively  small  State  and  small  city  exclusively, 
has  been  marvellous ;  yet,  that  they  have  succeeded  under  all  such 
discouragements  and  disadvantages,  is  proof  of  the  soundness  of 
their  basis :  the  centred  and  national  supremacy  of  Baltimore.  It  was 
from  Baltimore-Town  in  Colonial  and  anti-revolutionary  days  that 
the  trading  adventurers,  soldiers,  or  pioneers  set  forth,  when  they 
went  westward,  wending  their  way  by  "Fort  Cumberland,"  until 
they  penetrated  the  wilderness,  with  their  long  trains  of  "pack- 
horses,"  (before  the  days  of  wagons,)  bearing  luxuries  into  the  forest 
to  be  exchanged  for  the  peltries,  which  were  then  almost  the  only 
"circulating  medium"  of  the  region.  Maryland,  lying  like  a  wedge 
between  Pennsylvania  and  Virginia,  and  having,  in  its  centre, 
another  wedge,  in  its  magnificent  Bay  and  .River,  whose  affluents 
penetrated  its  extreme  northwestern  corner,  afforded  the  easiest 
levels  for  a  channel  of  trade  for  passing  the  mountains  and  reaching 
the  navigable  waters  of  the  Ohio,  then  almost  the  outer  boundary 
of  civilized  men.  Thus,  our  State  became  the  chief  recognized  line 
of  travel,  and  our  town  the  chief  depot  between  the  Atlantic  slopes 
and  shores,  and  the  valleys  beyond  the  Alleghany  range.  Historic- 
ally, as  well  as  geographically,  Baltimore  is  therefore  to  be  reckoned 
the  earliest  commercial  ally  of  the  West.  It  was  certainly  so,  in 
the  days  when  Braddock  and  Washington  pursued  the  line  I  have 
indicated  towards  Fort  Pitt  or  "Fort  Du  Quesne ;"  and  also  in 
periods  when  the  common  interests  and  common  sense  of  men 
pointed  out  a  trail  for  trade,  independently  of  all  extraneous  rival- 
ries or  influences.  It  continued  so,  indeed,  till  the  opening  of  the 
Mississippi,  by  steam  navigation,  and  until  the  establishment  of  the 
New  York  Canal. 

OF    BALTIMORE.  107 

The  geographical  fact  still  remains — immutable.  All  the  art,  all 
the  ingenuity,  all  the  capital  of  other  states  and  cities,  are  unable 
to  change  the  surface  of  the  earth,  or  their  relative  situation  on  it. 
They  have  been  unable  to  destroy  the  great  truth  that  Baltimore  is 
not  only  the  natural  depot  of  American  continental  trade,  but  also 
the  central  point  of  the  sea-board  Union,  in  instantaneous  inter- 
course with  the  National  Capital,  and  that  its  great  Western  rail- 
way is  the  shortest,  directest,  and,  of  course,  most  economical  com- 
munication between  the  West  and  the  sea. 

A  glance  at  any  skeleton  map  of  the  United  States,  on  which  the 
great  railways  are  truthfully  laid  down,  will  show  this.  It  will  be 
seen  that  while  Boston,  New  York  and  Philadelphia  stretch  out  their 
iron  arms  longingly  to  the  West,  every  grasp  they  make  drags  com- 
modities over  a  longer  road,  and,  of  course,  at  greater  cost.  While 
seeking  central  communications  westwardly,  we  have  not  been  un- 
mindful that  there  were  northern  lands  and  lakes,  and  mines  which 
might  contribute  to  our,  and  the  South's  prosperity  and  convenience. 
Accordingly,  we  have  threaded  the  Susquehanna  with  a  canal  and  a 
road,  which  places  Lake  Erie  nearer  to  Baltimore  than  to  New  York 
or  Philadelphia.  Our  communications  with  the  North  and  East  and 
their  connections  are  perfect,  through  the  Philadelphia,  Wilming- 
ton and  Baltimore  Railroad — the  Western  Maryland, — and  through 
the  Northern  Central  Railway,  whose  connecting  lines  at  Harrisburg;, 
Williamsport,  and  elsewhere,  throw  into  its  power  the  products,  not 
only  of  Western  New  York,  and  Western  Pennsylvania,  but  of  the 
Northwestern  Lake  and  Prairie  country  of  our  Union.  By  the 
Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  we  are  linked,  inseparably,  with  all 
sections,  under  the  alliances  and  systems  inaugurated  through  the 
masterly  administration  of  President  Garrett.  These  roads  and  con- 
nections link  our  city,  by  direct  and  regular  intercourse,  with  Wash- 
ington, Richmond,  and  the  affiliated  southern  roads  penetrating 
Virginia,  North  Carolina,  South  Carolina,  Georgia  and  Louisiana. 
Through  Harper's  Ferry  and  Winchester  we  penetrate  the  Valley 
of  Virginia,  and  will  shortly  make  complete  southern  connections 
in  that  direction.  Through  Grafton  we  wend  northwardly  to 
Wheeling,  or  westwardly  to  Parkersburg ;  from  the  latter,  striking 
straight  forward,  to  St.  Louis  and  its  connecting  Pacific  Railroad  ; 
and,  from  the  latter,  uniting  with  that  griddle  of  railways  which 
checkers  Ohio,  Indiana,  Michigan  and  Illinois  and  the  far  Northwest. 
The  Connellsville  and  Pittsburgh  connection  with  our  Baltimore  and 
Ohio  Road,  will  open  a  great  line  of  travel ;  and,  especially,  if  the  pro- 
posed independent  Baltimore,  Pittsburgh  and  Chicago  Road  shall  be 


finally  constructed.  That  line  will  be  the  shortest,  cheapest,  and 
most  direct  from  the  Northwest  to  tide  water.  New  York  has 
been  hitherto  held  as  the  objective  point  of  Chicago  on  the  Atlantic ; 
but,  by  this  proposed  line,  Baltimore,  now  a  first-class  port,  will 
be  one  hundred  and  fifty-two  miles  closer  to  Chicago  than  by  the 
average  distances  of  the  existing  lines  used  to  New  York.  By  the 
New  York  Central  Road,  from  Chicago  to  New  York,  it  is  185 
miles  further  than  from  Chicago  to  Baltimore ;  by  the  New  York 
and  Erie,  166  miles;  and  by  the  Allentown  route,  the  distance  is  104 
miles  greater  to  New  York  than  by  the  route  now  proposed  from 
Chicago  to  our  city.  From  Louisville  to  Baltimore,  the  distance 
through  Cincinnati,  is  696  miles ;  or  291  less  than  to  New  York  by 
the  Ohio  and  Mississippi,  and  N"ew  York  and  Erie  lines ;  and  293 
less  than  to  New  York,  by  the  New  York  Central  ;  and  155  less  than 
by  the  Allentown  route  of  the  Pennsylvania  Road. 

Through  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi  Road  to  Cincinnati,  and  the 
Marietta  and  Cincinnati  Road,  thence,  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Rail- 
road presents  a  line  210  miles  less  in  distance  to  Baltimore  from  St. 
Louis,  than  the  average  distance  by  the  three  trunk  lines  used  from 
St.  Louis  to  New  York.  The  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Company  now 
controls  and  works,  under  a  permanent  lease,  the  Central  Ohio  Road 
from  Bellaire  on  the  Ohio  River  to  Columbus  the  capital  of  the  State; 
and  it  has,  also,,  a  line  which  extends  from  Newark,  or  its  Central 
Ohio  division,  to  Sandusky  on  the  lake.  The  proposed  lines  of  the 
Baltimore  and  Ohio  Road,  in  connection  with  its  Metropolitan 
branch  from  the  Point  of  Rocks,  reduce  the  distance  from  Pittsburgh 
to  Washington  City,  as  compared  with  the  route  via  Harrisburg,  full 
seventy-five  miles. 

Shortened  distance  is,  of  course,  a  main  element  of  transportation  ; 
but  facility  for  transfer,  and  cheapness  of  handling,  are  not  the  least 
of  the  material  advantages  sought  for  in  the  competitions  of  com- 
merce. The  establishment  of  the  Locust  Point  Piers  and  ware- 
houses has  shown  the  wisdom  and  foresight  with  which  our  great 
railway  has  been  directed.  This  is,  at  once,  a  depot,  on  deep 
water,  for  coal,  and  also  a  depot  for  freight  and  passengers, — reached 
without  change  of  cars  from  any  part  of  the  country.  The  coal  is 
delivered  in  the  hold  from  the  original  vehicle  of  transportation ; 
and  the  landed  emigrant  mounts  the  car  for  his  western  home,  with- 
out delay,  or  a  dollar's  cost  for  the  movement  of  his  baggage,  or 
danger  of  the  impositions  practiced  in  other  cities  by  the  greedy 
"  runners"  of  rival  railways. 

But  the  main  purpose  of  this  great  Locust  Point  Depot  and  Pier, 

OF     BALTIMORE.  109 

— 650  feet  long  and  100  feet  wide,  covered  with  fire-proof  ware- 
houses,— is  the  accommodation  of  the  Clyde  built  Steamers,  at  this 
marine  tt  rminus  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad.  It  was  believed 
until  within  a  few  years  that  Xew  York  alone,  could  maintain  lines 
of  steamers  to  Europe.  The  trials  made  by  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio 
Company,  of  a  small  class  of  these  vessels,  induced  more  extensive 
experiments.  Accordingly,  two  first-class  steamships,  of  2,500  tons 
burthen  were  built  and  put  on  the  sea  between  Bremen  and  this 
port ;  and,  in  less  than  a  year,  it  was  found  necessary  to  double  the 
line ;  and  so  successful  had  the  attempt  proved,  that  when  the  new 
stock  was  offered  for  the  additional  capital  required,  the  astute 
merchants  of  Bremen,  who  entirely  comprehended  the  advantages 
of  Baltimore,  offered  subscriptions  for  forty  times  the  sum  desired,  so 
that  the  apportionment  of  the  stock  made  but  two  and  a  half  per 
centum  upon  the  subscriptions  asked  for.  Another  line  for  Liver- 
pool is  necessary  and  organizing.  The  great  ocean  steamers  of  Xew 
York  are  supplied  with  coal  carried  by  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio 
Railroad,  and  shipped  from  Baltimore.  The  cost  of  transportation, 
hence  to  Xew  York,  is  $2.50  per  ton ;  and,  as  our  Baltimore  steam- 
ers, in  their  voyage  hence  to  Bremen,  consume  800  tons,  they,  con- 
sequently, save  two  thousand  dollars  on  each  voyage,  as  compared  with 
Xew  York.  Accordingly,  it  is  not  surprising  to  see  that  we  have, 
in  addition  to  our  railroad  facilities,  and  our  Bremen  or  Liverpool 
steamers,  regular  lines  of  steam  packets,  to  Xorfolk,  Petersburg, 
Richmond,  Ya. ;  "Wilmingtou,  X.  C. ;  Charleston,  Savannah,  Key 
West,  Havana  and  Xew  Orleans.  We  have  also,  most  successful 
lines  of  steamers,  by  canal  and  ocean,  to  Philadelphia,  Xew  York 
and  Boston,  and  to  all  parts  of  our  own  bay  and  rivers.  The 
old  established  "Bay  Line"  of  steamers,  is  most  important  and 
successful  in  its  connections  with  the  railways  of  the  South,  thus 
feeding  Baltimore  with  large  supplies  of  staples,  and  sending  back 
important  cargoes  of  commodities  purchased  in  our  city.  Our 
northern  railways  are  sufficiently  known,  while  those  in  connection 
with  Washington  and  Xew  York  are  now  especially  esteemed,  by 
the  thousands  who  yearly  use  them,  for  the  ease  and  security  of 
the  transportation. 

These  rail  and  water  communications,  with  the  vast  advantages 
they  have  by  comparative  cheapness  of  fuel  and  facility  for  its  re- 
ception, have  certainly  added  largely,  since  the  late  war,  to  the  com- 
merce of  Baltimore.  Two  facts  are  striking;;.  When  the  Baltimore 
and  Ohio  Railroad  was  chartered  in  1826,  the  whole  wealth  of  the 
city  is  estimated  to  have  been  scarcely  more  than  about  seventeen 


millions  of  dollars.*  The  assessed  value  of  real  and  personal  estate 
for  taxation  in  the  city  in  1870,  is  $207,181,550;  while,  under  the  in- 
fluence of  improved  business  connections,  the  revenue  of  the  railroad 
has  increased  from  $300,000  per  month  to  $1,000,000 !  The  lew 
York  importer  of  coffee  sends  his  ship  to  Baltimore  to  avail  of  its 
lower  port  charges  and  superior  and  economical  facilities  for  trans- 
portation. The  city  has  liberally  fostered  the  road,  by  furnishing  it 
riparian  rights,  on  deep  water ;  and  hence  the  Company  was  enabled 
to  build  its  wharves,  piers,  and  warehouses,  and  to  furnish,  without 
cost  to  European  steamers,  these  admirable  advantages  we  have 
described;  by  which  sagacious  course  the  wealth  of  Baltimore  has 
been  augmented  by  many  millions  in  the  course  of  the  last  six  years. 
It  has  re-established  not  only  our  western  internal  trade,  but  effec- 
tually re-initiated  a  lucrative  foreign  commerce ;  large  and  varied 
importations  being  now  made  through  Baltimore  for  the  Ohio 
and  Mississippi  valleys. 

Baltimore  is  nearest  the  North,  nearest  the  South,  nearest  the 
West ;  in  fact  so  central  on  the  seaboard  as  to  be  nearest  all  classes 
of  industry  and  of  production;  it  is  nearest  the  manufacturer  of  the 
North,  the  agricultural  producer  of  the  West  and  South,  the  specu- 
lator and  purchaser  of  Europe  and  the  West  Indies,  and  of  pur- 
chasers everywhere. 

When  our  Great  Road  shall  be  prolonged  to  the  Pacific  Ocean,  by 
the  contemplated  routes,  partially  in  progress,  near  the  40th  parallel 
of  latitude,  it  will  become  the  central  belt  of  North  Amerca, — the 
twin  clasps  of  which  must  be  San  Francisco  and  Baltimore. 

But,  thus  far,  we  have  in  the  main,  flourished  by  transportation 
only ;  yet,  transportation  is  not  omnipotent.  Freight  may  be  brought 
from  the  West  en  masse;  for  the  policy  of  transportation  is  only  to 
grow  opulent  by  furnishing  fresh  outlets  for  productions  by  carrying 
them  over  the  shortest  routes  at  the  most  moderate  cost.  But,  all 
the  commodities  conveyed  will  not  add  to  the  wealth  of  Baltimore 
more  than  the  price  of  its  transportation.  The  great  commercial 
centres  of  the  world  have  not  become  so  by  exclusive  devotion  to 
one  branch  of  industry.  Variety  has  always  fostered  the  growth 
and  wealth  of  cities,  because  variety  and  supply  created  a  market. 
But,  for  t\ns,  cajrital  must  be  supplied  and  used  with  enterprise.    We 

*  Tho  assessed  valuation  of  Baltimore  city  property  for  taxation,  in  1826,  was 
$3,289,354;  which, —as  we  are  informed, — was  on  a  basis  of  one-fifth  of  actual 
value,  and  would  show  the  real  value  to  have  been  $l(i,19(!,770;  so  that  our  figures 
are,  doubtless,  as  nearly  correct  as  possible  in  such  estimates  concerning  long 
past  periods. 


do  not  disparage  railways  and  canals  and  steamers,  when  we  think 
it  best  not  to  rely  on  them  exclusively ;  for  if  railways,  canals,  and 
steamers  fetch  merchandise,  their  business  is  also  to  take  it  abroad, 
and  not  to  deal  with  it  otherwise  here.  A  city  never  grew  rich  on 
freight  alone;  but  it  grows  rich,  when,  as  a  market,  it  becomes  the 
terminus  of  a  trade,  brought  there  by  the  commercial  inducements 
offered  by  a  mercantile  community,  which  either  takes  the  intro- 
duced commodities  for  home  or  foreign  consumption,  or  for  local 
sale,  exchange  or  manufacture.  It  must,  in  truth,  be  a  mart,  and 
not  a  mew  forwarding  entre  depot  for  New  York  and  Boston,  where 
commerce,  which  is  the  great  realizer,  shall  effectually  take  hold  of 
the  transported  merchandise,  and  through  its  maritime  power  make 
it  the  element  of  international  exchange  and  domestic  finance.  In 
our  observations,  elsewhere  in  this  article,  on  the  Banks  of  Balti- 
more, we  give  our  opinion  of  the  lack  of  sufficient  capital,  and  the 
danger  we  may  encounter  from  the  further  postponement  of  its 
supply.  An  important  lesson  is  legible  in  the  financial  history  of 
New  Orleans.  That  city  had  advantages  even  over  Baltimore,  for 
it  was  an  absolute  terminus,  on  the  borders  of  Southern  Civilization, 
of  the  most  extensive  and  prolific  river  navigation  in  the  world.  As 
soon  as  steam  was  introduced,  it  became  the  reservoir  of  the  valleys 
of  the  Ohio,  Missouri,  Mississippi,  Tennessee,  Cumberland,  Red 
River,  and  all  their  affluents.  It  absorbed  the  hemp,  cotton,  to- 
bacco, sugar,  breadstuff's,  spirits  and  provisions  of  that  vast  region, 
and  certainly  then  without  a  possible  rival.  Yet,  what  was  the  re- 
sult ?  Who  was  to  deal  with  this  concentrated  produce  ?  It  could 
not  be  consumed  or  paid  for  there ;  and,  who  was  to  take  it  away  or 
sell  it  ?  Louisiana,  or  Louisiana  merchants  had  no  vessels  except  a 
canoe,  a  steamboat,  or  a  flatboat ;  and  of  course  the  North  and  Eng- 
land, by  their  maritime  power,  secured  the  command  of  this  splen- 
did magazine  of  Western  and  Southwestern  labor,  while,  whatever 
income  accrued  to  the  local  agriculturist,  was  reinvested  in  slaves 
and  land,  if  not  squandered  in  luxuries  furnished,  again,  by  Europe 
or  the  North.  New  York  sent  its  ships,  or  its  freighting  vessels  to 
New  Orleans  for  the  great  staple  of  cotton  demanded  by  England ; 
and,  by  its  European  combinations  conclusively  settled  the  values 
the  South  should  receive  for  its  products.  The  independence  of  New 
Orleans  was  resigned,  notwithstanding  the  immense  materials  of 
enduring  local  wealth  in  its  grasp.  It  became  a  mere  temporary 
depot ;  the  commodities  it  contained  being  moved  by  foreign  capi- 
tal, and  mostly  on  foreign  account.  New  York,  thus  made  itself 
the  central  national  market  for  foreign  exchanges,  founded  on  the 


cotton  supply  and  debt,  and,  obtaining  almost  a  monopoly  of  impor- 
tation, it  forced  the  country  to  come  to  it  for  supplies ;  and,  thus 
too,  by  keeping  the  rest  of  the  Union  its  debtor,  it  controlled  the 
domestic  exchanges. 

From  late  events  it  appears  probable  that  our  vast  western  com- 
munications, by  rail  and  water,  are  likely  to  interfere  materially 
with  the  descending  navigation  of  the  Mississippi  and  the  trade  of 
New  Orleans.  It  is  easier,  quicker  and  cheaper  to  cross  from  the 
great  river  to  the  Atlantic  by  a  straight  line,  on  land,  than  to  float 
around  half  the  nation  by  water.  Time  and  transhipment  are 
money.  Cotton  and  other  merchandise  that  once  went  to  New 
Orleans  now  come  here.  Nature  always  asserts  or  reasserts  herself. 
But  shall  the  ancient  and  losing  game  of  that  southern  city  be 
played  over  again  in  Baltimore,  in  consequence  of  local  lethargy  or 
supineness  in  the  employment  of  capital  in  general  commerce, — in 
Maryland  navigation, — in  direct  importation, — in  liberal  advances 
that  secure  consignments  and  found  a  solid  local  market?  With 
all  the  elements  of  real  commercial  success  in  our  hands,  shall  we 
have  no  actual  commerce  ? 

We  are  thus  earnest  in  attempting  to  foment  an  interest  in  the 
re-establishment  of  our  mercantile  marine  on  Maryland  account, — 
once  so  prosperous  in  the  early  days  we  have  described  in  this  nar- 
rative. We  are  argent  because  we  think  the  city's  prosperity,  in 
this  age  of  competition,  depends  on  a  quick  establishment  of  a  fair 
combination  and  balance  of  local,  foreign  and  internal  trade.  Co- 
operation is  essential  for  the  welfare  of  a  great  mercantile  metropo- 
lis. The  opportunity  is  now  clearly  presented  to  us  of  becoming 
such  a  capital ;  and,  through  the  agencies  of  steam,  the  electric 
telegraph,  and  personal  sagacity,  wealth  and  enterprise,  our  sea- 
going vessels  may  soon  be  placed  on  a  footing  of  equality  with 
our  railways. 




AS    SHOWN    IN    1870,     BY    THE    STATISTICS    OF    HER    POPULATION,    PROPERTY, 

The  material  wealth  and  progress  of  a  City,  State,  or  Nation, 
may  be  reasoned  about,  or,  sufficiently  argued,  from  well  arranged 
facts,  probabilities  or  inferences ;  but  nothing  is  so  demonstratively 
satisfactory  as  an  honest  array  of  "  figures  which  cannot  lie."  Ac- 
cordingly, in  compiling  from  the  most  authentic  sources,  this  sketch 
of  our  city  ;  we  consider  it  best  to  close  our  labors  by  assembling  in 
one  section,  under  proper  heads,  the  statistics  of  our  condition  in 
1869 — 1870.  These  will  not  only  be  useful  for  present  and  future 
reference  or  comparison — embracing,  as  they  do,  the  results  of  many 
years'  growth  and  various  industries — but  will  prove,  beyond 
cavilling,  our  city's  progress,  prospects  and  prosperity.  With  the 
'augmentation  of  supplies  from  all  parts  of  the  interior  of  America — 
nay,  from  India  even,  across  the  Continent ;  with  our  immense 
facilities  of  transportation,  both  domestic  and  foreign;  with  the 
richest  coal  in  abundance,  and  of  course,  with  steam  in  our  prompt 
control ;  we  should  surely  look  forward  to  a  renewal  of  that  world- 
wide commerce,  which  we  fairly  called  our  own,  until  the  war  of 


The  census  returns  of  the  United  States  for  Baltimore-Town  and 
city,  from  1790  to  1870,  are  as  follows : 







1790,      .... 
1800,      .... 
1810,      .... 


1820,.     .     .     . 
1830,.     .     .     . 
1840,.     .     .     . 




1850,    .     .     . 

1860,    .     .     . 

1     1870,    .     .     . 


An  enumeration  of  the  inhabitants,  made  by  the  police  force 
makes  the  population,  283,375,  being  15,476  more  than  the  number 
returned  by  the  U.  S.  Marshal. 

In   1775,  there   were,  altogether   in    Baltimore-Town,  561   houses 



and  5,934  persons  of  all  descriptions ;  and  in  1829,  12,798  houses, 
and  about  80,000  people.  In  the  year  1868  there  were  1,675  new 
buildings  erected  and  530  improvements  made  in  Baltimore,  adding 
$5,641,578,  worth  of  property  to  the  taxable  basis,  while  in  1869, 
the  increase  was  still  greater ;  2,836  dwellings  and  696  improvements 
having  been  erected  and  made  during  that  year,  yielding  the 
additional  sum  of  $6,615,275  to  the  taxable  property,  or,  nearly  a 
million  increase  over  the  additions  of  the  previous  year ;  and,  nearly 
one-fourth  as  many  edifices  erected  in  a  single  year,  as  existed  here 
alogether  in  1829  I 

We  have  taken  much  pains  to  obtain  an  early  copy  of  the  United 
States  Government  returns  from  the  Marshal  of  our  District,  who 
has  kindly  supplied  us  with  all  the  requisite  materials  for  our 
various  tableaux,  which  will  demonstrate  the  solid  growth  and 
advantages  of  our  city.  And  first,  we  shall  exhibit  the  Population, 
Deaths,  Dwellings,  &c,  by  Wards: 

Census  taken  by  the   United  States  in  June,  1870. 



To  present  a  comprehensive  glance  of  the  progress  of  Property,  in 
Baltimore,  that  solid  basis  of  wealth — perhaps  nothing  will  be  more 
satisfactory  than  the  following  interesting  tableau,  which  we  have 
prepared,  with  much  research  and  difficulty,  of  the  taxable  basis  of 
Baltimore-Town  and  Baltimore  City,  from  the  earliest  accessible 
data  in  1729,  to  the  year  1870,  inclusive. 


Of  " Baltimore- Town,"  of  Baltimore- Town  and    County,  and  of 

"Baltimore   City,"  from  the  earliest  accessible  dates 

and   most   reliable   authorities. 





Value  of  the  original  ground  of  Baltimore-Town,  viz.  60  acres,  purchased  in 
1729.  This  comprises  the  space  between  Liberty  street  and  the  Falls,  and 
the  Basin  and  Saratoga  street, 

At  this  time  taxation  was  "per  poll"  or  by  head,  subsequently  abolished  by 
the  Constitution.  The  tax  in  this  year  was  172  lbs.  of  tobacco  per  poll,  or 
altogether  for  town  axd  county  on  7.410  persons, — Tobacco,  1,274,520  lbs., 
commutable  at  12  shillings  and  6  pence  per  hundred  lbs.,        .... 

Population  about  5,000. 

For  Town  and  County  of  Baltimore, 

For  Baltimore  City,  (Incorporated  1796,) 

Revenue  of  the  City  from  all  sources  in  1797, 

"  "  "  "  "      1798 

For  Baltimore  City, 

Revenue  of  city  from  all  sources  in  1808, 

The  United  Slates  Government  assessed  value  of  the  same  property  and  same 

year  was 

The  assessed  value  of  property  in  the  precincts  of  the  city,  by  the  city  asses- 
sors was, 

For  Baltimore  City, 

Whole  amount  derived  from  direct  taxatiox,  in  Baltimore  City,  was,    . 

For  Baltimore  City  (precincts  assessed  icith  city), 

Revenue  of  city  from  all  sources  in  1826, 

For  Baltimore  City  (precincts  assessed  with  city), 

Revenue  of  city  from  all  sources  in  1828,  was 

For  Baltimore  City,  (estimates  one-fifth  current  value,) 

(The  rule  adopted  for  assessment  of  values  for  taxation,  up  to  1800,  was 
about  one-fourth  current  value;  afterwards,  for  years,  about  one-fifth  cur- 
rent value.) 

Revenue  of  city  from  all  sources  in  1829,  was, 

For  Baltimore  City, 

£  120 

S  4,542,992 

£  1.703.022 



3  14.412 















Property  Values  and  Assessments — {Continued.) 


For  Baltimore  City, 


The  taxation  as  made  and  collected  is,  on  this  property,  in  1870, 
$380,863  for  the  State  of  Maryland,  and  $3,222,106  for  the  city.  The 
paupers  supported  during  the  year  were  1,749  of  foreign  birth,  and 
1,163  natives,  while  the  whole  number  of  criminals  convicted  for 
same  period  was  554  natives  and  30  foreigners ;  the  whole  number 
in  prison  on  1st  June,  1870,  was  57  foreigners,  262  native  whites, 
and  594  native  blacks. 








Income  :  year  ended  June  1, 1870. 

Character,  Rank, 
or  Kind. 










W  g 



fa  -a 


O  OT3.2 


Classical  : 


Universities,     .     .     . 





Colleges,      .... 








Academies, .... 
Professional  : 











Medicine,     .... 





Theology,    .... 





Art  and  Music,    .     . 








Commercial,     .     .     . 
Public  Schools  : 





















Grammar,    .... 









Graded  common,  .     . 








Ungraded  common,  . 
Private  Schools  : 
















Hoarding,     .... 







Parochial,    .... 






No  regular  Charity  School— the    Parochial  Schools  are  part  Charity. 



In  this  city  there  is  one  State  collection  of  hooks,  with  1,462 
volumes  ;  1  bar  or  court  library,  8,000  volumes  ;  Company  libraries, 
41,500  volumes  ;  162  church  and  college  libraries,  98,210  volumes  ; 
151  Sabbath-school  libraries,  81,335  volumes ;  and  four  circulating 
subscription  libraries  with  54,655  volumes.  It  is  estimated  by  the 
Rev.  Dr.  J.  Gr.  Morris,  that  the  number  of  Baltimore  authors  may  be 
stated  at  365,  including  those  not  natives,  but  who  wrote  here  ;  the 
number  of  pamphlets  written  by  them  being  three-fourths  larger 
than  the  number  of  books. 


As  shown  by  the  United  States  Census  of  the  Twenty  City  IJVu-ds 
for  1870,  exclusive  of  establishments,  the  value  of  whose  pro- 
ductions is  less  than  $500  per  annum. 


Sugar  Refineries, 

Tailors  and  Clothiers, 

Oysters,  Fruit,  and  Vegetable  Packers,     .     . 

Iron  Rails  and  Plates, 

Boots  and  Shoes, 

Cigars  and  Tobacco, 

Cotton  Duck  Manufacturers, 

Transporters  N.  C.  R., 

Copper  Smelting, 

Furniture,  Cabinet  Makers  and  Undertakers, 


Paints,  Varnishes,  White  Lead,  &c,  .  .  . 
Tallow,  Soap  and  Candle  Works,  .... 
Locomotive  and  Engine  Builders,    .... 

Planing  Mill  and  Sash  Factory, 

Distillers,      .     .     .     .  ' 

Brick  Makers, 


Iron  Founders, 

Carpenters  and  Builders, 

Tin  Can  Makers, 

Book  and  Job  Printers, 

Petroleum  Refiners, 

Saddles,  and  Harness  Makers, 

Tin  and  Sheet  Iron  Workers,  Roofing,  &c,   . 

■     Amounts  carried  forward, 



Number  of 

Value  of  Produc- 
tions, omitting 



fractions  of  dol- 




















































































Amounts  brought  forward, 

Morocco,  Leather  and  Lining  Manufacturers,  .     .     . 

Piano  Makers, 

Pork  Packer  and  Produce  Dealer, 

Flour  Mills, 

Linen  and  Cotton  Bags, 

Pig  Iron  Furnace, 

Linseed  Oil  Manufactories, 

Stoves,  Furnaces,  &c, 

Tanners  and  Curriers, 

Agricultural  Implements, 

Marble  Workers, 


Malt  Mills, 

Carriages  and  Wagons, 

Box  Makers, 


Confectioners  and  Candy  Makers, 

Broom  Makers, 

Crackers  and  Ship  Biscuit, 

Iron  Manufacturers, 


Patent  Medicines,  Extracts,  &c, 

Mustard  and  Ground  Spices, 

Glass  Manufacturers, 

Blacksmiths  and  Wheelwrights, 

Boiler  Makers, 

Bell  and  Brass  Founders, 

Turning  and  Sawing  Wood, 

Plumbing  and  Gas  Fitting, 

Pitch,  Felt,  Cement  and  Roofing, 

Paper  Hanging  and  Upholstering, 

Sail  Makers  and  Awning  Makers, 

Paper  Bags, 

Steam  Heating  Apparatus, 

Wooden  Ware  Factory, 

Watches  and  Jewelry, 

Shirt  Makers,  Drawers,  &c, 

Hats  and  Caps, 

House  and  Sign  Painters, 

Engravers,  Die  Sinkers  and  Stencil  Cutters,     .     .     . 

Dress  Makers, 



Ship  Building  and  Marino  Railway, 

Picture  and  Looking-Glass  Frames,  Carvers,  Gilders, 

Amounts  carried  forward, 1,927 









































Number  of 


































.  25 













Value  of  Produc- 
tions, omitting 
fractions  of  dol- 







Amounts  brought  forward, 

Book  Binders,  Blank  Books  and  Passe  Partout, 

Vinegar  Makers, 

Pearl  Hominy  and  Corn  Mill, 

Chemical  Works, 

Gas  Works, 

Whips,  Canes  and  Umbrellas, 

Paint  Colors, 


Locksmiths  and  Bell  Hangers, 


Shot  Works, 

Scale  Manufacturers, 

Fire  Bricks, 

Silver  Ware  Manufacturers, 

Handles  and  Spokes, 

Bone  Dust  Manufacturer, 

Metal  Manufacturer, 

Copper  Smiths, 

Mattress  Manufacturers, 

Turning  Stone, 

Rivet  and  Spike  Works, 

Saw  Mill, 

Soda,  Mineral  Water  and  Syrup  Manufacturers, 


Plaster  Mills, 

Hoop  Skirt  and  Corset  Makers, 

Gas  Meters, 

Tonic  Bitters, 

Banners,  Regalia,  Flags,  &c, 

Gold  and  Silver  Plated  Ware, 

Rope  Makers, 

Steam  Sawing  and  Splitting  Kindling  Wood,    . 
Bottlers  of  Porter  and  Mineral  Water,     .     .     . 

Burr  Mill  Stones, 

Iron  Safe  and  Vault  Maker, 

Willow  Ware, 

Trunk  Makers, 

Stone  and  Granite  Cutters, 

Soap  Stone  Worker, 

Building  Materials, 

Brush  Makers, 

Dyers  and  Scourers, 

Truss  Manufacturers, 

Snuff  Manufacturers, 

Carpet  Weavers, 

Amounts  carried  forward, 


Number  of 

Value  of  Produc- 
tions, omittiDg 


II11 11 'Is. 

fractions  of  dol- 



















































































































































Amounts  brought  forward, 

Wig,  Ornamental  Hair  Works  and  Hair  Dressers, 

Cigar  Box  Makers, 

Curled  Hair  Manufactory, 

Horse  Shoe  Makers, 

Boat  Builders  and  Oar  Makers, 

Bark  Mill, 

Gold  Leaf  Manufacturer, 

Tobacco  Pipe  Manufactories, 

Organ  Manufactories, 

Show  Case  Manufacturers, 

House  Furnishing  Goods, 

Slate  Roofer, 

Japanners  and  Bronzers, 

Wire  Cloth  and  Wire  Works, 

Scroll  Sawing, 

Barrel  Factories, 

Musical  Instrument  Makers, 

Gun  Smiths, 

Horse  Shoers, 

Block  and  Pump  Makers, 

Shoe  and  Gaiter  Uppers, 

Hydrants  and  Pumps, 

Coffin  Makers, 

Type  Founder, 

Basket  Makers, 


Mathematical  and  Nautical  Instrument  Makers,    . 

Sponge  Goods, 

Saw  Factories, 

Dress  Trimmings, 

Stereotype  and  Electrotype, 

Cotton  Press, 

Glass  Stainer, 

Shoe  Blacking  Maker, 

Leather  and  Riveted  Hose, 

Cutlery  and  Surgical  Instruments, 

Plane  Maker, 

Hoisting  Machines  and  Dumb  Waiters,    .... 

Belt  and  Calf  Roller  Skins, 

Provision  Safe  Maker, 

Sewing  Machine  Repairers, 

.  Billiard  Table  Maker, 


Chair  Makers 

Copper  Lightning  Rods, 

Amounts  carried  forward, 



J  umber  of 












































































































































Value  of  Produc- 
tions, omitting 
fractions  of  dol- 





Amounts  brought  forward, 

Toy  Manufactory, 

Ornamental  Plaster  Works,    .     . 
Patent  "Wheel  Manufacturer, 

Edge  Tool  Makers, 

Plaster  Centre  Piece  Maker,  .     . 
Pocket  Book  Makers,    .... 

Hair  Tonic, 

Tool  Dresser, 

Roofing  Paper, 

Show  Cards, 

Last  Makers, 

Gold  Leaf  Manufacturer,  .     .     . 

Seine  Maker, 


Smoking  Tobacco, 

Tooth  Powder  Manufacturer,     . 

Gold  Pen  Maker, 

Cotton  Domestic  Manufacture,   . 

Stocking  Weaver, 

Lace  Repairer, 




Number  of 

Value  ( 

f  Produc- 
onsof  dol- 



































Of  all  our  industries  the  refining  of  sugar  seems  to  have  been  the 
most  extensive,  affording  a  product  of  $6,882,462 ;  while  the  industry 
that  approached  in  value  was  that  of  the  211  tailors  and  clothiers, 
who,  with  6,468  employes,  realized  $5,357,871 ;  while  the  4  sugar 
refineries  had  required  only  434  hands  to  earn  their  nearly  seven 
millions  !  Significant  as  are  the  results  displayed  by  this  summary 
of  the  productive  industry  of  Baltimore,  derived  from  the  census 
returns  of  June,  1870,  we  cannot  but  doubt  their  exactness  in  afford- 
ing a  complete  picture  of  our  labor,  capital,  and  enterprise.  There  is  a 
morbid  reluctance  on  the  part  of  men  to  divulge  the  secrets  of  their 
factories,  warehouses,  or  dwellings.  When  the  "  census  taker"  ap- 
pears, their  reticence  becomes  aggravated.  Some  suppose  there  are 
hidden  designs  of  taxation  in  the  inquisition  set  on  foot  by  the  Gov- 
ernment ;  others  desire  to  conceal  their  business, — its  extent,  or  its 
poverty, — from  the  knowledge  of  competitors  ;  others,  again,  regard 
the  inquiry  as  simply  impertinent  and  offensive,  so  that  the  mar- 
shals are  generally  either  misinformed  or  thwarted  while  endeavor- 
ing honestly  to  comply  with  the  requirements  of  law  in  presenting 



an  exact  tableau  of  their  local  industries.  These  remarks  apply  with 
special  force  to  the  productions  of  individual  or  corporate  industry, 
and  we  doubt  whether  any  census,  taken  under  existing  systems, 
will  ever  do  more  than  present  proximate  returns  of  the  general 


Statistics  of  Religion  in  Baltimore,  in  1870,  shoiv  the  following 

Results  : 





Protestant  Episcopal,    .    .. 


Roman  Catholic,  .  .  .  . 
Methodist  Episcopal,  .  . 
Methodist  Episcopal  (South). 
Methodist  Independent,  . 
Methodist  Protestant,  .  . 
Reformed  Church,  .  .  . 
Christian  Church,     .     .     . 

Baptist, '. 

Evangelical  Lutheran,  .  . 
Evangelical  Association,  . 
Independent  Church,     .     . 




Jewish  Synagogues,  .  .  . 
United  Brethren,  .... 
African  Methodist,  .  .  . 
Swedenborgian,    .... 


































The  newspaper,  magazine,  and  quarterly  literature  of  the  city  is 
comprised  in  the  issues  of  seven  daily  newspapers,  with  an  alleged 
aggregate  circulation,  in  all,  of  82,500  copies ;  of  ten  weeklies,  with 
an  entire  aggregate  circulation  of  67,694 ;  of  one  tri-weekly,  with  a 
circulation  of  5,000  ;  of  four  monthlies,  issuing  10,200  copies  in  all ; 
and  one  quarterly,  with  a  subscription  list  of  about  2,000  names. 

OF    BALTIMORE.  123 


The  City  Passenger  Railway  is  now  so  much  of  an  "indis- 
pensable institution"  to  our  citizens,  and  has  produced  so  much  to 
the  development  of  Baltimore  by  its  prompt  and  cheap  trans- 
portation to  all  parts,  that  it  deserves  special  record  in  an  analysis 
of  our  resources  and  their  prosperity.  This  association  began  its 
public  operations  on  the  28th  of  July,  1859 ;  and,  during  the  year 
ending  30th  April,  1862,  in  50  cars  and  with  350  horses,  carried 
3,738,162  passengers — all  the  lines,  except  those  of  Charles,  and 
Albemarle,  and  High  streets,  being  then  in  operation.  The  vast 
stride  of  Baltimore's  advancement  is  seen  in  the  increase  seven 
years  aftewards,  when,  in  1869,  75  cars  and  600  horses,  on  32 
miles  of  track,  transported  11,385,464  people.  The  tax  of  one- 
fifth  of  gross  receipts,  payable  to  the  city  of  Baltimore,  for  the 
Public  Parks,  has  been,  up  to  the  1st  October,  1870,  $758,887; 
while,  since  January,  1864,  the  Company  has  paid  dividends  on 
stock  and  government  tax  to  the  amount  of  $350,000.  It  is 
alleged  that,  from  the  large  increase  of  value  of  labor  and  mate- 
rials, the  cost  of  working  the  road  is  100  per  cent,  greater  than 
at  the  date  of  its  charter. 


Appreciating  the  harbor  of  Baltimore  as  important  not  only  for 
its  own  private  and  general  commerce,  but,  in  fact,  as  a  national 
port  of  supply  and  delivery,  especially  as  a  depot  of  coal  and  naval 
supplies,  the  United  States  Government  has,  for  several  years,  united 
with  this  State  and  City  in  expenditures  for  the  deepening  of  the 
river  channel  to  our  wharves.  Up  to  1858,  the  result  was  a  practi- 
cable channel,  150  feet  wide  and  22  feet  deep,  from  a  point  one  mile 
and  a  half  below  Port  Carroll,  to  a  point  just  beyond  !Korth  Point, 
about  four  and  a  half  miles  in  length,  with  several  incomplete  cuts, 
extending  a  mile  or  two  below.  The  whole  work  was  then  left  in 
an  unfinished  condition.  In  1866,  there  was  a  careful  resurvey  by 
the  general  government  of  the  river  and  bay  below  Fort  Carroll,  and 
the  fact  was  developed  by  it  that  the  tides  and  currents,  setting 



down  the  Susquehanna,  had  already  materially  injured  the  excava- 
tions that  had  been  previously  made  below  North  Point ;  and  it  was 
moreover  shown  that  all  the  lower  portion  of  the  original  line  of 
channel,  eastward  of  the  Seven  Foot  Knoll  light,  was  subject  to 
obstruction  by  fields  of  floating  ice.  In  consequence  of  this,  a  new 
channel  was  traced  out  by  Col.  Craighill  of  the  IT.  S.  Engineer 
Corps,  U.  S.  A.,  and  now  called  after  him,  200  feet  wide  and  22  feet 
deep  at  mean  low  water,  with  a  length  of  four  and  seven-eighths 
miles,  deflecting  from  a  point  of  the  Brewerton  Channel  three- 
fourths  of  a  mile  below  the  Seven  Foot  Knoll  light,  and  running 
thence  due  south  towards  Sandy  Point.  A  revised  estimate  of  the 
whole  route,  from  Fort  McHenry,  with  an  increased  width  of  50  feet 
beyond  the  original  plan,  was  also  submitted;  and  in  November, 
1869,  the  new  thoroughfare  was  opened  to  commerce,  while  that 
part  of  the  Brewerton  Channel,  above  the  junction  with  the  new 
one,  was  nearly  restored  to  its  original  dimensions  of  150  feet  width 
and  22  feet  depth. 

Thus,  Baltimore,  at  length,  has  a  deep,  straight  and  secure 
channel  for  her  commerce,  and  the  Government  a  depot  for  that 
species  of  coal  which  is  not  only  best  for  her  steam  vessels  of 
war  and  transports,  but,  of  course,  more  economically  sujiplied  in 
Baltimore  from  our  Maryland  mines,  than  from  any  other  port 
in  the  Union. 

District  of  Baltimore,  for  the  Years: 





1847,     .     . 



1854,    .     . 






1855,    .     . 






1856,    .     . 






1857,    .     . 






1858,    .     . 






1859,    .     . 









Of  Foreign  Merchandise  Imported  into,  and  Domestic  and 
Foreign  Merchandise  Exported  from,  the  Customs  District 
of  Baltimore,  Md.,  from  July  1st,  1859,  to  June  30th,  1870, 




Fiscal  year 


Free  of 




Free  of 



June  30. 








1860,  .    .     . 








1861,  . 








1862,   . 








1863,   . 








1864,   . 








1865,  . 








1866,   . 








1867,   . 








1868,  . 







H.. "..134 

1869,  . 








1870,  . 









Paid,  in  Coin  on  Imports,  Baltimore,  for  the   years  folloicing : 
to  December  31st,  1870,  inclusive. 


$1,166,590  77 
T-2'2,443  04 
1,941,529  51 
1,919,2-29  99 
2,167,120  05 
2,983,202  33 

$4,665,064  35 
5,798,820  85 
6,217,496  41 
9,027,513  03 
9,122,239  29 

These  figures,  from  1860  to  1870,  comprising  the  disastrous  and 
paralyzing  period  of  the  civil  war,  (the  last  year  of  peace,  and  the 
last  year  since  the  end  of  the  war,)  compare  advantageously  with 
the  thirteen  years  prior  to  the  war ;  and,  in  the  last  decade,  show 
an  actual  doublino;  of  our  commerce. 




In  considering  the  interests  of  Baltimore  and  their  development, 
we  have  rarely  conversed  with  a  well  informed  merchant  who  was 
not  impressed  with  the  deficiency  of  bank  capital  in  our  city,  or  of 
its  occasional  misuse  by  boards  entrusted  with  its  management.  It 
is  true  that  Baltimore  suffered,  as  we  have  shown,  in  early  days,  by 
the  miserable  accommodation  and  credit  system,  fostered  by  the 
banks  at  that  time ;  yet  these  systems  have  not  been  altogether 
abandoned,  notwithstanding  our  experience,  so  that  a  more  liberal 
supply  of  monej^  through  regular  banking  institutions  would  doubt- 
less afford  a  much  more  secure  basis  of  trade  than  the  private  dis- 
counting which  has  prevailed  at  various  times  to  so  great  an  extent 
among  us.  The  legalization  of  a  higher  rate  of  interest  would, 
doubtless,  be  a  step  in  advance.  "  The  Bank  of  Maryland,  with 
$200,000  capital,  was  established  in  1790,  and  a  branch  Bank  of 
the  United  States  in  1792.  In  1795,  the  Bank  of  Baltimore  was 
chartered  with  $1,200,000  capital.  ISTine  years  after,  in  1804,  the 
Union  Bank  appeared  with  $3,000,000  capital,  reduced  (we  believe) 
25  per  cent,  in  1821.  In  1810,  the  Commercial  and  Farmers,  the 
Farmers  and  Merchants,  the  Franklin,  and  the  Marine  Banks,  with 
a  capital  of  $1,709,100.  In  1811,  the  City  Bank,  with  $839,405. 
In  1812,  the  Mechanics  Bank  was  created  with  an  original  capital 
of  $1,000,000,  reduced  40  per  cent,  also  in  1821,  and  in  1818,  the 
Savings  Bank  of  Baltimore  was  incorporated." 

These  constituted  our  financial  institutions,  together  with  the 
branch  of  the  second  Bank  of  the  United  States — whose  disastrous 
explosion  we  have  mentioned  —  until  1834,  when  the  Merchants 
Bank,  and  afterwards  a  few  others  were  added,  after  considerable 
efforts  and  importunity.  "We  have  in  all  nineteen  banks,  and  three 
savings  institutions. 

The  able  report  of  the  Corn  and  Flour  Exchange,  of  this  year, 
alludes  to  our  deficiency  in  striking  terms:  "In  1861,  the  banking 
capital  of  Baltimore  was  $10,408,000,  it  is  now,  nine  years  after- 
wards, only  $11,606,000,  showing  an  increase  of  but  $1,197,000. 
Meanwhile  our  neighbors  of  Philadelphia,  in  1861,  had  $11,963,000, 
and  have  now  $17,117,260;  an  increase  of  over  five  millions  of 
dollars;  nevertheless,  judging  from  the  returns  of  the  officer  of  the 
United    States    Customs   of    Baltimore,   our   city   to-day   outranks 



Philadelphia  as  a  port  of  entry.  Our  custom  receipts  for  the  current 
year  exceed  those  of  Philadelphia ;  our  imports  having  increased 
during  the  five  last  years  nearly  300  per  cent.  The  increased  aggre- 
gate trade,  not  including  the  great  increase  of  our  manufactures,  has 
been  fully  one  hundred  per  cent.,  while  our  banking  capital,  for  the 
same  time,  has  augmented  but  10  per  cent."  The  increase  of 
legal  interest  to  7  per  cent,  would,  doubtless,  retain  private  as  well 
as  banking  capital,  legitimately  belonging  here,  which,  under  our 
existing  laws,  seeks  other  points  for  investment,  and  it  would, 
doubtless,  cause  capital  to  flow  to  us,  for  the  same  purpose,  from 
other  localities. 


The  grain  trade  of  Baltimore  for  the  year  1869,  demonstrates  that 
our  city  maintains  her  position  as  the  second  grain  market  of  the 
Atlantic  coast.  The  aggregate  receipts  of  every  kind  of  grain  for 
that  year  were  8,515,755  bushels,  an  excess  of  722,247  bushels  over 
1868.  The  receipts  of  wheat  were  3,239,994  bushels,  an  increase  of 
943,001  bushels;  of  corn,  3.923,563  bushels,  a  deficit  of  162,914 
bushels;  of  oats,  1,171,354  bushels,  an  excess  of  55,379  bushels;  of 
rye,  180,844  bushels,  an  excess  of  36,155  bushels.  The  total  receipts 
of  grain  upon  the  Corn  Exchange  floor,  for  the  five  years  beginning 
with  1864,  were  34,995,964  bushels,  showing  the  receipts  of  1869 
to  be  1,516,562  bushels  in  excess  of  the  average  of  those  preceding 
years.  The  flour  market,  specially  is  shown  by  the  following 
tableau.'- ; 

Flour  Inspections  in  Baltimore  for  I860. 

Total  inspections  of  wheat  flour  for  1869, 
Dispersed  as  follows  : 

Shipped  foreign, 

Shipped  coastwise, 

Taken  for  local  trade  and  neighboring  wants, 
Balance  stock  in  hand,  January  1st,  1870,     . 








Flour  Inspections  in  Baltimore  for  the  last  six,  years. 







Howard  Street,    . 
City  Mills,  .     .     . 


Family,  .... 



344  978 











Total,  .     .     . 


Corn  Meal, .     .     . 













Exports  of  Flour  from,  Baltimore  for  the  last  five  years. 


Great  Britain,    .     .     . 





River  la  Plata,  .     .     . 
British  N.  A.  Colonies, 
Venezuela,     .... 
West  Indies,       .     .     . 
Other  ports,  .... 

Total,      .... 



































These  show  an  increase  of  export  of  flour  of  112,675  barrels  over 
that  of  1868,  and  of  179,823  barrels  over  the  export  of  1866.* 

*  The  flour  production  of  the  city  will  be  found  in  the  general  tableau  of  city 
productions,  as  given  by  the  census  returns  of  1870,  which  is  contained  in  this 
section.  The  flour  and  meal  production  of  the  adjacent  county  of  Baltimore  is  at 
least  $2,500,000  in  value,  and  of  the  adjacent  county  of  Carroll,  half  a  million  of 
dollars  more. 

OF    BALTIMORE.  129 


The  tobacco  trade  of  Maryland,  of  all  that  staple  produced  in  our 
State,  may  be  said  to  centre  at  Baltimore,  as  the  great  depot  of 
inspection,  sale  and  shipment  to  foreign  countries.  Tobacco  is  still 
one  of  our  most  valuable  agricultural  products,  notwithstanding  the 
deterioration  of  qualities  from  the  very  early  days,  as  well  as  the 
change  of  labor-system  within  the  few  last  years.  For  many  years 
it  absorbed  the  attention  of  farmers  and  planters  to  the  entire 
exclusion  of  grain,  and  it  was  not  until  the  occurrences  described  by 
us  in  a  previous  part  of  this  article,  that,  the  failure  of  foreigners 
to  buy  the  weed  forced  our  planters  into  the  wiser  and  healthier 
culture  of  the  cereals  which  must  always  be  needed,  as  they  are 
the  necessaries,  and  not  the  luxuries,  of  life. 

But  the  peculiar  characteristics  of  our  Maryland  tobacco  at 
present,  afford  it  only  a  limited  field  for  consumption,  as  it  is 
unsuited  for  cigars,  snuff  or  chewing,  and  used  solely  by  smokers  of 
the  pipe,  who  are  contented  with,  or  confined  to,  a  very  cheap 
article.  Hence  it  is  consumed  chiefly  by  the  peasantry  of  Germany 
and  Holland,  who  cannot  afford  the  price  paid  for  a  richer  tobacco, 
and  would  unquestionably  smoke  their  wretched  home-grown  weed, 
if  the  rates  were  significantly  raised.  This  has  been  often  proved 
when  European  dealers  and  manufacturers  were  obliged  to  pay 
over  four  cents  per  pound  to  our  planter  for  his  commodity.  As 
soon  as  this  rise  occurred,  the  foreign  demand  ceased,  and  the 
German  cultivation  began  ;  and  Baden,  which  had  raised  but 
30,000,000  pounds,  soon  doubled  her  crop.  Accordingly,  tobacco, 
like  most  of  the  luxuries  of  life,  has  to  be  dealt  with  wisely  and 
gently  by  legislators,  especially  when  its  inferior  grade  fails  to 
commend  it  to  the  consumers  of  "  Cabanas"  and  "  Partagas,"  and 
leaves  it  exclusively  to  the  poor  abroad,  to  whom  the  stimulus  and 
not  the  aroma  of  the  plant  is  the  only  essential.  In  this  respect 
bad  whisky  seems  to  have  still  a  decided  advantage  over  bad 
tobacco,  and  finds  its  recompensing  consumers  among  the  rich  as 
well  as  the  indigent.  But  whisky  is  more  subtle  than  tobacco ; 
and  can  disguise  its  flavor  from  the  palate  ;  while  tobacco,  in  con- 
sumption, must  forever  disclose  its  qualities  as  soon  as  it  touches 
our  lips.  Hence  the  poor  buyers  of  our  cheap  tobacco  will  bear  no 
interference  with  their  rates,  and  begin  to  plant  as  soon  as  we  begin 
to  demand  higher  prices.     In  1857,  when  a  partial  failure  of  the 



tobacco  crop  and  consequent  speculation  sent  up  the  rate  of  ordi- 
nary Maryland  to  seven  and  eight  cents  per  pound,  the  European 
markets  did  not  respond,  and  it  only  led  to  increased  cultivation. 
The  high  prices  of  1857,  caused  Russian  manufacturers  to  substi- 
tute Turkish  and  other  varieties  of  similar  appearance  for  "yel- 
low" and  "  spangled"  Ohio  tobacco,  of  which  they  had  been  previ- 
ously consuming  more  than  2,000  hogsheads  yearly.  The  smokers 
probably  were  not  at  first  pleased  by  the  change ;  but  cheapness  and 
the  smoke  satisfied  them  for  the  time ;  and,  gradually  becoming 
habituated,  they  grew  so  contented  that  it  is  doubtful  whether  they 
will  ever  re-demand  the  Ohio  staple,  even  when  attainable  at  old 
prices.  Rough  smokers,  like  the  majority  of  peasantry  everywhere, 
soon  become  demoralized  in  taste ;  and  free  from  the  plague  of 
excessive  sensitiveness,  put  up,  in  time,  with  " oak  leaves"  if  they 
cannot  get  tobacco,  or  do  not  know  that  the  artful  cheater  has  mixed 
the  oak  with  the  genuine  article.  We  trust,  therefore,  that  in 
future  State  and  National  legislation,  tobacco  will  be  carefully 
treated  ;  and,  especially,  the  products  of  Ohio  and  Maryland,  for 
which  it  is  far  easier  to  find  substitutes  than  for  Virginia  and 
Kentucky,  and  other  similar  Western  tobaccos. 

As  figures  disclose  most  faithfully  the  fluctuations  of  production 
and  consumption,  and  show  the  character  of  a  trade  more  distinctly 
than  mere  narrative,  I  shall  present  some  tables,  carefully  prepared 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Baltimore  Board  of  Trade,  embracing  the 
operations  in  Baltimore  in  this  staple,  from  1848  to  1870  : 

Tobacco  Inspections  at  Baltimore  from  18Jf8  to  I860,  inclusive. 






other  kinds. 
























































Exports  of  Tobacco  from  the   Port  of  Baltimore  for   the  same 


























All  other 





Of  Inspections,  Exports  and  Stocks  Tobacco,  from  18G1  to  1S70, 







































Tobacco  Inspections  at  Baltimore  from  1861  to  1870,  inclusive. 







other  kinds. 


















•  31,515 

























Of  Maryland  and  Ohio  Tobacco  from  Baltimore,  January  1st  to 
December  31st,  for  fourteen  Years. 















Bremen,    . 













































England,   . 















France,.    . 















Spain,    .     . 















Russia, .     . 




Total,      . 
















of    Mary- 

land   and 

Ohio     foi 

the  same 

period,    . 









Hi. ST.",  47,094 





The  census  returns  (of  1870)  that  there  were  254  establishments  in 
Baltimore  for  the  manufacture  of  cigars  and  tobacco,  employing 
1057  hands,  the  value  of  whose  produce  was  $1,843,922.  This 
return,  of  course,  does  not  include  the  manufacturers  whose  yearly 
product  is  worth  less  than  $500. 




The  Coffee  trade  of  Baltimore,  together  with  that  of  Sugar,  has 
always  been  one  of  the  most  important  of  our  commercial  interests. 
When  we  enjoyed  almost  a  monopoly  of  the  "  Colonial  Trade,"  as 
we  have  shown  we  did  during  the  European  wars,  Baltimore  may 
be  said  to  have  been  mistress  of  the  market,  and  there  is  no  reason, 
— with  our  enterprise  and  novel  facilities, — why  Ave  should  not 
approach,  if  not  regain,  our  supremacy  in  supplying  the  great  cen- 
tral portions  of  this  Continent  and  their  dependencies.  It  is  alleged 
that  in  1869  and  1870,  Coffee  importations  were  encouraged  beyond 
all  precedent,  the  excess  over  1867  and  1868, — the  largest  imports 
previously  known, — being  very  large.  The  comparative  and  pro- 
gressive figures  of  the  last  five  years'  transactions  in  Coffee  imports 
are  as  follows : 

Imports  of  Coffee  at  Baltimore  for  the  past  five  Years. 







Rio  Janeiro, 
Laguayra  & 
Other  Ports, 

P.  Cabello, 



















Imports  of  Coffee  at  Baltimore  from  Br  axil  for  the  past 
twenty -three  years. 



1848,  .  .  . 

1849,  ... 

1850,  .  .  . 

1851,  .  .  . 

1852,  .  .  . 

1853,  .  .  . 

1854,  .  .  . 

1855,  .  .  .  • 

1856,  .  .  . 

1857,  .  .  . 

1858,  .  .  . 

1859,  .  .  . 



Y  EAR. 




;;. ;:."» 




This  solid  increase  from  1848,  when  the  import  was  204,485, — 
interrupted  during  the  five  years  of  war  and  its  results, — demon- 
strates the  superiority  of  Baltimore  as  a  distributing  point  for  those 
necessaries  of  life,  Coffee  and  Sugar. 

The  importation  of  Sugar  is  required  at  Baltimore  not  only  for 
distribution  of  the  raw  material,  but  for  the  three  large  Refineries, 
the  Baltimore,  the  Calvert  and  the  Maryland.  The  Calvert  com- 
pany has  a  capacity  of  refining  from  twenty-two  to  twenty-four 
millions  of  pounds  yearly ;  the  capacity  of  the  Maryland  Refinery 
is  about  forty  millions  of  pounds,  and  is  equalled  by  that  of  the 
Baltimore  Refinery ;  and  during  the  year  1868  the  quantity  of  raw 
sugar  worked  by  these  three  companies  is  estimated  to  have  reached 
very  near  sixty-seven  millions  of  pounds.  If  the  inducements  become 
sufficient,  these  Refineries  can  easily  consume  one  hundred  millions 
of  pounds  of  the  raw  material.  In  addition  to  these  companies 
there  are  three  other  refineries  in  Baltimore,  working  exclusively  in 
molasses,  and  producing  lower  grades  of  sugar,  and  it  is  from  all 
these  late  additions  to  our  manufacturing  interests  that  the  stimulus 
has  been  given  to  importation;  the  two  trades  combined  contribut- 
ing largely  to  the  prosperity  of  Baltimore.  The  value  of  production 
of  our  sugar  refineries  for  1870,  was  $6,832,462. 

The  following  tables  show  the  progress  of  Baltimore  in  sugar  and 
molasses  not  only  for  1869  but  comparatively  for  the  last  18  years. 

Imports  of  Sugar  from  January  1st  to  December  31st,  for  three 











Porto  Rico,    .... 
English  Islands,     .     . 
French  Islands,  .     .     . 
Louisiana,      .... 


























Imports  of  foreign  sugar  reduced  to  tons  were  for  1870,  67,828  tons  ;  1869,  59,673 
tons  ;  1868,  57,395  tons  ;  1867,  37,565  tons. 



Imports  of  Sugar  at  Baltimore  for  eighteen  years. 







Barrels  arid 






























































1870,  total  from  all  points,  90,648  hhds.,  57,717  boxes,  25,421  bags  and  mats. 

Molasses  Imports  for  1870. 

Cuba,  .  .  . 
Porto  Rico,  . 
English  Island, 
French  Island, 
New  Orleans,  . 
San  Domingo, 

Total,  1870, 

"  1869, 

"  1868, 

"  1867, 

"  1866, 

"  1865, 

"  1864, 






































Importations  of  Molasses  at  the  Port  of  Baltimore  for  the  last 

eighteen  years. 























2  121 






















































1870,  total  from  all  points,  22,046  hhds.,  1,867  tierces,  2,271  barrels. 


The  facilities  afforded  by  sea  going  steam  navigation,  promoted 
so  much  by  the  cheapness  and  excellence  of  our  Cumberland  Coal, 
esteemed  the  best  "  evaporative  material "  in  the  world,  have  begun 
to  make  Baltimore  an  important  cotton  depot.  This  is  owing  to 
our  proximity  to  the  cotton  growing  States,  being  the  nearest 
Atlantic  port  north  of  Norfolk  and  the  natural  outlet  for  the  pro- 
ducts of  Virginia  and  North  Carolina,  brought  to  us  by  the  Sea- 
board Railway  and  the  bay  line  of  steamers.  In  addition  to  this. 
Baltimore  is,  by  rail,  the  most  accessible  Atlantic  seaboard  market 
for  the  States  of  Missouri,  Tennessee,  and  Arkansas,  while  the 
expenses  of  handling  and  transhipping  commodities  are  much  less 
in  our  city  than  in  the  Northern  markets.  The  growth  of  the 
cotton  trade  is  shown  by  the  exports  of  1869,  by  which  15,502  bales 
were  sent  to  Bremen,  6,320  bales  to  Liverpool,  and  875  bales  to 
Holland,  making  a  total  export  in  that  year  of  22,787  bales ;  against 



22,196  bales  in  1868;  8,629  in  1867;   7,479  in  1866;   and  965  in 
1865 ;  the  gratifying,  solid,  progress  of  five  years  only. 

The  gross  receipts  of  cotton  at  Baltimore  for  the  past  three  years 
is  shown  in  the  following;  table:* 

Receipts  of  Cotton  for  the  past  three  years  at  the  Port  of 


F  R  (3  M 

New  Orleans, 



Virginia  and  North  Carolina, 
Per  Railroad, 


1  869. 

1  868. 








32, 758 






Cotton  Exported  for  the  year  ending  December  31st,  1S/0,  from 

Baltimore,  viz. 


Liverpool,   .... 


Rotterdam,.     .     .     . 

Total  for  1870, 
"      1869, 







The  wants  of  Maryland  and  other  cotton  spinners,  drawing  their 
supplies  principally  from  this  market,  are  from  35,000  to  40,000 
bales  per  annum. 


The  coal  trade  of  Baltimore,  from  our  own  coalfields  and  from  those 
of  West  Virginia,  is  so  important  not  only  in  consequence  of  the 
quantity,  but  of  the  quality  of  the  material — especially  for   steam 

*  The  value  of  the  cotton  manufactures  of  the  adjacent  Baltimore  county  are 
about  $2,500,000  per  annum,  and  of  Carroll  county  at  least  half  a  million. 


navigation — that  it  is  important  to  dwell  on  it  emphatically,  as  an 
element  of  our  city's  wealth.  This  is  especially  the  case,  in  con- 
nection with  the  sea-going  steamship  lines,  which  we  are  establishing 
with  Europe,  as  well  as  all  parts  of  our  own  coasts.  The  area  of  our 
coal  fields  has  not  been  defined  with  absolute  precision,  but  there 
are  unquestionably  about  two  hundred  millions  of  tons  of  the  "  big 
vein,"  untouched.  Fourteen  millions  eight  hundred  and  fifty 
thousand  tons,  have  been  mined  and  taken  to  market  in  twenty- 
eight  years,  between  1842  and  1869  ;  and  at  the  same  rate  of  mining 
this  "  big  vein,"  will  last  one  hundred  years.  The  four  and  six  feet 
veins  have  been  scarcely  more  than  tapped,  and,  together,  they  con- 
tain more  than  the  big  vein,  for  there  is  a  greater  area  of  these  veins, 
less  being  swept  out  of  them  by  the  water  courses.  "  It  is  therefore 
safe  to  say  " — alleges  a  competent  authority — "  that  the  minor  veins 
will  yield  2,000,000  of  tons  per  annum,  for  another  century ;  so,  if 
we  may  feel  sure  that  we  can  go  on  duplicating  the  production  of 
1869,  until  the  year  2,070  or  for  200  years,  it  is  hardly  necessary 
for  the  present  generation  to  be  anxious  about  the  exhaustion 
of  the  coal  measures  of  Alleghany.  The  production  of  1868  was 
1,380,000  tons,  while  the  mining  of  1869,  was  about  1,900,000 
tons,  showing  an  increase  of  46  per  cent.,  against  the  quite  uniform 
increase  of  15  per  cent.,  in  the  preceding  years,  when  there  existed 
no  such  impediments  in  the  avenues  of  outlet — as  were  caused 
by  war  and  injuries  to  the  canal.  The  products  of  1869,  were  as 
follows : 

By  Cumberland  and  Pennsylvania  Railway,  .     .     . 
By  Cumberland  Coal  and  Iron  Company's  Railway, 
By  Hampshire  tramway  Railway, 





ISTow,  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad,  brought  to  Baltimore 
from  the  Cumberland  and  other  mines,  along  which  it  runs,  for 
1869,  1,388,157  tons,  against  815,506  tons  in  1868.  There  was  also 
brought  from  the  same  mines  by  the  Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Canal  to 
Georgetown  and  Alexandria,  663,491  tons,  against  485,070  tons  the 
previous  year,  being  an  increase  by  canal,  of  178,421  tons.  These 
figures  show  an  increase  in  the  development  of  the  Maryland  and 
West  Virginia  mines  in  1869,  of  741,062  tons.     Of  the  receipts  by 



the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  in  1869,  28,000  tons  were  shipped 
to  California  and  foreign  ports,  while  785,240  tons  were  sent  to 
Northern  ports,  in  which  last  shipments  133,378  tons  of  gas  coal 
from  the  West  Virginia  mines  were  included.  The  Anthracite  coal 
of  our  market,  is  supplied  by  the  Northern  Central  Railway  Com- 
pany, and  the  Tidewater  Canal  Company,  whose  combined  capacity 
of  delivery,  per  clay,  has  been  lately  stated  at  1,400  tons,  a  limitation 
causing,  it  is  said,  the  high  cost  of  that  sort  of  coal  to  Baltimore 
consumers  in  late  years.  The  coal  delivery  capacity  of  the  Baltimore 
and  Ohio  Railroad,  is  stated  as  four  times  greater  than  all  the  com- 
bined water  and  rail  capacity  from  the  Anthracite  regions,  as  thus 
represented.  In  1869,  168,000  tons  of  Anthracite  were  brought  to 
this  market  by  the  Northern  Central  Railway,  and  about  83,000 
tons,  by  the  Tidewater  Canal. 


The  greater  part  of  our  "Woolen  mills  were  running  during  1869  ; 
the  receipts  of  foreign  wool  were  813,275  pounds  and  of  domestic, 
682,500  pounds;  a  total  of  1,495,775  pounds,  against  1,125,000  re- 
ceived from  both  sources  in  1868,  showing  an  increase  of  consump- 
tion here  of  370,775. 

Hides  were  more  liberally  imported  in  1869,  into  Baltimore ;  re- 
ceiving 49,564  from  the  Rio  de  la  Plata,  and  3,916  from  other  ports, 
making  53,590  of  direct  imports,  against  only  4,306  in  1868  ;  an 
enormous  increase  of  49,284.  The  coastwise  importation,  however, 
was  diminished  to  54,744,  while  the  city-slaughter  furnished,  doubt- 
less, full  50,000  more,  and  the  bordering  counties  of  the  State, 
additional  numbers.     The  inspections  here  increased  18,245  in  1869. 

Leather  Inspections  since  1863. 









There  are  in  Baltimore,  in  1870,  452  establishments  engaged  in 
manufacture  of  and  from  leather ;  employing  2,541  hands,  the  pro- 
ductive value  of  whose  labor,  as  given  by  the  census  of  1870,  is 
$3,552,880.  The  boot  and  shoe  business  is  increasing  solidly  in  im- 
portance and  wealth. 

The  fertilizing  Guano  is  not  yet  displaced,  among  our  agricul- 
turists, by  any  of  the  late  inventions,  the 

Imports  of  Guano  for  Three  Years. 


Chincha  Islands, 
Guanape,  .  .  . 
Navassa,  .  .  . 
Orchilla,  .  .  . 
West  Indies,  .  . 
Hod  tin  da,  .  .  . 
Coastwise  ports, 









4  869. 














The  trade  in  Naval  Stores  should  be  promoted  more  in  a  market 
situated  so  favorably  for  its  expansion.  The  following  table  exhibits 
this  commerce,  comparatively,  in  1867,  1868,  1869  and  1870 : 

Receipts  of  Naval  Stores  for  the  past  Four  Years. 

4  870. 

4  869. 

4  868. 

4  867. 















Total  number  packages,     .     . 








The  production  of  home  furnaces  of  Iron,  in  1860,  was  about  the 
same  as  the  two  previous  years — estimated  at  35,000  tons,  including 
both  anthracite  and  charcoal." 

For  several  previous  years,  under  the  burthen  of  an  excessive  tax, 
the  production  of  Whiskey  was  either  greatly  diminished,  or  con- 
cealed ;  but  since  the  Act  of  Congress  reducing  taxation,  went  into 
effect  in  the  latter  part  of  1868,  together  with  the  stringent  pro- 
visions for  the  collection  of  the  impost,  the  revenue  from  whiskey 
has  increased  and  the  trade  assumed  a  legitimate  and,  of  course, 
much  more  satisfactory  shape,  at  least  in  the  market  of  Baltimore. 
The  receipts  here,  for  1869,  are  estimated  to  have  been  100,000 
barrels,  from  the  West ;  while  the  city  and  county  production  was 
30,000  barrels  more.  The  number  of  our  small  refiners  has  largely 
increased,  and  competing,  as  they  do,  with  the  larger  ones,  they 
have  kept  the  market  steady. 

The  Fish  trade,  always  an  important  one  for  Baltimore,  from 
very  early  dates,  owing  to  the  prolific  character  of  our  bay  and 
rivers,  has  steadily  maintained  itself,  as  will  be  seen  by  the  re- 
port of 

Imports  and  Receipts  of  Fish  for  1870,  and  the  total  Compared 
with  a  Number  of  Previous  Years. 

British  Provinces, 
New  England,    . 
Southern,  .     .     . 

Total,  1870, 

"  1839, 

"  1868, 

"  1867, 

"  1866, 

"  1865, 

"  1864, 

"  1863, 

"  18C2, 


*  The  iron   production  of  the  adjacent  Baltimore  county  is  at  least  $700,000 
yearly,  in  value. 




The  Provision  market,  too,  has  been  also  at  all  times  a  main  reli- 
ance of  Baltimore  trade.  The  aggregate  crop  of  hogs  reported  as 
slaughtered  in  the  season  of  1868-69  in  the  "West  amounted  to 
2,477,264,  against  2,793,032,  slaughtered  in  the  season  of  1867-68, 
the  decrease  being  estimated  in  pounds  at  fifty  millions.  The  receipt 
of  the  pork  product,  mainly  from  the  West,  in  1869,  as  near  as  can 
be  satisfactorily  ascertained,  reduced  to  tons,  amounted  to  about 
35,000.  The  foreign  demand  during  that  year  was  light  compara- 
tively, and,  as  usual,  confined  to  the  British  Provinces,  the  West 
Indies,  with  some  bacon  and  lard  to  South  America,  and  from 
35,000  to  40,000  hogsheads  of  bacon  to  the  Southern  States  of  the 
Union.  Comparatively,  for  five  years,  the  exports  of  provisions 
from  Baltimore  were  as  follows: 






Beef,  tierces,    .     . 
Pork,  barrels,  .     . 
Bacon,  boxes,  .     . 
Bacon,  pounds,     . 
Lard,  kegs,       .     . 

















527, 6S0 

The  aggregate  receipts  here  of  Beef  cattle  for  the  year  1869  were 
91,000  against  75,891  in  1868,  and  55,713  in  1867 ;  figures  which 
show  a  marked  }rearly  increase  of  this  important  trade.  Out  of  the 
receipts  of  1869,  50,000  head  were  taken  by  the  butchers  of  our  city, 
and#thc  balance  sent  further  east  or  north,  or  taken  by  farmers  for 
stock.  Of  the  live  hogs  sent  to  this  market,  the  quantity  taken  by 
packers  was  small,  the  weather  and  season  being  unfavorable;  and 
almost  the  entire  receipts  of  this  species  of  stock  were  slaughtered 
for  local  consumption. 

There  is  a  large  consumption  of  ice  by  the  butchers  and  packers, 
the  ice  being  stored  generally  by  themselves  and  of  inferior  quality ; 
but  at  least  55,000  tons  of  Northern  and  other  ice  are  yearly  con- 
sumed by  our  citizens  for  their  domestic  purposes.  Its  introduction 
from  abroad  began  as  late  as  1827. 

OF    BALTIMORE.  143 


In  connection  with  the  provision  business  of  our  city,  the  packing 
of  Oysters,  Fruits  and  Yegetables,  has,  within  the  last  twenty  years, 
grown  to  an  importance  in  Baltimore,  which  has  not  only  given  our 
city  a  special  reputation  in  this  trade,  but  by  attracting  attention 
from  abroad,  has  induced  a  large  immigration.  In  fact,  Maryland 
has  a  monopoly  of  the  best  kinds  of  two  of  the  greatest  luxuries: 
oysters  and  \Vhite  Heath  peaches. 

The  trade  in  oysters,  hermetically  sealed,  it  is  reported,  has,  within 
the  two  last  years,  greatly  exceeded  that  of  any  previous  year.  It 
was  estimated,  in  a  review  of  the  commerce  in  this  article  during 
186S,  that  ten  millions  of  bushels  of  the  Chesapeake  bivalve  were 
consumed  during  that  period,  two-thirds  of  which  quantity  were 
hermetically  sealed,  requiring  fully  20,000,000  of  cans  annually. 
If  we  add  to  this  an  equal  number  of  cans  for  the  fruits  and  vege- 
tables packed  within  our  borders,  the  vastness  of  this  trade  becomes 

The  census  returns  furnished  to  us  in  advance  for  this  work  show 
that,  in  1870,  there  were,  in  Baltimore  city,  thirteen  oyster,  fruit 
and  vegetable  packing  establishments,  employing  two  thousand  four 
hundred  and  seventy-six  hands,  the  productive  value  of  whose  labor 
is  recorded  to  have  been  82,692,612.  This  is  the  official  return ;  jet, 
we  confess,  it  seems  scarcely  to  comprehend  the  large  capital  and 
industry  employed  in  this  important  and  lucrative  branch  of  Balti- 
more trade. 

The  extent  of  the  oyster  beds  of  the  Chesapeake  Bay  and  its 
affluents  is  about  373  square  miles,  ninety-two  of  which  are  closely 
covered,  and  the  remainder  scattering.  This  field  could  be  made  to 
give  profitable  employment  to  20,000  laboring  men,  under  the  wise 
administration  and  enforcement  of  proper  laws  for  the  culture,  pro- 
tection and  taking  of  this  delicious  shell  fish.  Almost  every  bend 
of  our  bay  shores,  protected  from  storms,  would  become  a  source 
of  abundant  supply,  if  not  wealth,  to  the  husbanding  planter  of 
oysters ;  while  the  shores  of  the  whole  bay  and  rivers,  honestly  and 
discreetly  managed,  would  yield  wealth  to  the  proprietors  for  cen- 
turies to  come,  and  sufficient  revenue  to  the  State  to  save  the  people 
from  a  large  part  of  present  taxation.  But,  under  the  present  reck- 
less system  of  dragging  and  dredging,  it  has  been  predicted  cer- 



tainly  that  our  renowned  oysters  will  in  a  few  years  be  almost 
entirely  destroyed. 

The  extent  of  the  beds  is  shown  by  the  following  tableau  given  in 
the  last,  and  excellent,  report  of  the  Commander  of  the  Maryland 
"  Oyster  Fleet." 


Swan  Point,  Kent  county, 

Chester  river, 

Sandy  Point  to  Thomas  Point,  Anne  Arundel  county, 

Love  Point  to  Kent  Point,  Queen  Anne's  county,    .     . 

Thomas  Point  to  Horse  Shoe  Point,  including  South 

and  West  rivers,  Anne  Arundel  county,     .... 

Eastern  bay  and  Miles  river,  including  Poplar  island, 

Horse  Shoe  Point  to  Holland's  Point,  Anne  Arundel 

Holland's  Point  to  Patuxent,  Calvert  county,     .     .     . 

The  Choptank  river,  including  Sharp's  island  and  the 
outside  of  Tilghman's  island, 

The  Hudson  river,  Dorchester  county, 

From  the  Patuxent  to  the  Potomac, 

From  the  Hudson  river  to  Hooper's  straits,  Dor- 
chester county, 

Honga  river  and  Hooper's  straits,  Dorchester  county, 

Pishing  bay,  Dorchester  county, 

Nanticoke  river,  Dorchester  and  Wicomico  counties, 

Monie  bay  and  Wicomico  river,  Wicomico  and  Somer- 
set counties, 

Holland's  straits,  Dorchester  county, 

Kedge's  straits,  Somerset  county, 

Manokin  river,  Somerset  county, 

Big  and  Little  Annamessex  rivers,  Somerset  county, 

Tangier  Sound,  including  Holland's  straits,  Dor- 
chester, Wicomico  and  Somerset  counties,    .     .     . 

Potomac  river  and  tributaries, 

The  Patuxent  river, 

From  Hooper's  straits  to  the  Virginia  line,  on  the 
Bay  shore, 

Total, r    .     .     .     . 








10  Close, 

10  Scattering. 



























Close,  but  thin 








TJie  following  is  the  list  of  the  Vessels  and  Canoes  licensed  in 
Baltimore  City  and  each  County  in  the  Season  of  1S6S- 


Queen  Aune's,  . 
Talbot,  .  .  .  . 
Worcester,  .  .  , 

Anne  Arundel, 
Somerset,    .     . 
Wicomico,  . 
Dorchester,      .     . 
Prince  George's, 
Charles, .     .     .     , 
St.  Mary's,  .     .     , 
Calvert, .     .     .     . 
Baltimore  city,     . 

Total,    .     . 
































The  five  hundred  and  sixty-three  dredging  vessels  last  season  em- 
ployed 2.107  white  men  and  1,453  negroes.  The  canoes  employed 
about  3,325  in  all,  with  the  same  proportion  of  white  and  negro 
labor,  making  a  total  of  6,885  men,  independently  of  the  labor  em- 
ployed in  the  carrying  trade,  which  would  probably  swell  the 
number  to  between  9,000  and  10,000  hands  employed  afloat  in  the 
oyster  business. 

That  the  exhaustion  of  the  oyster  crop  of  the  Chesapeake  by  im- 
provident modes  of  taking  the  fish,  is  surely  and  rapidly  going  on,  is 
proved  conclusively  by  the  inadequate  supply  and  inferior  quality  of 
the  last  season;  so  that  it  is  to  be  hoped  we  shall  not,  in  a  very  short 
time,  be  deprived  not  only  of  the  trade,  but  of  the  luxury  its<  If,  by 
the  failure  of  our  Assembly  to  exercise  that  prudent  firmness  of 
legislation  which  will  protect  the  beds  of  our  bay  from  the  senseless 
rapacity  of  fishermen  and  packers. 

In  what  quarter  of  the  world  would  not  the  failure  of  the  Chesa- 
peake 03-ster  be  mourned  as  a  calamity? 

And  this  leads  us,  finally,  to  remember,  that  it  is  to  our  bay  and 
rivers  that  the  country  is  indebted  for  the  "  Canvas-back  duck,"  the 


"Red-head,"  the  "Bay  Mackerel,"  the  "Soft  Crab,"  the  luscious 
"  Hog-fish,"  and  those  vast  stores  of  "  early  vegetables  and  fruits," 
which,  transported  from  our  warm  Southern  shores,  in  our  fleet 
steamers,  gratify  the  gourmands  of  New  York  and  Boston  within 
twenty-four  hours  after  their  departure  from  the  Chesapeake.  Our 
gardens  are  renowned  for  the  excellence  of  their  products.  We 
gave,  through  our  French  gardeners,  (refugees  from  Acadia  and  San 
Domingo,)  the  salsafis,  and  egg-plant,  and  okra,  and  tomato  to  the 
Union.  No  where  in  the  nation  can  people  "  live  better"  than  in 
Baltimore;  and  no  where  have  they  a  finer  and  more  healthful 
climate,  or  a  more  genial  society  in  which  they  may  enjoy  their 




We  have  been  so  long  accustomed  to  regard  the  brilliant  and  daz- 
zling successes  of  our  arms  on  land  and  sea  as  alone  deserving 
commemoration,  that  those  of  civic  life  have  been  in  great  measure 
overlooked.  But  "Peace  hath  her  triumphs  no  less  renowned  than 
War,"  and  they  who  build  cities  and  develop  States  deserve  com- 
mendation no  less  than  those  who  defend  and  adorn  them  by  their 
skill  and  heroism.  Truly  the  representative  men  of  this  century 
are  self-made,  and  their  lives  serve  to  "point  the  moral  and  adorn 
the  tale"  which,  telling  what  has  been  accomplished  by  honest  firm- 
ness and  persistence,  incites  others  to  improve  "the  golden  oppor- 
tunity," to  attain  eminence  and  influence  among  their  fellow-men. 
These  men,  whose  humble  beginnings  and  earnest  efforts,  controlled 
by  an  accurate  and  self-reliant  judgment,  have  won  them  the  admira- 
tion and  respect  of  the  communities  which  they  have  benefited,  are 
living  examples  which  prove  that  industry,  endurance,  and  willing 
hands  are  the  essentials  to  success.  Prominent  among  these,  and 
whose  energy  and  enterprise  caused  him  to  achieve  those  herculean 
labors  which  proved  of  such  incalculable  value  to  the  Government 
during  the  late  civil  war,  stands  Horace  Abbott,  who  was  born  in 
Worcester  county,  Massachusetts,  in  July,  1806. 

Trained  from  early  boyhood  in  the  ISTew  England  school  of  thrift 

and  industry,  he  was  at  the  age  of  sixteen  bound  apprentice  to  a 

blacksmith.     Faithfully  serving  his  term  of  apprenticeship  until  he 

was   twenty-one  years  old,  he  worked  for  two  years  longer  at  his 

trade  as  a  journeyman,  and  may  then  be  said  to  have  fairly  entered 

upon  the  successful  career  which  has  since  distinguished  him.     First 

starting  upon  his  own  account,  he  set  up  a  country  blacksmith  shop 

which  he  continued  in  successful  operation  for  six  3Tears.     In  1836  he 

removed  to  Baltimore.    His  attention  had  already  been  drawn  to  the 

business  of  forging  heavy  ironwork;  and  the  facilities  offered  in  this 

city — the  convenience  of  its  supplies  of  iron  and  coal  and  means  of 

water-shipment — determined   him   to    devote   himself  here    to   the 

development  of  this  important  branch  of  manufacturing  industry. 


He  secured  the  "  Canton  Iron  Works,"  then  owned  by  Peter  Cooper, 
Esq.,  of  New  York,  and  for  fourteen  years  prosecuted  steadily  the 
business  of  making  wrought-iron  shafts,  cranks,  axles,  &c,  for  steam- 
boat and  railroad  purposes,  during  which  time  he  forged  the  first 
large  steamship  shaft  wrought  in  this  country.  This  shaft  was  for 
the  Russian  frigate  Kamtschatka,  built  in  New  York  for  the  Emperor 
Nicholas  I.,  and  such  was  the  interest  manifested  in  this  huge  pro- 
duction of  wrought  iron,  as  it  was  then  considered,  that  it  was 
exhibited  at  the  Exchange  in  New  York,  and  was  doubtless  the 
means  of  stimulating  others  to  similar  feats  of  enterprise  and  skill. 
This  shaft  weighed  about  26,000  pounds.  Other  heavy  shafts  were 
subsequently  forged  at  the  same  works,  which  had  now  acquired  a 
just  celebrity  throughout  the  Union  for  the  great  size  and  excellence 
of  its  productions.  Not  satisfied  with  his  achievement  in  this  line 
alone,  Mr.  Abbott,  in  1850,  built  a  rolling  mill,  capable  of  turning 
out  the  largest  rolled  plate  then  made  in  the  United  States'.  The 
advantages  enjoyed  by  such  an  establishment  over  the  manufacturers 
of  smaller  plates,  led  to  a  vast  accession  of  business,  so  that  in  1857 
Mr.  Abbott  was  induced  to  erect  another  rolling  mill  of  the  same 
size  and  capacity  with  the  first.  In  1859  he  found  it  necessary  to 
add  a  third  rolling  mill  to  his  now  extensive  works,  which  addition 
was  just  completed  at  the  commencement  of  the  civil  war  in  1861. 

The  immense  demands  which  the  war  occasioned  at  once  gave  full 
employment  to  Mr.  Abbott's  works,  and  the  heavy  and  urgent  requi- 
sitions of  the  Government  were  met  with  a  corresponding  energy  of 
production.     The  largest  orders  were  filled  with  a  promptness  and 
fidelity  which  elicited  the  special  thanks  of  the  departments  and  the 
praise  of  the  officers  to  whom  the  work  was  delivered.    On  one  occa- 
sion, in  1863,  Mr.  Abbott  completed  an  order  for  250,000  pounds  of 
rolled  iron  in  forty-eight  hours,  and  received  from  the  Secretary  of 
the  Navy  a  letter  in  commendation  of  his  fidelity  and  energy.  When 
Ca] »tain  Ericsson  designed  the  first  "  Monitor"  he  was  apprehensive 
that  this  country  contained  no  mills  of  sufficient  capacity  to  furnish 
armor  plate  of  the  requisite  thickness  and  dimensions  for  this  form 
of  iron-clad,  and  was  under  the  impression  that  he  would  be  com- 
pelled to  order  them  from  England.     Before  doing  so,  however,  he 
applied  to  Mr.  Abbott,  who,  realizing  the  emergency,  but  feeling 
equal  to  the    task,  promptly   undertook  "to   furnish    whatever  was 
needed.     The  plates  were  manufactured  and  delivered  in  a  shorter 
time  than  had  been  anticipated.     The  Monitor  was  completed  and 
ready  for  sea  in  time  to  engage   the   hostile   ram   "Mernmac"  in 
Hampton  Roads,  and  prevent  her  from  accomplishing  her  mission  of 


destruction  among  the  wooden  craft  of  the  navy  then  lying  in  the 
roads.  In  her  encounter  with  her  formidable  adversary,  the  Monitor 
was  so  effectually  protected  by  her  armor  that  not  a  plate  was  pierced 
or  injured,  and  a  new  era  was  inaugurated  in  the  history  of  naval 
architecture  and  warfare.  Subsequently  Mr.  Abbott  furnished  the 
armor-} dates  for  nearly  all  of  the  vessels  of  the  Monitor  class  built 
on  the  Atlantic  coast,  and  also  for  the  JRoanoke,  Agamenticus,  Monad- 
nock,  and  other  large  iron-clads.  At  the  close  of  the  war,  in  1865,  an 
association  of  capitalists  purchased  the  "Canton  Iron  Works,"  and 
organized  a  joint  stock  company  under  the  corporate  name  of  the 
Abbott  Iron  Company  of  Baltimore  City.  Mr.  Horace  Abbott  was 
unanimously  elected  President  of  this  company,  which  position  he 
held  for  some  time. 

The  works  themselves,  commonly  known  as  the  Abbott  Iron 
Works,  situated  immediately  on  the  line  of  the  Philadelphia,  Wil- 
mington, and  Baltimore  Railroad  where  it  enters  the  city,  and  close 
to  the  water's  edge,  present  a  striking  and  imposing  spectacle  to  all 
travelers  entering  or  leaving  Baltimore  either  by  that  road  or  by 
water.  At  night  the  effect  is  peculiarly  picturesque.  The  works 
lit  up  by  the  glare  of  numerous  forges  and  furnaces,  with  tongues  of 
flame  darting  from  their  many  chimneys,  alive  with  the  bustle  and 
resounding  with  the  labor  of  hundreds  of  stalwart  men,  working 
not  unfrequently  in  the  tierce  heat  stripped  to  the  waist,  suggest  to 
the  imagination  the  fabled  workshops  of  the  Cyclops.  The  glare 
illumines  the  river  and  the  sky,  and  at  a  distance  presents  the  effect 
of  a  city  on  fire.  One  thousand  men  are  employed  night  and  day  in 
these  extensive  works,  whose  capacity  of  manufacture  in  one  single 
department,  that  of  railroad  iron,  is  equal  to  one  hundred  and  forty 
tons  per  day. 

The  rolling  mills  are  now  four  in  number,  with  a  fifth  in  course 
of  erection.  The  original  mill,  built  by  Mr.  Abbott  in  1850  for 
rolling  plate  and  boiler  iron,  contains  four  heating  and  two  puddling 
furnaces,  a  pair  of  eight-feet  plate-rolls  and  a  train  of  muck-rolls. 
At  the  time  it  was  built,  this  mill  was  the  largest  of  the  kind  in  the 
United  States,  and  it  was  predicted  that  it  would  ruin  its  projector. 
Now,  mill  No.  2,  completed  in  1857,  contains  three  heating  and  two 
puddling  furnaces,  a  Nasmyth  steam  hammer,  one  pair  of  eight-feet 
and  one  pair  of  ten-feet  rolls, — the  latter  being  the  largest  plate-rolls 
ever  made  in  this  country.  Mill  No.  3,  built  by  Mr.  Abbott  in  1858 
for  manufacturing  thin  plates  for  gas-pipe,  boiler  tubes,  &c,  contains 
two  heating  furnaces  and  a  pair  of  five-feet  rolls.  Mill  No.  4,  com- 
pleted in  I860,  contains  three  heating  and  four  double  puddling 


furnaces,  a  pair  of  ten-feet  rolls,  a  pair  of  "  breaking-down"  rolls,  a 
Nasmyth  hammer,  and  other  machinery  of  the  most  approved 

Although  now  retired  in  great  measure  from  active  business  life, 
Mr.  Abbott  is  still  an  earnest  and  efficient  worker  in  many  ways. 
He  is  identified  with  various  enterprises  of  public  utility,  and  is 
always  ready  to  assist  from  his  ample  means  those  which  tend  to 
benefit  the  community,  particularly  in  the  construction  and  de- 
velopment of  railroads.  He  is  a  director  in  the  First  National 
Bank,  of  which  institution  he  was  one  of  the  founders,  and  also  a 
director  in  the  Baltimore  Copper  Company,  and  in  the  Union  Rail- 
road of  Baltimore  city.  Mr.  Abbott  now  resides  permanently  at 
his  country  home,  immediately  adjoining  the  limits  of  Baltimore 
city,  overlooking  from  its  commanding  site  the  scene  of  his  former 
labors  and  successes.  He  married  in  1830  Miss  Charlotte  Hapgood  ; 
but  of  seven  children  which  have  crowned  their  union  but  one  sur- 
vives,  a  daughter,  married  to  Mr.  Isaac  M.  Cate,  of  Boston ;  another 
daughter,  now  deceased,  married  Mr.  John  S.  Grilman,  president  of 
the  Second  National  Bank  of  Baltimore,  and  for  many  years  the 
junior  partner  of  the  firm  of  H.  Abbott  &  Son. 

A  man  of  deeds  rather  than  words,  and  of  irrepressible  perse- 
verance, his  straightforward  manner  and  practical  knowledge  have 
won  him  the  confidence  of  his  associates:  while  his  exertions  have 
enabled  him  to  surmount  all  obstacles,  and  made  him  an  exemplar 
to  all  on  the  eve  of  entering  active  business  life.  Throughout  a 
long  life  of  usefulness  he  has  maintained  a  character  unsullied  by 
any  act  which  could  detract  from  his  value  as  a  citizen  or  his  merit 
as  a  man. 



Arunah  S.  Abell,  the  founder  and  now  sole  proprietor  of  that 
widely-known  and  influential  journal,  "The  Baltimore  Sun,"  and 
for  more  than  thirty  years  a  co-proprietor  of  the  Philadelphia 
Ledger,  necessarily  finds  a  place  among  the  most  prominent  and  use- 
ful citizens  of  Baltimore.  As  none,  perhaps,  among  those  of  whom 
mention  is  made  in  this  volume,  have  exercised  a  more  immediate 
and  controlling  influence  over  the  community  than  he,  so  it  may  he 
safely  affirmed  that  none  can  furnish  a  more  instructive  or  honor- 
able record  of  success  achieved  by  patient  industry  and  well-directed 
effort,  and  of  a  triumphant  rise  from  small  beginnings  to  position 
and  wealth. 

Mr.  Abell  was  born  in  East  Providence,  in  the  State  of  Rhode 
Island,  August  10th,  1806.  His  grandfather,  Robert  Abell,  was  the 
grandson  of  Sir  Robert  Abell,  a  member  of  Parliament,  four  of 
whose  sons  emigrated  to  America  to  avoid  religious  persecution,  and 
to  find  a  peaceful  asylum  in  this  country. 

Robert  Abell  served  with  honor  and  distinction  in  the  war  of  the 
Revolution.  His  son,  Caleb  Abell,  the  father  of  the  subject  of  this 
sketch,  was  an  officer  in  the  war  of  1812,  connected  with  the  Quar- 
termaster's Department ;  during  the  whole  of  that  contest  he  dis- 
charged the  duties  of  his  position  with  a  scrupulous  integrity  and 
fidelity  which  were  his  distinguishing  characteristics  through  life, 
and  when  the  war  was  ended,  resigned  his  commission  and  retired 
from  the  service  of  the  Government  a  poorer  man  than  when  lie 
entered  it.  In  the  community  in  which  he  lived  and  died,  he  was 
held  in  the  highest  esteem,  and  for  a  period  of  thirty-six  years  was 
called  successively  to  till  various  local  and  civil  offices  of  trust  and 
honor.  His  wife,  the  mother  of  Arunah  S.  Abell,  was  Elona  Shep- 
herdson,  daughter  of  Colonel  Arunah  Shepherdson,  and  is  described 
by  those  who  knew  her,  as  a  person  of  superior  character  and  intel- 

Having  received  at  school— to  which  he  was  early  sent  and  where 
he  obtained  credit  both  for  good  natural    parts  and  for  habits  of 


application — the  elements  of  a  plain  education,  Aran  ah  S.  Abell  was 
placed,  when  little  more  than  fourteen  years  of  age,  in  the  store  of 
Mr.  P.  Bishop,  a  dealer  in  what  were  called,  in  those  days,  "  West 
India  goods."  Here,  while  employed  as  a  clerk  and  a  salesman,  and 
receiving  his  first  practical  initiation  in  the  methods  and  habits  of 
business,  young  Abell  conceived  the  idea  that  for  him  the  road 
that  leads  to  fortune  Jay  in  another  direction.  He  had  a  strong 
desire  to  enter  a  printing  office,  and,  beginning  with  the  practical 
part  of  the  profession,  to  qualify  himself  eventually  for  the  manage- 
ment of  a  public  journal.  To  this  step  the  consent  of  his  father 
was  necessary,  which  having  obtained,  in  October,  1822,  he  forsook 
the  counting  house,  and  entered,  as  an  apprentice,  the  office  of  the 
Providence  Patriot,  to  learn  the  noble  art  of  G-utenberg,  of  Caxton, 
and  of  Benjamin  Franklin.  The  Patriot  was  a  Democratic  journal 
of  the  Jeffersonian  school,  at  that  time  conducted  by  Messrs.  Jones 
&  Wheeler.  These  gentlemen  were  printers  both  to  the  State  and 
Federal  Governments,  and  had  necessarily  an  extensive  book  and  job 
office.  With  them,  Mr.  Abell  served  a  regular  apprenticeship,  and 
when  "  out  of  his  time,"  bidding  adieu  to  the  home  and  associations 
of  his  youth,  started  out  to  seek  his  own  fortunes  and  to  see  the 
world.  For  the  purpose  of  seeing  to  better  advantage  so  much  of  it 
as  lay  between  Providence  and  Boston,  he  took  a  seat  on  the  outside 
of  the  coach  which,  in  those  days,  before  railroads  were,  furnished 
the  usual  conveyance  between  the  two  cities.  Arrived  at  Boston, 
armed  with  letters  of  introduction  to  Mr.  Greene  of  the  Post,  and 
Mr.  Buckingham  of  the  Courier,  two  of  the  most  influential  news- 
paper men  in  that  city,  he  speedily  obtained  employment  as  a 
journeyman  in  one  of  the  best  offices  in  Boston,  where  he  soon  gave 
such  evidences  of  his  capacity,  that  he  was  promoted  to  the  position 
of  foreman.  About  this  time,  his  friend,  Mr.  Greene  was  appointed 
by  President  Jackson,  Postmaster  of  the  City  of  Boston,  and  offered 
Mr.  Abell  a  lucrative  clerkship  in  the  Post  Office  under  him.  This, 
however,  the  latter  declined,  thanking  Mr.  Greene  for  his  kindness, 
but  at  the  same  time  telling  him  that  he  had  a  definite  object  in  life 
which  he  was  resolved  to  pursue,  and  from  which  he  would  not 
permit  any  prospect  of  gain  or  promotion,  in  any  other  career,  to 
divert  him. 

In  those  days,  as  now,  New  York  was  the  great  centre  to  which 
young  ambition  and  enterprise  turned  for  the  realization  of  their 
hopes,  and  to  that  larger  field  young  Abell  was  tempted  to  direct 
his  steps.  lie  carried  with  him  letters  of  introduction  and  recom- 
mendation to  Major  Noah  and  Colonel  Webb  of  the  Courier,  Colonel 

ARUNAH     S.     ABELL.  155 

Stone  of  the  Advertiser,  and  Colonel  Morris  of  the  Mirror.  By 
these  gentlemen  he  was  received  with  kindness,  and  put  in  the  way 
of  immediate  employment.  He  formed  the  acquaintance,  in  New 
York,  of  numerous  members  of  the  craft,  who,  like  himself,  have 
since,  in  other  cities  and  parts  of  the  country,  become  distinguished 
as  editors,  proprietors,  and  publishers  of  newspapers,  and  with  many 
of  whom  he  has  kept  up  unbroken  relations  of  friendship  and  habits 
of  intercourse.  Among  others  he  became  acquainted  with  "William 
M.  Swain  and  A.  H.  Simmons,  both  practical  printers ;  and  men  of 
shrewd  sense  and  observation.  One  of  these  gentlemen  proposed 
to  Mr.  Abell  to  join  them  in  establishing  a  penny  paper  in  Xew 
York  city.  It  was  then  the  infancy  of  the  "Penny  Press."  Acting 
upon  the  hint  thrown  out  by  the  celebrated  Henry,  afterwards  Lord 
Brougham,  men  of  sagacity  and  enterprise  both  in  England  and 
America,  had  taken  the  initiative  in  establishing  cheap  newspapers. 
The  experiment,  then  only  recently  tried  in  Xew  York,  had  already 
proved  a  success,  and  Mr.  Abell  considered  that  particular  field  so 
far  occupied,  that  he  was  unwilling  to  repeat  the  venture  in  that 
city.  He  accordingly  declined  the  proposition  which  was  made  to 
him,  but  offered,  if  the  others  were  willing  to  join  him,  to  engage 
in  the  same  undertaking  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  where  no 
penny  paper  then  existed.  His  offer  was  accepted,  and  on  the  29th 
day  of  February,  1836,  the  following  articles  of  agreement  were 
drawn  up,  and  signed  by  the  parties  whose  names  are  appended. 
The  original  document,  handsomely  framed,  hangs  in  Air.  Abell's 
dwelling,  and  will,  doubtless,  be  handed  down  as  a  cherished  heir- 
loom in  his  family  : 


"  This  article  of  agreement  made  at  Xew  York,  this  twenty-ninth 
day  of  February,  in  the  year  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
thirty-six,  between  William  M.  Swain,  Arunah  S.  Abell,  and 
Azariah  H.  Simmons,  printers,  all  of  said  city,  witnesseth : — That 
said  parties  have  this  day  entered  into  partnership  as  equal  partners, 
both  in  law  and  equity,  under  the  firm  of  Swain,  Abell  &  Simmons, 
for  the  purpose  of  publishing,  and  in  the  publication  of,  a  daily 
penny  paper,  (neutral  in  politics,)  to  be  entitled  "  The  Times,"  in 
the  city  of  Philadelphia,  State  of  Pennsylvania,  to  be  commenced 
so  soon  as  the  requisite  materials,  room,  &c,  can  be  advantageously 
procured.  Said  parties  are  to  appropriate  each  an  equal  amount 
in  money,  and  are  each  to  devote  his  time  and  energies  either  as 
printer  or  in  such  other  capacity  as  shall  be  deemed  most  conducive 


to  the  interest  of  said  firm,  to  the  commencement,  establishment 
and  success  of  said  paper.  In  case  of  a  difference  of  opinion  with 
regard  to  any  measure  of  policy  to  be  pursued,  not  expressed  above, 
the  views  of  two  shall  be  the  governing  principle.  In  witness 
whereof  we,  the  parties  to  these  presents,  have  each  hereunto  sub- 
scribed our  names,  the  day  and  year  above  written. 

(Signed)        William  M.  Swain, 
(Signed)        Arunah  S.  Abell, 
(Signed)        Azariah  H.  Simmons." 

Such  was  the  beginning  of  the  memorable  association  of  Swain, 
Abell  &  Simmons,  which  lasted  for  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century, 
until  dissolved  by  death,  and  which  resulted  in  the  establishment  of 
two  of  the  most  successful,  widely  circulated  and  influential  jour- 
nals in  the  United  States,  published  in  two  of  its  largest  cities, 
the  Public  Ledger,  in  Philadelphia,  and  The  Sun,  in  Baltimore. 
Having  formed  their  plans,  the  partners  lost  no  time  in  putting 
them  into  execution.  They  gave  up  their  situations  in  ISTew  York, 
removed  to  Philadelphia,  the  necessary  orders  for  type  and  mate- 
rials were  given,  and  everything  gotten  ready  for  the  issue  of  their 
first  number.  As  will  be  seen  from  the  above  "  Agreement,"  they 
had  given  to  their  paper  beforehand,  the  name  of  "The  Times"  and 
a  heading  with  that  name  had  been  cast  for  use.  They  then  sud- 
denly learned  that  a  paper  had  been  previously  published  in  Phila- 
delphia under  that  title,  and  had  failed.  ISTot  wishing  to  start  with 
a  name  of  ill-omen  or  to  have  their  young  enterprise  regarded  as  an 
offshoot  or  revival  of  a  defunct  concern,  the  partners  resolved  upon 
a  change  of  name.  Mr.  Abell  made  the  happy  suggestion  of  the 
title  " Public  Ledger"  which  was  adopted,  and  has  since  become  in 
the  city  of  Philadelphia,  and  throughout  a  large  portion  of  Penn- 
sylvania, a  household  word. 

On  Friday,  March  25th,  1836,  within  less  than  a  month  after  the 
partnership  had  been  formed,  the  first  number  of  the  Public  Ledger 
made  its  appearance — "price  one  cent,  or  six  cents  a  week."  It 
-was  at  first  coldly  received,  and  two  of  the  parties  became  so  much 
discouraged  as  to  propose  a  discontinuance  of  publication.  Mr. 
Abell,  however,  urged  so  strenuously  the  policy  of  holding  on,  at 
least  until  their  funds  were  exhausted,  that  the  confidence  felt 
by  his  copartners  in  the  soundness  of  his  judgment  led  them  to 
deter  to  his  wishes,  and  they  did  "hold  on,"  with  what  splendid 
results  need  not  now  be  told.     A  series  of  vigorous  articles,  taxing 

A RUN AH    S.     A  BELL.  157 

the  citizens  of  Philadelphia  with  a  want  of  liberality  and  public 
spirit,  with  an  unreasonable  prejudice  against  the  enterprise  of 
persons  "not  to  the  manner  born,"  and  a  general  narrow-minded- 
.  ness  and  sluggishness  to  business  matters,  served  to  awaken  atten- 
tion to  the  new  daily,  and  contributed  to  its  popularity  among 
the  younger  and  more  enterprising  business  men  who  felt  the 
truth  and  force  of  its  pungent  observations.  The  business  of  the 
paper  was  now  established  upon  a  sound  and  paying  basis,  and 
having  no  further  misgivings  about  the  future  success  of  the 
Ledger,  it  occurred  to  Mr.  Abell,  in  the  spring  of  the  following 
year,  to  visit  Baltimore  for  the  purpose  of  determining  the  feasi- 
bility of  establishing  a  penny  paper  in  that  city.  A  suggestion 
from  him  to  that  effect  meeting  with  the  hearty  approval  of  his 
partners,  Mr.  Abell,  in  April,  1837,  visited  the  Monumental  City 
for  the  first  time.  There  were  then  published  in  Baltimore,  a 
number  of  respectable  and  well-conducted  journals,  but  not  a  single 
penny  paper.  They  were  all  "six  pennies."  To  the  editors  of  these 
journals,  Mr.  Abell  brought  letters  of  introduction,  and  he  then 
formed  the  acquaintance,  among  others,  of  Messrs.  Dobbin,  Mur- 
phy &  Bose  of  the  American,  Mr.  Gwynn,  of  the  Federal  Gazette, 
Mr.  Harker  of  the  Republican,  Mr.  Poe  of  the  Chronicle,  Mr. 
Monroe  of  the  Patriot,  and  Messrs.  Streeter  &  Skinner  of  the 
Transcript.  It  cannot  be  said,  however,  that  any  of  these  gentle- 
men with  whom  Mr.  Abell  conferred  in  regard  to  his  plans,  held 
out  much  encouragement  as  to  the  success  of  a  new  paper.  In 
fact  the  times  seemed  singularl}'  inauspicious  for  any  enterprise  of 
the  kind.  The  year  1837  was  one  of  unprecedented  disaster  and 
gloom  in  all  commercial  and  business  circles,  and  all  classes  shared 
the  general  depression.  Mr.  Abell,  however,  felt  persuaded  that  a 
penny  paper  would  make  its  way  where  other  enterprises  might 
fail.  He  returned  to  Philadelphia,  impressed  with  this  idea,  and 
obtained  the  approval  of  his  partners  to  hazard  the  experiment, 
upon  condition  that  he  should  assume  the  immediate  responsibility 
and  personal  control.  This,  although  he  had  just  passed  through 
a  similar  trial  of  patience  and  faith,  incident  to  the  first  estab- 
lishment of  the  Ledger,  he  consented  to  do.  "With  the  same 
rapidity  that  had  characterized  their  proceedings  in  regard  to  that 
paper,  when  once  their  minds  were  made  up,  type  and  materials 
were  ordered,  one  of  the  best  cylinder  presses  of  that  day  pur- 
chased from  the  Messrs.  Hoe,  an  office  taken  on  Light  street,  and 
on  the  17th  of  May,  1837,  the  first  copy  of  The  Sun  was  left  at 
the  door  of  nearly  every  house  in  Baltimore.      In  its  salutatory, 


the  new  paper  clearly  defined  its  mission  to  which  it  has  since 
faithfully  adhered.  It  declared  that  its  object  was  to  furnish  a 
paper,  equal  to  any,  at  a  price  which  would  bring  it  within  the 
means  of  all  who  could  read,  and  of  the  large  number  of  persons* 
to  whom  the  more  expensive  dailies  were  inaccessible.  The  ex- 
periment, novel  in  Baltimore,  was  justified  by  reference  to  the 
success  which  had  attended  the  penny  press  in  England,  in  Xew 
York  and  in  Philadelphia.  The  article  boldly  magnified  the  office 
of  that  press  as  a  beneficent,  moral  agent,  diffusing  information 
and  knowledge  among  the  poor  and  humble.  It  also  made  some 
distinct  pledges  as  to  the  rules  which  should  govern  the  editorial 
conduct  of  the  paper,  from  which  we  extract  the  concluding  portion. 

"  We  shall  give  no  place  to  religious  controversy,  nor  to  political 
discussions  of  merely  partisan  character.  On  political  principles  and 
questions  involving  the  interest  or  honor  of  the  whole  country,  it 
will  be  free,  firm  and  temperate.  Our  object  will  be  the  common 
good,  without  regard  to  that  of  sects,  faction  or  parties ;  and  for 
this  object  we  shall  labor  without  fear  or  partiality.  The  publica- 
tion of  this  paper  will  be  continued  for  one  year  at  least,  and  the 
publishers  hope  to  receive,  as  they  will  strive  to  deserve,  a  liberal 

The  Sux  was  well  received.  In  less  than  three  months,  it  had  a 
larger  circulation  than  the  Ledger  had  attained  at  the  end  of  nine 
months.  Within  a  year  it  circulated  more  than  twice  as  many  copies 
as  the  oldest  established  journal  in  Baltimore.  It  is  believed  that 
its  success  was  more  immediate  and  more  rapid  than  has  attended 
the  advent  of  any  similar  enterprise  in  the  United  States.  At 
that  time  (1837)  the  population  of  Baltimore  was  about  90,000  ;  it 
is  now  in  the  neighborhood  of  300,000.  The  circulation  of  The 
Sun  has  kept  pace  with  this  large  increase,  besides  extending  into 
every  part  of  Maryland,  and  to  those  portions  of  adjoining  or  neigh- 
boring States,  which  have  been  brought  into  close  connection  with 
Baltimore  by  means  of  railroads  and  postal  facilities. 

It  was  soon  discovered  that  the  original  quarters  in  Light  street 
were  entirely  too  contracted  for  the  growing  business  of  the  paper. 
Mr.  Abell,  accordingly,  purchased  the  property  at  the  southeast 
corner  of  Baltimore  and  Gay  streets,  long  familiarly  known  as  the 
"Old  Sun  Building,"  made  such  alterations  as  were  necessary  to 
adapt  it  to  its  new  use,  and  in  1839  removed  the  whole  establish- 
ment to  that  location.  Soon,  however,  the  same  want  of  increased 
accommodation  to  meet  the  requirements  of  an  increasing  business, 
was  again  felt,  and  it  was   deemed  desirable,  that  before  making 

A  R  U  X  A  II     S  .     ABELL.  159 

another  change,  a  site  should  be  purchased,  and  a  building  erected 
which  should  be  expressly  designed  for  the  purposes  of  the  paper, 
and  at  the  same  time  be  an  ornament  to  the  city  which  had  so 
"generously  fostered  and  rewarded  the  enterprise  of  the  proprietors 
of  The  Sux.  To  Mr.  Abell  was  confided  the  task  of  selecting  such 
a  site.  After  mature  consideration,  the  lot  at  the  corner  of  Balti- 
more and  South  streets,  in  the  very  business  heart  of  the  city,  was 
determined  upon,  and  Mr.  Abell  effected  the  purchase  of  tins  valu- 
able property — then  occupied  by  fire  old  brick  buildings,  one  of 
which,  at  least,  dated  back  to  a  very  early  date  in  the  city's  his- 
tory— for  a  fraction  less  than  $50,000.  A  more  difficult  and  deli- 
cate question  was  the  selection  of  a  plan  for  the  proposed  building, 
which  the  proprietors  of  The  Sux,  had  already  resolved,  although 
it  involved  a  cost  far  beyond  what  the  mere  necessities  of  a  print- 
ing office  might  require,  should  vie  with,  if  it  should  not  surpass, 
any  of  the  fine  edifices  with  which  the  city  was  then  adorned.  It 
happened  that  just  about  this  time  Mr.  James  Bogardus,  of  New 
York  city,  a  man  of  undoubted  genius  as  well  as  mechanical  skill, 
was  seeking  for  an  opportunity  to  test  in  practice  his  invention  for 
the  construction  of  iron  buildings.  His  proposals  had  been  but 
coldly  received  in  New  York,  and  he  was  almost  in  despair  of  find- 
ing a  man  intelligent  enough  to  comprehend  his  plans,  and  liberal 
enough  to  aid  him  in  their  realization,  when  fortunately  he  sub- 
mitted his  views  to  the  proprietors  of  The  Sun.  They  gave  to  the 
plans  of  Mr.  Bogardus  the  most  serious  and  careful  consideration, 
and  were  soon  convinced  of  their  entire  feasibility.  They  believed 
that  the  substitution  of  iron  for  brick  or  stone  as  a  building  mate- 
rial, would  be  found  not  only  advantageous  on  the  score  of  economy 
and  durability,  but  that  it  was  free  from  any  objection  in  point  of 
safety,  and  might  be  made  to  subserve  any  purposes  of  architectural 
ornamentation  and  embellishment.  Mr.  Abell  accordingly  deter- 
mined that  the  new  building  should  be  of  iron,  and  erected  ac- 
cording to  Mr.  Bogardus'  plan.  It  was  the  first  structure  of  the 
kind  in  America,  if  not  in  the  world.  It  completely  vindicated 
the  genius  and  skill  of  Mr.  Bogardus,  who  built  it,  and  illustrated 
the  sagacity  and  liberality  of  those  for  whom  it  was  built.  After 
it  was  completed,  many  persons  came  from  other  cities  to  examine 
it,  and  soon  orders  flowed  in  upon  Mr.  Bogardus  in  greater  number 
than  he  could  fill.  To  The  Sun  Building  itself  we  find  the  folio-w- 
ing reference  in  a  lecture  delivered  by  "William  P.  Preston,  Esq., 
at  the  Mechanics'  Institute,  in  Baltimore  city,  December  12th, 
1865.     He  said :    "  "Wliile  calling  your  attention  to  the  prominent 


and  beautiful  buildings  of  Baltimore  it  would  be  a  great  over- 
sight to  omit  one  of  the  most  imposing  structures  of  the  city — 
The  Sun  Iron  Building.  It  stands  in  its  architectural  beauty  and 
utility  a  lasting  memorial  of  quiet  integrity,  liberal  enterprise  and 
persevering  industry.  While  the  citizen  may  gaze  upon  it  with 
pride  and  admiration,  as  an  ornament  to  the  city,  the  capitalist  or 
the  humblest  man  in  the  community  may  look  upon  it  as  an  in- 
centive to  fruitful  emulation.  It  will  endure  as  a  lasting  monu- 
ment to  its  founders,  whose  descendants  may  well  point  to  it,  as 
illustrative  of  the  precept  and  example  under  which  their  ancestors 
rose  through  the  medium  of  well-directed  exertion  to  affluence  and 
distinction.  The  building,  which  is  entirely  constructed  of  iron, 
finely  cast  and  elaborately  ornamented,  is  seventy-live  feet  long, 
fifty-six  feet  deep,  and  about  sixty  feet  high.  In  digging  its 
foundation  it-  was  found  necessary  to  go  down  to  the  depth  of 
twenty-five  feet,  and  many  thousand  loads  of  gravel  were  removed, 
which  was  applied  to  the  repair  of  the  Hillen  road  in  Baltimore 
county.  The  building  rests  upon  thirty-one  columns  of  Maryland 
granite,  sunk  below  the  level  of  the  street,  twenty  feet  high,  and 
averaging  two  feet  square.  Each  column  has  beneath  it,  resting 
on  the  hard  gravel  bed,  a  massive  block  of  granite  four  feet  square 
by  one  foot  thick.  If  anything  can  defy  the  ravages  of  time,  it 
is  probably  this  foundation.  It  is  gratifying  to  know  that  the 
iron  work  of  this  magnificent  building— its  ornamented  columns — 
its  full-length  figures  in  has  relief,  of  Washington,  Jefferson  and 
Franklin,  and  its  various  well-executed  medallions,  were  cast  in  our 
own  city,  at  the  foundry  of  Benjamin  S.  Benson,  a  valued  member 
of  this  institute." 

It  may  be  added  that  Mr.  Bogardus  naturally  preferred  that  the 
casting  should  be  done  in  the  city  of  New  York,  where  he  resided, 
and  where  at  less  expense  and  with  more  convenience  to  himself,  he 
could  superintend  this  part  of  the  work,  but  Mr.  Abell  who  has 
always  an  eye  and  a  thought  to  the  interest  of  Baltimore  and  of 
Baltimore  mechanics,  made  it  one  of  the  conditions  of  the  contract 
that  the  castings  should  be  made  in  this  city. 

As  an  interesting  historical  coincidence  it  may  be  further  men- 
tioned, that  the  oihYc  of  the  first  newspaper  published  in  Baltimore, 
stood  on  part  of  the  ground  now  occupied  by  The  Sun  Iron  Build- 
ing. The  Maryland  Journal  and  Baltimore  Advertize^  was  printed 
and  published  by  William  Goddard,  in  one  of  the  old  buildings, 
which  were  removed  to  make  way  for  the  present  imposing  structure. 
It  was  first  issued  on  the  20th  of  August,  1773,  and  when  in  the 

A  RUN  AH    S.     A  BELL.  161 

progress  of  the  revolution,  Mr.  Groddard  was  called  into  military 
service,  the  publication  of  the  paper  was  continued  by  his  daughter, 
Miss  Alary  K.  Goddard,  who  in  the  true  spirit  of  the  heroic  women 
of  that  time,  supported  with  feminine  ardor  the  patriot  cause.  It 
would  be  curious  to  compare,  if  it  were  possible,  the  rude  and 
clumsy  press  upon  which  Miss  Goddard's  revolutionary  manifestoes 
were  printed,  with  "  Hoe's  last  fast,"  now  in  operation  in  the 
vaulted  press-room  of  The  Sim  Iron  Building,  throwing  off  40,000 
impressions  per  hour. 

When  The  Sun  was  first  started,  and  for  sometime  afterwards, 
Mr.  Abell  had  the  personal  assistance  of  Mr.  Simmons  who,  at  that 
time,  resided  in  Baltimore.  Subsequently  Mr.  Simmons  returned 
to  Philadelphia,  leaving  The  Sun  in  sole  charge  of  Mr.  Abell,  the 
two  other  partners  devoting  their  attention  to  the  Ledger.  This 
arrangement  continued  until  the  death  of  Mr.  Simmons,  which 
occurred  December  9th,  1855,  and  which  dissolved  the  original 
copartnership  of  Swain,  Abell  &  Simmons.  The  two  surviving 
partners  immediately  formed  a  new  association,  under  the  style  of 
Swain  &  Abell,  and  continued  as  before  the  publication  of  their  two 
papers,  and  the  business  of  the  printing  offices  connected  with  them. 
Although  equally  interested  in  each  paper,  it  naturally  happened 
that  as  Air.  Swain  lived  in  Philadelphia,  and  Mr.  Abell  in  Balti- 
more, the  management  of  the  Ledger  and  its  concerns,  fell  to  the 
charge  of  the  former,  and  that  of  The  Sun  continued  in  the  hands  of 
the  latter ;  an  arrangement  which  was  found  productive  of  entire 
harmony,  and  which  removed  all  occasion  for  interference  or  colli- 
sion. Gradually,  however,  Air.  Swain's  health  began  to  decline, 
until  he  was  unable  to  give  to  the  Ledger  his  active  personal 
supervision.  The  war  too  broke  out,  and  Mr.  Abell's  duties  in 
Baltimore  became  exceedingly  difficult  and  onerous.  His  own 
position  and  that  of  The  Sun  were  not  free  from  danger,  when 
public  journals  were  suppressed  and  their  editors  incarcerated  at 
the  mere  will  of  a  military  commander,  and  to  acid  to  his  other 
perplexities,  his  partner  in  Philadelphia  took  the  extreme  Northern 
view  in  the  conflict  between  the  sections.  Under  these  circum- 
stances, Mr.  Abell  notified  Mr.  Swain  of  his  willingness  to  dispose 
of  his  interest  in  the  Ledger,  and  finally,  after  considerable  negoti- 
ations and  many  delays,  on  the  3d  of  December,  1864,  the  Ledger 
was  sold  to  Mr.  George  W.  Childs,  the  publisher,  and  the  Messrs. 
Drexel  &  Co.,  bankers,  of  Philadelphia.  After  the  sale  of  the  Ledger, 
The  Sun  was  conducted  by  Mr.  Abell  alone,  as  agreed  upon  between 
his  partner  and  himself,  until  February  16th,  1868,  when  Mr.  Swain 


departed  this  life  in  the  sixtieth  year  of  his  age.  Since  the  death  of 
Mr.  Swain,  Mr.  Abell  has  sold  his  interest  in  the  Ledger  Building 
and  other  real  estate  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  which  he  held  in 
common  with  his  late  partner,  to  Mrs.  Swain  and  her  two  sons,  and 
they  in  turn  have  sold  to  Mr.  Abell  all  their  interest  in  the  Sun 
Iron  Building  and  other  real  and  personal  estate  in  the  City 
of  Baltimore — thus  completely  severing  the  interests  which  were 
formerly  joint. 

Having  traced  the  history  of  The  Sun  from  its  origin  to  the 
present  time,  it  may  not  be  improper  to  call  attention  to  several 
enterprises  with  which  Mr.  Abell  has  been  incidentally  connected 
and  to  which  he  has  contributed  valuable  support.  By  the  intro- 
duction of  the  rotary  printing  machines,  the  invention  of  Mr. 
Richard  M.  Hoe,  of  New  York,  the  art  of  printing  has  been  nearly 
revolutionized,  and  the  world  immensely  benefited.  After  Mr. 
Hoe  had  conceived  the  idea  of  placing  type  on  a  horizontal  cylinder, 
revolving  on  its  axis,  while  the  sheets  of  paper  were  pressed  against 
it  by*  smaller  cylinders,  and  thus  received  the  impression,  he  con- 
structed two  machines  upon  this  improved  plan,  and  offered  them  to 
the  leading  journals  of  JSTew  York.  The  invention  was  at  once 
pronounced  impracticable,  and  none  of  the  publishers  of  newspapers 
were  willing  to  try  the  rotary  presses.  It  was  insisted  that  in  the 
rapid  revolution  of  the  cylinder  the  type  would  fall  out,  and,  becom- 
ing entangled  in  the  machinery  tear  the  presses  to  pieces.  Mr.  Hoe 
then  oflered  the  machines  to  Messrs.  Swain,  Abell  &  Simmons,  who 
at  that  time  were  looking  for  new  presses.  They  first  examined 
and  then  purchased  the  machines  which  the  JSTew  York  publishers 
had  rejected.  They  ran  with  precision  and  accuracy,  and  without 
the  slightest  accident  from  the  time  they  were  put  up,  until  October, 
1870,  during  which  period  not  less  than  500,000,000  of  impressions 
of  the  Daily  and  Weekly  Sun  were  struck  off  by  them.  They  were 
of  the  four-cylinder  class,  averaging  about  12,000  impressions  per 
hour.  At  the  date  last  mentioned,  in  order  to  meet  the  demands  of 
the  increased  and  still  increasing  circulation  of  The  Sun,  Mr.  Abell 
substituted  for  them  two  splendid  machines,  Hoe's  latest  improved 
invention,  of  sixteen-cylinder  capacity,  and  capable,  at  ordinary 
speed,  of  throwing  oft'  40,000  impressions  per  hour.  Since  the  time 
that  tin1  proprietors  of  The  Sun  and  Ledger,  put  in  use  the  first  of 
these  rotary  machines,  Hoe's  presses  have  come  into  general  use 
throughout  the  civilized  world.  The  Paris  paper  La  Patrie,  had  the 
first  in  use  in  Europe;  Lloyd's  Weekly  Newspaper  in  London,  the 
second ;    there  are  now  in   England   and   France   several   of   these 

A  RUN  AH    S.     ABELL.  103 

machines,  varying  in  size  and  capacity,  from  two  cylinders  up  to  the 
ten-cylinder  monsters,  which  are  used  to  print  the  London  Times. 

So  in  the  case  of  the  electric  telegraph — the  wonderful  invention 
of  Professor  Samuel  F.  Morse — and  perhaps  the  greatest  of  all  the 
wonderful  achievements  of  modern  science.  In  1838  or  1839  Pro- 
fessor Morse,  having  completed  his  invention,  was  an  applicant  to 
Congress  for  assistance  to  enable  him  to  test  its  value  by  practical 
experiment;  assistance,  which,  it  will  be  remembered,  that  body 
long  refused,  treating  the  invention  as  a  chimera  and  its  author  as  a 
mere  visionary  and  dreamer.  In  the  course  of  his  efforts  to  enlist 
the  support  of  the  public  press,  Professor  Morse  visited  Baltimore, 
and  made  the  acquaintance  of  Mr.  Abell,  who,  after  a  careful  con- 
sideration of  the  subject,  became  a  thorough  convert  to  the  Pro- 
fessor's views,  and  threw  all  the  influence  which  The  Sun  could 
exert  with  reference  to  an  untried  theory  in  favor  of  his  invention. 
At  length  an  appropriation  of  §30,000  was  obtained  from  Congress 
for  the  construction  of  an  experimental  telegraph  line  from  Balti- 
more to  Washington.  The  line  was  put  up,  and  the  first  document 
of  any  length  transmitted  over  the  wire  was  the  President's  mes- 
sage, telegraphed  to  the  Baltimore  Sun  with  so  much  accuracy  as  to 
create  universal  astonishment.  As  a  matter  of  scientific  history  the 
Sun's  telegraphic  copy  of  the  message  was  reprinted  by  the  Aca- 
demy of  Sciences,  at  Paris,  side  by  side  with  an  authenticated  tran- 
script of  the  original.  When  a  company  was  afterwards  formed  for 
the  extension  of  telegraphic  communication  from  Washington  to 
Xew  York,  Messrs.  Swain,  Abell  &  Simmons  were  associated  in  the 
enterprise  with  the  Hon.  Amos  Kendall  and  B.  B.  French,  of 
Washington,  Professor  Morse  and  Richard  M.  Hoe,  of  lew  York, 
and  others,  who  were  the  pioneers  in  this  great  work.  Thus  it  will 
be  seen  that  the  Baltimore  Sun  and  its  founders  and  proprietors 
were  largely  and  usefully  instrumental  in  the  first  establishment 
and  introduction  of  three  great  inventions  or  improvements  of  mod- 
ern times,  viz. :  the  construction  of  iron  buildings,  the  use  of  rotary 
printing  machines,  and  the  magnetic  telegraph. 

Prior  to  the  invention  of  the  telegraph,  and  its  daily  and  hourly 
use  as  the  great  vehicle  for  the  transmission  of  news  from  all  por- 
tions of  the  world,  The  Sun  had  acquired  considerable  celebrity  for 
its  enterprise  in  the  collection  and  publication  of  news.  During 
the  war  with  Mexico,  by  means  of  the  organization  of  a  "Pony 
Express,"  with  relaj*s  of  fleet  horses,  across  those  portions  of  Louisi- 
ana, Alabama,  &c,  where  mail  routes  were  circuitous  and  unreliable, 
The  Sun  was  enabled  to  furnish  the  country  with  the  latest  and 


fullest  information  from  our  army  in  Mexico,  and  not  unfrcquently 
to  give  to  the  Government  at  Washington  news  of  important  mili- 
tary operations  clays  in  advance  of  its  own  dispatches.  The  same 
means  were  frequently  employed  to  obtain  important  commercial 
news  from  New  York,  political  intelligence  from  Washington  or 
Annapolis,  and  election  results  from  outlying  and  doubtful  districts, 
in  advance  of  the  slower  agencies  of  stage-coaches  and  packets.  In 
the  same  spirit  of  sagacious  enterprise  Mr.  A  bell  organized,  in  con- 
nection with  Mr.  Craig,  afterwards  agent  of  the  Associated  Press  of 
ISTew  York,  a  carrier  pigeon  express  for  the  transmission  of  news 
between  the  cities  of  New  York,  Philadelphia,  Baltimore,  and 
Washington.  The  pigeons  for  this  service,  about  four  or  five  hun- 
dred in  number,  were  kept  in  a  house  on  Hampstead  Hill,  near  the 
Maryland  Hospital  for  the  Insane,  and  were  carefully  trained.  For- 
eign steamer  news  was  frequently  obtained  in  this  way,  and  on 
more  than  one  occasion  a  synopsis  of  the  President's  message  was 
brought  by  the  pigeons  to  Baltimore  immediately  after  the  delivery 
to  Congress,  and  published  in  extras  to  the  great  surprise  of  the 
public.  This  was  the  first  pigeon  express  organized  in  this  country, 
and  was  regularly  continued  until  superseded  by  the  magnetic  tele- 

While  the  progress  of  The  Sun  has  been  thus  steady  and  its  suc- 
cess uniform,  it  must  not  be  inferred  that  that  progress  has  been 
unattended  with  difficulties,  or  that  that  success  has  not  been 
achieved  over  obstacles.  In  the  firm  and  conscientious  discharge 
of  their  duties  as  public  journalists,  the  proprietors  of  The  Sun  have 
frequently  incurred,  in  former  days,  the  hostility  of  the  violent  and 
lawless  elements  of  society  which  it  was  their  business  to  rebuke. 
They  have  been  threatened  with  mob  violence,  but  the  paper  never 
swerved  from  its  course  in  consequence  of  such  threats.  During  the 
dark  hour  of  the  civil  war,  when  what  it  considered  the  usurpations 
of  arbitrary  power,  in  like  manner,  incurred  the  censures  of  this 
journal,  an  order  for  the  closing  of  The  Sun  establishment  and  the 
arrest  of  the  proprietor  was  issued  by  the  War  Department  in 
Washington,  and  was  about  to  be  transmitted  to  the  commander  of 
this  military  department,  when  Mr.  Abell  received  information  of 
the  fact  in  time  to  have  an  effective  and  earnest  protest  interposed 
against  lliis  high-handed  proceeding,  and  the  execution  of  the  order 
was  suspended.  The  motive  which  instigated  the  proceeding  was 
betrayed  the  day  after,  when  two  noted  politicians  called  upon  Mr. 
Abell  at  his  office,  and  desired  to  know  if  The  Sun  could  be  pur- 
chased, and,  if  so,  at  what  figure.     They  anticipated  that  with  the 

ARUNAH    S.     ABELL.  165 

fate  of  other  prints,  which  had  been  suppressed  and  their  editors 
incarcerated,  staring  him  in  the  face,  Mr.  Abell  would  be  only  too 
willing,  if  not  thankful,  to  retire  from  his  dangerous  position  and 
to  be  rid  of  his  precarious  property  at  any  sacrifice.  They  were 
accordingly  proportionably  surprised  and  disappointed  when  they 
found  that  their  design  was  thoroughly  understood,  and  were  told 
that  The  Sun  was  not  for  sale  at  any  price  which  it  was  in  their 
power  to  offer.  After  the  war  was  ended,  The  Sun  took  the  lead  in 
counselling  moderation  and  the  exercise  of  a  spirit  of  conciliation 
and  forbearance  on  both  sides,  with  the  view  of  healing  as  rapidly 
as  possible  the  wounds  which  the  war  had  made,  and  of  burying  out 
of  sight  the  animosities  it  had  engendered.  In  this  course  it  has 
steadily  persevered,  and  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  its  efforts 
have  been  attended  with  great  good.  In  this,  as  in  all  the  marked 
features  of  its  editorial  conduct,  as  well  as  in  every  detail  of  its  pru- 
dent and  successful  business  management,  The  Sun  has  faithfully 
reflected  the  cautious,  moderate,  and  conservative  temper  and  char- 
acter of  its  proprietor.  The  Sun  is  emphatically  what  Mr.  Abell 
has  made  it ;  and  so  strong  has  been  the  impress  of  his  character 
and  will,  that  it  may  now  be  said  to  have  acquired  an  individual 
character  of  its  own ;  it  has  traditions  from  which  it  never  departs, 
grooves  which  it  rarely  leaves,  a  certain  tone  by  which  it  is  almost 
invariably  distinguished.  Here  it  may  be  remarked,  and  it  is  an 
illustration  of  what  has  just  been  said,  that  many  of  the  persons 
employed  about  The  Sun  office  have  been  there  for  years.  Not  to 
speak  of  others  who  have  grown  gray  in  Mr.  Abell 's  service  in  sub- 
ordinate positions,  and  whom  his  sense  of  justice  and  natural  kind- 
liness have  led  him  to  retain,  when  their  places  might  readily  be 
filled  by  younger  and  more  active  men,  Mr.  John  Ricketts,  the  skill- 
ful and  experienced  pressman,  who,  as  chief  of  the  press-room,  has 
control  of  the  costly  and  complicated  machinery  now  used  for  print- 
ing The  Sun,  filled  the  same  position  in  the  little  establishment  in 
Light  street,  where  The  Sun  first  started'  nearly  five  and  thirty 
years  ago.  Mr.  John  Habliston,  the  trusted  and  esteemed  cashier 
of  the  present  large  concern,  began  more  than  thirty  years  ago  as 
office-boy  in  the  establishment,  and  Mr.  Frederick  Young,  the  chief 
of  the  composing-room,  has  filled  that  responsible  post  for  more  than 
twenty  years.  These  facts  at  once  give  an  insight  into  Mr.  Abell's 
character,  and  furnish  a  key  to  one  of  the  secrets  of  The  Sun's  success. 
While,  however,  Mr.  Abell  has  known  how  to  stand  fast  and 
hold  on  in  some  respects,  resisting  all  temptations  to  fluctuation 
and  change,  in  other  particulars,  as  we  have  seen,  he  has  been  ready 


enough  to  adopt  new  and  useful  improvements.  In  addition  to 
those  which  have  been  already  referred  to,  it  may  be  stated  that 
Mr.  Abell  was  the  first  to  introduce  into  Baltimore  the  "carrier 
system"  for  the  distribution  of  newspapers,  which  has  since  been 
found  so  convenient  both  to  publishers  and  subscribers  as  well  as 
remunerative  to  the  carriers  themselves — who  own  their  routes  and 
make  their  own  collections — that  it  has  been  adopted  by  all  the 
papers  of  the  city. 

Another  interesting  and  truly  scientific  improvement  in  con- 
nection with  the  art  of  printing  which  Mr.  Abell  was  prompt  to 
recognize  and  to  adopt,  is  Mr.  Craspe's  ingenious  process  of  stereo- 
typing each  day's  paper,  by  means  of  a  papier  mache  matrix  or 
mould,  made  for  each  edition,  which  is  taken  from  the  face  of  the 
types  as  set  up,  and  in  which  the  plates  are  afterwards  cast  from 
which  the  paper  is  actually  printed, — the  whole  process  occupying 
scarce  fifteen  minutes.  By  this  means  The  Sun  is  printed  every  day 
from  new  plates  cast  for  the  purpose  but  a  few  minutes  before  the 
paper  is  put  to  press.  The  same  process  is  used  by  the  London  Times 
and  other  leading  journals  in  different  parts  of  the  world. 

As  the  representative  of  his  firm,  and  in  his  individual  capacity, 
Mr.  Abell  has  at  all  times  subscribed  to  feasible  projects  for  de- 
veloping the  resources  and  promoting  the  prosperity  of  his  adopted 
State  and  city.  Adhering  strictly  to  the  principle  that  no  man  ought 
to  accept  an  office,  the  duties  of  which  he  has  not  time  properly  to 
attend  to,  and  knowing  that  his  position  at  the  head  of  a  journal 
like  The  Sun,  leaves  him  no  time  for  other  engagements,  he  has  uni- 
formly refused  all  offers  of  public  position,  trust,  or  honor.  The 
presidency  of  chartered  institutions  has  been  frequently  tendered  to 
him,  and  even  pressed  upon  him,  but  as  invariably  declined;  and 
although  he  has  been  director  of  the  Magnetic  Telegraph  Company, 
the  Canton  Company,  and  of  various  coal  companies  and  other  cor- 
porations, he  has  always  been  elected  without  desiring  it,  frequently 
without  his  knowledge,  and  sometimes  against  his  consent.  Outside 
of  the  management  of  a  public  journal,  which  was  the  dream  of  his 
boyhood,  as  it  has  been  the  gratified  ambition  of  his  life,  and  to 
which  he  has  devoted  all  his  energies  and  da}*s,  no  man  ever  more 
firmly  held  or  more  consistently  practiced  the  doctrine  that  "the 
post  of  honor  is  the/private  station." 

With  such  a  career  as  we  have  portrayed;  with  such  qualities  of 
prudence,  judgment  and  foresight  as  have  distinguished  him,  and 
with  the  habits  of  order,  system,  and  punctuality  which  have  marked 
his  life,  it  is  not  remarkable  that  Mr.  AbelFs  means  have  increased 

ARUNAH    S.     ABELL.  167 

until  he  is  now  ranked  among  the  solid  men  of  Baltimore.  Apart 
from  the  profits  of  the  two  newspapers,  The  Sun  and  Ledger,  his 
investments,  whether  in  the  coal-fields  of  Pennsylvania  and  Mary- 
land, in  stocks  or  in  real  estate  in  the  cit y  of  Baltimore  or  elsewhere, 
have  been  safe,  judicious  and  profitable.  These  tangible  results  of 
his  career  are  another  exemplification  of  what  an  upright,  intelli- 
gent, industrious  man,  who  devotes  his  mind  and  energies  to  a  single 
object,  may  reasonably  hope  to  accomplish.  As  an  illustration  of 
the  constancy  and  tenacity  with  which  Mr.  Abell  has  pursued  the 
great  object  of  his  life,  it  may  be  stated  that,  with  the  exception  of 
a  short  tour  in  Europe  a  year  or  so  ago,  and  a  subsequent  brief  trip 
to  Cuba  and  the  Southern  States,  he  has  been  for  more  than  thirty- 
three  consecutive  years  daily  in  the  discharge  of  his  duties  and  in 
attendance  at  the  office  of  The  Sun. 






William  Julian  Albert,  the  third  son  of  Jacob  and  Rebecca 
Albert,  was  born  in  Baltimore,  August  4th,  1816.  He  is  of  Ger- 
man descent,  his  great-grandfather,  Lawrence  Albert,  having 
emigrated  from  Wiirzburg,  Bavaria,  to  America,  in  the  year  1752, 
and  settled  in  Monaghan  township,  York  county,  Pennsylvania. 
Here,  by  thrift  and  industry  he  acquired  a  respectable  fortune, 
which  was  augmented  by  the  diligence  and  abilities  of  his  son 
Andrew.  The  original  estate  still  remains  in  the  possession  of  the 
family.  Jacob  Albert,  the  father  of  the  subject  of  this  sketch, 
finding  an  agricultural  life  unsuited  to  his  tastes,  removed  to  Bal- 
timore in  the  year  1805,  and  with  a  small  capital,  furnished  by 
his  father,  embarked  in  the  hardware  business,  in  which,  in  the 
course  of  time,  he  accumulated  a  large  fortune. 

Mr.  Albert  was  destined  by  his  father  for  the  profession  of  law, 
and  pursued  a  collegiate  course  at  Mount  St.  Mary's  College,  near 
Emmettsburg,  Maryland,  at  which  institution  he  finished  his  edu- 
cation in  1833,  but  the  state  of  his  health  prevented  his  pursu- 
ing the  course  of  study  necessary  to  fit  him  for  the  Bar.  In  1835 
he  traveled  for  the  benefit  of  his  health  through  the  Western 
States,  and  as  far  south  as  New  Orleans,  regaining  his  health  and 
strength  by  the  tour. 

Returning  to  his  native  city,  he  determined  to  engage  in  mer- 
cantile business,  and  in  1838  became  associated  with  his  father 
and  brother,  Augustus  James,  in  the  hardware  business,  which 
they  carried  on  with  success  until  the  year  1855,  when  they  re- 

On  the  15th  of  May,  1838,  Mr.  Albert  married  Emily  J.,  daugh- 
ter of  Talbot  Jones,  a  well  known  and  respected  merchant  of 

In  1856  he  assisted  in  reorganizing  the  Baltimore  and  Cuba 
Smelting  and  Mining  Company,  and  as  director  from  that  time 
to  1862,  devoted  much  of  his  time  and  energies  to  the  interests 
of  the  company,  who  were  engaged  in  the  smelting  of  copper  ore. 


His  prudence  more  than  once  restrained  his  associates  from  em- 
Larking  in  hazardous  experiments  in  new  processes  for  extracting 
the  metal,  which  in  all  probability,  would  have  proved  ruinous ; 
and  during  the  whole  period  of  his  directorship,  the  company  was 
eminently  prosperous. 

In  the  violent  political  agitation  which  followed  the  election  of 
Mr.  Lincoln  to  the  Presidency  in  1860,  Mr.  Albert  espoused  the 
Union  cause,  with  zeal  and  energy,  and  brought  all  his  influence  to 
the  support  of  the  administration.  At  the  first  meeting  of  citizens 
of  the  Union  party  held  in  Maryland,  which  assembled  at  Catons- 
ville,  Baltimore  county,  to  denounce  the  proceedings  of  South 
Carolina,  and  to  pledge  Maryland  to  the  support  of  the  Govern- 
ment, Mr.  Albert  presided. 

At  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  and  during  its  continuance,  Mr. 
Albert  remained  firm  in  his  political  principles ;  and  his  social 
position  made  him  a  central  figure  in  the  various  movements  made 
with  the  object  of  preventing  Maryland  from  joining  the  seceding 
States.  In  the  Summer  of  1861,  he  was  appointed  a  member  of  a 
delegation,  sent  to  wait  upon  the  President,  and  solicit  a  portion 
of  the  patronage  of  the  Government  in  behalf  of  the  people  of 
Baltimore,  who  were  suffering  in  trade  as  a  consequence  of  the 
strong  antagonism  of  the  dominant  party  in  the  city  and  State, 
to  the  administration ;  and  this  mission  was  entirely  successful. 

At  this  time  Mr.  Albert's  house  had  become  the  headquarters 
of  the  friends  of  the  administration,  and  the  officers  of  the  Army 
and  Navy  frequently  enjoyed  his  hospitality.  In  1863  the  "  Union 
Club"  was  founded  for  the  purpose  of  supporting  and  centralizing 
the  Republican  party  in  the  State,  and  Mr.  Albert,  one  of  the 
founders,  became  subsequently  its  president. 

In  the  autumn  of  the  same  year  he  co-operated  in  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  First  National  Bank  of  Baltimore,  of  which  he  has 
ever  since  been  a  director. 

In  the  winter  of  1863,  a  meeting  of  the  friends  of  the  Government 
was  held  at  Mr.  Albert's  house,  and  it  was  resolved  to  call  a  conven- 
tion to  amend  the  Constitution  of  the  State.  With  the  co-operation 
of  the  Hon.  Henry  Winter  Davis,  and  Judge  Hugh  Lennox  Bond,  a 
majority  was  returned  favorable  to  the  abolition  of  slavery. 

During  this  winter  Mr.  Albert  was  elected  president  of  the  Mary- 
land State  Fair,  intended  to  aid  the  Sanitary  and  Christian  Com- 
missions in  their  benevolent  labors.  The  Fair  was  opened  during 
the  Easter  holidays  by  President  Lincoln,  who  was  the  guest  of  Mr. 
Albert.     This  is   believed  to  be   the   only  occasion  on  which  Mr. 


Lincoln  during  Ms  Presidency  partook  of  private  hospitality,  or 
entered  a  private  residence  as  a  guest. 

In  1861  Mr.  Albert  was  nominated  by  the  Republican  Conven- 
tion as  elector  at  large  for  the  State,  in  the  approaching  Presiden- 
tial election  ;  and  being  elected,  was  chosen  president  of  the  Elect- 
oral College  of  Maryland. 

The  Constitution  of  1864,  having  declared  the  abolition  of  slavery 
in  Maryland,  Mr.  Albert  turned  his  attention  to  the  condition  of 
the  free  blacks.  He  took  a  leading  part  in  the  foundation  of  the 
association  for  their  moral  and  educational  improvement,  and  has 
been  its  president  since  1865.  This  association  has  already  estab- 
lished at  least  a  hundred  schools  in  the  rural  districts  alone,  offering 
educational  facilities  to  at  least  four  thousand  colored  children,  at 
an  annual  cost  of  fifty  thousand  dollars.  This  liberal  bounty  is 
derived  almost  entirely  from  private  charity.  In  this  connection 
should  also  be  mentioned  the  "  Normal  School,"  situated  in  Balti- 
more, a  seminary  intended  to  supply  teachers  for  the  colored  popu- 
lation ;  an  institution  which  has  ordinarily  about  two  hundred 
pupils  in  attendance,  and  is  estimated  to  have  cost  twenty-five 
thousand  dollars. 

The  dissensions  which  arose  in  the  Republican  party  during  the 
Presidency  of  Mr.  Johnson,  greatly  weakened  their  numbers  in 
Maryland.  A  call  was  therefore  made  for  those  of  the  party  who 
supported  the  policy  of  Congress,  in  opposition  to  that  of  the  Presi- 
dent, to  meet  at  the  Front  street  Theatre,  to  urge  upon  Congress 
the  passage  of  the  law  known  as  the  Civil  Rights  Bill.  At  this 
meeting  Mr.  Albert  was  chosen  chairman. 

In  1866  the  Republican  party  in  the  fifth  Congressional  District, 
nominated  Mr.  Albert  as  their  candidate  for  the  seat  in  the  House ; 
and  the  nomination  was  repeated  in  1868,  in  which  year,  also,  he 
received  their  nomination  as  elector  for  General  Grant,  in  the  Presi- 
dential campaign. 

During  the  period  of  the  war,  Mr.  Albert  was  a  member  of  the 
vestry  of  Grace  Church ;  and  his  management  of  the  affairs  of  the 
church,  at  a  time  when  he  was  left  alone  by  the  resignation  of  the 
other  vestrymen,  will  long  be  remembered  by  the  congregation. 
For  twenty-five  years  he  has  been  the  treasurer  of  the  Convention 
of  the  Episcopal  Church,  in  which  office,  despite  differences  of 
political  feeling,  he  has  ever  retained  the  confidence  of  both  clergy 
and  laity. 

Notwithstanding  the  many  and  arduous  duties  to  which  he 
was   thus   called,  his   warm    sympathies    with   the   soldiers  of  the 


Union  armies  in  the  field,  led  him  to  miss  no  occasion  of  minister- 
ing to  their  comforts,  or  alleviating  their  sufferings.  To  this  end 
he  assisted  in  establishing  the  "  Soldiers'  Home,"  for  sick  and 
disabled  soldiers,  and  also  the  Asylum  for  their  orphan  children. 
He  visited  the  battle-fields  of  Antietam  and  Gettysburg,  and  minis- 
tered to  the  wounded  on  the  field  ;  and  assisted  Bishop  A.  C.  Coxe, 
in  his  pious  ministrations  to  the  wounded  and  dying. 

There  is  one  incident  in  Mr.  Albert's  life  which  should  not  be 
omitted.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  month  of  December,  1860, 
nothing  seemed  to  portend  the  destruction  of  the  Union  more  than 
the  embarrassed  condition  of  its  finances.  The  treasury  was  empty, 
and  the  public  credit  apparently  gone.  Upon  apprehensions  being 
expressed  at  the  Depository  in  Baltimore  as  to  the  ability  of  the 
United  States  to  meet  the  interest  on  the  public  debt  due  on  the 
first  of  the  following  month,  Mr.  Albert  volunteered,  in  case  the 
anticipated  exigency  should  arise,  to  advance  what  would  be  neces- 
sary to  defray  the  demands  upon  the  Government  in  this  city. 
Although  it  was  not  found  necessary  to  accept  his  offer,  it  was 
none  the  less  patriotic. 

In  person  Mr.  Albert  is  a  man  of  striking  and  distinguished 
appearance,  and  of  polished  and  agreeable  manners. 


The  Presbyterian  Church  has  been  identified  with  the  annals  of 
Baltimore  almost  from  its  foundation,  and  very  many  of  our  most 
eminent  merchants,  whose  foresight  and  enterprise  built  up  the  city, 
have  been  members  of  this  denomination.  Although  at  an  earlier 
period  records  exist  of  Presbyterian  gatherings,  there  were  no 
settled  minister  and  place  of  worship  until  1763.  The  history  of 
the  first  Presbyterian  Church  of  this  city  has  been  one  of  singular 
power  and  prosperity,  and  all  the  other  churches  of  the  sect  have 
grown  out  of  it.  It  is  also  remarkable  that  in  one  hundred  and 
eight  years  since  the  foundation  of  the  first  church,  it  has  had  but 
four  pastors,  viz. :  Rev.  Patrick  Allison,  D.  D.,  from  1763  till  1802  ; 
Rev.  James  Inglis,  D.  D.,  from  1802  till  1819;  Rev.  AVilliam 
Kevins,  D.  D.,  from  1820  till  1835  ;  while  Rev.  John  C.  Backus, 
D.  D.,  the  present  pastor  was  settled  in  1836,  and  has  consequently 
occupied  the  pulpit  for  thirty-five  years. 

John  C.  Backus  was  born  in  New  York  and  graduated  at  Prince- 
ton College.  He  entered  the  ministry,  and  when  quite  a  j'oung 
man  passed  through  Baltimore  on  his  way  to  New  Orleans,  and  in 
December,  1835,  a  few  months  after  the  death  of  Dr.  JSTevins, 
preached  in  the  first  Presbyterian  Church.  On  the  11th  of  April 
following  he  was  elected  pastor,  and  accepting  the  call  was  installed 
September  15th,  1836.  Since  then  he  has  been  completely  identified 
with  the  church,  and  it  being  one  of  the  oldest  and  most  influential 
institutions  in  the  city,  some  notice  of  its  history  may  properly  be 
given.  Dr.  Allison,  toward  the  close  of  his  ministry,  prepared  a 
brief  history  of  the  congregation,  in  which  he  says: — "In  1761  the 
advantageous  situation  of  the  town  of  Baltimore,  induced  a  few 
Presbyterian  families  to  remove  here  from  Pennsylvania,  and  these, 
with  two  or  three  others  of  the  same  persuasion,  who  had  emigrated 
directly  from  Europe,  formed  themselves  in  a  religious  society,  and 
had  occasional  supplies,  assembling  in  private  houses,  though  liable 
to  prosecution  on  this  ground,  as  the  province  groaned  under  a 
religious  establishment."     Among  these  families  were  several  men 


who  became  eminent  as  merchants,  John  Smith  and  William 
Buchanan ;  followed  shortly  by  William  Smith,  Robert  Purviance, 
"William  Spear  and  others,  all  of  whom  exercised  a  very  important 
commercial  influence  on  the  city,  and  whose  descendants  to-day,  in 
many  instances,  reap  the  reward  of  their  business  enterprise. 

In  1763,  Mr.  Patrick  Allison  was  settled  as  the  first  pastor  of  the 
First  Presbyterian  Church,  and  in  December  of  that  year  the  congre- 
gation leased  two  lots  on  Fayette  street,  then  called  East  street,  and 
erected  a  small  log  church  thereon,  in  the  rear  of  the  present  Christ 
Church  on  Gay  street.  In  March,  1765,  finding  this  poor  rude 
building  inadequate  for  its  purpose,  another  lot  was  purchased  west 
of  the  old  site,  and  a  plain  brick  church  was  erected,  forty-five 
feet  long  by  thirty-five  feet  wide,  containing  thirty-six  pews. 

In  1771,  the  building  which  had  been  completed  in  1766,  was 
enlarged,  and  in  1772  an  addition  was  made  to  the  lot.  In  1789 
the  congregation  having  been  much  increased  in  consequence  of  the 
growth  of  the  city  determined  on  having  a  new  church.  It  was 
occupied  in  1791,  and  continued  in  use  almost  seventy  years,  its  site 
being  that  of  the  present  United  States  Court  House,  on  the  corner 
of  Fayette  and  North  streets.  The  church  was  elevated  some 
twelve  feet  above  the  level  of  the  street,  and  its  large  portico  and 
towers  contributed  to  render  it  one  of  the  most  conspicuous  build- 
ings in  the  city. 

When  Dr.  Allison  was  first  settled,  Baltimore  contained  only 
about  thirty  houses,  and  when  he  died  in  1802,  the  city  had  become 
the  third  in  the  Union  in  magnitude,  and  the  church  established  at 
first  by  only  five  or  six  families,  one  of  the  most  flourishing  in  the 
country.  Many  of  the  most  distinguished  citizens  of  Baltimore 
were  members  of  the  congregation  during  this  period,  and  promi- 
nently connected  with  the  history  of  the  city,  as  will  be  seen  by  the 
following  names :  John  Stevenson,  John  Smith,  William  Buchanan, 
William  Lyon,  William  Smith,  James  Sterret,  William  Spear, 
Jonathan  Plowman,  Dr.  Alexander  Stenhouse,  John  Boyd,  Samuel 
Purviance,  John  Little,  Samuel  Brown,  James  Calhoun,  Robert 
Purviance,  William  Neill,  Hugh  Young,  John  Sterret,  David  Stew- 
art, Nathaniel  Smith,  Joseph  Donaldson,  Robert  Gilmor,  William 
Patterson,  Christopher  Johnston,  Stephen  Wilson,  John  Swan,  Col. 
Samuel  Smith,  and  Dr.  Brown. 

Dr.  Allison  was  a  very  distinguished  clergyman,  and  during  the 
forty  years  of  his  pastorate  acquired  a  reputation  second  to  no  min- 
ister in  the  country,  lie  was  a  man  of  great  executive  ability, 
sound  learning,  and  an  ardent  friend  of  civil  and  religious  liberty. 

JOHN    C.     BACKUS.  175 

He  -was  one  of  the  founders  of  Baltimore  College  and  the  Baltimore 
Library,  and  deeply  interested  in  establishing  schools.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Dr.  Inglis,  who  had  been  elected  as  assistant  pastor 
shortly  before  Dr.  Allison's  death,  in  1802. 

Dr.  Inglis  was  also  a  very  eminent  man,  a  fine  scholar,  an 
eloquent  preacher,  and  remarkable  for  his  colloquial  powers  and 
fund  of  anecdote.  Under  his  ministry  the  society  greatly  prospered, 
and  several  new  congregations  branched  off  from  the  parent  church. 
On  the  opening  of  North  street,  which  was  previously  an  alley,  the 
old  parsonage  was  removed  and  a  new  one  built  in  the  rear  of  the 
church.  In  1811,  an  organ  was  introduced,  which  at  first,  among 
the  stricter  members  of  the  congregation,  gave  some  dissatisfaction, 
and  one  or  two  families  left  the  church,  although  the  feeling  soon 
passed  away. 

Dr.  Inglis  died  suddenly  on  Sunday  morning,  August  loth,  1819. 

The  church  continued  vacant  about  one  year,  when  Dr.  William 
Nevins  was  chosen  pastor.  He  was  born  in  Norwich,  Connecticut, 
graduated  at  Yale  College,  and  pursued  his  theological  studies  at 
Princeton,  Xew  Jersey.  He  was  settled  in  Baltimore,  October, 
1820,  and  his  labors  as  pastor  extended  over  a  period  of  fifteen 
years,  until  his  death,  in  1835. 

When  Dr.  Backus  entered  on  his  pastorate,  the  church  member- 
ship was  adorned  by  the  distinguished  names  of  Genl.  Samuel 
Smith,  Hon.  Robert  Smith,  Robert  Gilmor,  James  Buchanan,  Alex- 
ander Fridge,  Alexander  McDonald,  Judges  Xisbet  and  Purviance, 
Messrs.  George  Brown,  James  Swan,  James  Cox,  James  Armstrong, 
James  Campbell  and  Robert  Purviance.  All  these  were  then  living 
and  holding  the  very  highest  stations  in  the  community,  and  all  are 
now  dead.  Since  Dr.  Backus  commenced  his  labors  the  various 
Presbyterian  congregations  in  different  parts  of  the  city  have  in- 
creased from  three  to  fifteen,  while  the  parent  church  has  continued 
to  flourish  vigorously.  The  Franklin  Street  Church,  on  the  corner  of 
Cathedral  street,  was  erected  in  1846,  and  in  1851-2  the  Westminster 
Church,  on  the  corner  of  Greene  and  Fayette  streets,  was  erected, 
occupying  a  part  of  the  old  burying  ground  of  the  first  church. 
After  the  erection  of  the  Franklin  Street  Church,  it  was  resolved  to 
remodel  the  parent  church,  which  was  accordingly  done.  The  pul- 
pit was  removed  and  placed  at  the  opposite  end  of  the  building,  and 
the  pews  reversed.  They  had  always  been  placed  facing  the  doors, 
so  that  any  belated  individual  was  obliged  to  encounter  the  gaze  of 
the  whole  congregation  as  he  entered  the  church,  which  was  very 
embarrassing  to  one  of  sensitive  nerves.     The  time  honored  "  green 


arm-chair,"  directly  in  front  of  the  pulpit,  where  the  sexton  sat  in 
state  with  hymn  book  and  rattan,  also  disappeared.  The  old  brick 
floor,  and  the  four  wood  stoves  and  long  black  pipes  gave  place  to 
modern  improvements,  and  the  quaint  aspect  of  the  ancient  edifice 
was  greatly  changed.  At  length  the  time  came  when  the  venerable 
building  itself  was  obliged  to  give  place  to  another  structure.  For 
many  years  the  locality  had  been  changing,  offices  and  stores  taking 
the  place  of  dwellings  and  most  of  the  congregation  had  moved 
far  westward.  In  October,  1853,  it  was  determined  to  erect  another 
church  and  dispose  of  the  old  one,  and  ground  was  accordingly 
broken  on  the  new  lot,  corner  of  Madison  and  Park  streets,  in  July, 
1854.  The  present  beautiful  structure  of  brown  stone  and  of 
pointed  gothic  architecture  was  then  erected  and  completed,  with 
the  exception  of  the  tower,  which  remains  unfinished.  The  final 
service  in  the  old  church  was  held  on  the  last  Sabbath  of  Septem- 
ber, 1860,  when  Dr.  Backus  preached  an  historical  discourse  of  very 
interesting  character.  The  old  site  was  purchased  by  the  United 
States,  the  church  was  demolished,  and  in  its  stead  the  United 
States  District  Court  House,  of  solid  granite,  was  erected. 




Charles  Joseph  Baker,  President  of  the  Canton  Company  and 
head  of  the  house  of  Baker  Brothers  &  Company,  was  born  in  this 
city  on  the  28th  of  May,  1821.  His  parents,  William  and  Jane 
Baker,  then  resided  at  "  Friendsbury,"  their  country  seat,  situated 
in  Avhat  is  now  the  growing  and  rapidly  improving  northwestern  sec- 
tion of  the  city,  within  the  corporate  limits,  although  fifty  years 
ago,  it  was  considered  sufficiently  remote  from  the  built-up  portions 
of  the  town,  to  be  denominated  country.  The  paternal  grandfather 
of  Mr.  Baker,  who  was  the  head  of  the  dry  goods  importing  house 
of  Willam  Baker  &  Sons,  once  well  known  in  this  city,  came  to 
Baltimore  to  make  his  own  way  in  the  world  at  the  early  age  of 
twelve  years,  having  been  left  an  orphan  by  the  massacre  of  his 
parents  and  all  the  other  members  of  the  family,  by  the  Indians, 
about  the  year  1750.  The  scene  of  the  massacre  was  near  the  foot 
of  the  Blue  Ridge  Mountains,  not  far  from  the  present  town  of 
Reading,  in  Pennsylvania.  The  grandfather  of  Charles  J.  Baker, 
on  the  mother's  side,  was  Richard  Jones,  who  emigrated  to  this 
country  from  Caernarvonshire,  in  Wales,  in  1781,  preceding  his 
family,  in  order  to  provide  a  home  for  them,  before  sending  for 
wife  and  children  to  join  him.  He  settled  in  Baltimore,  in  the  part 
of  the  city  which  has  retained  the  name  of  Fell's  Point,  and  began 
business  as  a  manufacturer  and  dealer  in  paints  and  oils,  a  branch 
of  commerce  which  three  generations  of  his  descendants  have  since 
continued.  In  1793,  Mr.  Jones  purchased  and  improved  the  beau- 
tiful site  to  which  he  gave  the  name  of  "  Friendsbury,"  where  the 
parents  of  Mr.  C.  J.  Baker  resided  until  their  death,  a  few  years 
since,  and  where  the  subject  of  this  sketch  was  born.  Like  large 
numbers  of  his  countrymen,  Mr.  Jones  in  early  life,  before  his  emi- 
gration to  America,  became  a  member  of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist 
Society,  under  the  preaching  and  influence  of  its  celebrated  founder, 
whose  personal  acquaintance  he  enjoyed. 

Charles  J.  Baker  received  his  early  education  at  home,  and  at 
boarding  school,  at  the  Franklin  Academy  in  Reisterstown,  Balti 


more  county,  then  under  the  charge  of  Mr.  X.  C.  Brooks.  After- 
wards, he  was  sent  for  a  short  time  to  St.  Mary's  College,  in  this 
city,  and,  in  1835,  entered  the  grammar  school  of  Dickinson  College, 
Carlisle,  Pa.  In  1837,  he  was  admitted  Freshman  in  the  College 
proper,  and  graduated  with  the  Class  of  1841,  under  the  presidency 
of  the  Rev.  J.  P.  Durbin,  D.  D.  During  his  stay  at  Carlisle,  in 
1833,  Mr.  Baker  united  himself  in  membership  with  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church,  in  that  place.  Upon  the  completion  of  his  college 
course,  he  entered  the  counting-room  of  his  father,  who  was  then 
engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  window-glass  at  the  old  Baltimore 
glass  works,  at  the  foot  of  Federal  Hill.  In  1842,  he  started  in 
business  with  his  brother,  H.  J.  Baker,  on  their  own  account,  in  the 
paint,  oil,  and  glass  trade,  at  No.  2  N.  Liberty  street.  Shortly  after 
the  firm  became  proprietors  of  the  Baltimore  "Window  Glass  and 
Bottle  and  Vial  Glass  Works,  previously  carried  on  by  Shaum  & 
Reitz.  In  1843,  the  brothers  removed  to  No.  42  South  Charles 
street,  and  enlarged  their  business,  until,  in  1848,  they  were  enabled 
to  purchase  the  two  warehouses,  Nos.  32  and  34  South  Charles 
street,  and  changed  the  style  of  the  firm  to  that  of  Baker  &  Brother. 
In  July,  1850,  their  two  warehouses,  with  all  their  contents,  includ- 
ing $75,000  worth  of  glass,  paints,  &c,  were  destroyed  by  fire. 
Nothing  daunted  by  this  disaster,  the  firm  immediately  commenced 
the  work  of  rebuilding,  and,  in  the  coarse  of  the  following  year,  had 
finished  the  present  five  story  warehouses,  Nos.  32  and  34,  on  the 
same  site.  During  1850,  the  two  brothers,  Charles  J.  and  Henry  J. 
Baker,  organized  the  firm  of  H.  J.  Baker  &  Brother  in  New  York 
city,  for  the  purpose  of  conducting  the  same  business  there,  and  also 
importing  French  glass  and  chemicals.  In  1851,  the  firm  in  Balti- 
more was  changed  to  Baker  Brothers  &  Company,  upon  the  admis- 
sion of  a  new  partner,  Mr.  J.  Rogers,  Jr.,  and  so  continued  until 
1865,  when  Charles  J.  Baker  purchased  the  entire  interest. of  H.  J. 
Baker  and  Mr.  Rogers,  and  admitted  his  two  sons,  William  Baker, 
Jr.,  and  Charles  E.  Baker,  into  copartnership,  retaining  the  old  style 
of  Baker  Brothers  &  Company. 

As  one  of  the  results  of  a  successful  business  career,  as  well  as  of 
the  enterprising  and  liberal  spirit  which  has  contributed  so  largely 
to  that  success,  Mr.  Baker  has  become  prominently  and  usefully 
identified  with  various  mercantile  and  manufacturing  interests  in 
this  city.  In  1859,  he  was  elected  a  director  in  the  Franklin  Bank, 
and  in  1867,  was  chosen  its  president.  In  1860,  he  was  elected  a 
director  in  the  Canton  Company,  and  in  1870,  was  elected  president, 
lie  is  also  interested  in  the  Maryland  AVhite  Lead  Company,  the 

CHARLES    J.     BAKER.  179 

Maryland  Manufacturing  and  Fertilizing  Company,  and  other  kin- 
dred enterprises  of  associated  capital  and  skill. 

Through  the  energetic  efforts  of  Mr.  Baker,  as  president  of  the 
Canton  Company,  the  Union  Railroad,  running  from  the  north- 
western limits  of  the  city  to  tidewater,  is  being  rapidly  pushed  for- 
ward, and  will  be  of  immense  service  to  the  business  of  Baltimore. 

JSTor  have  Mr.  Baker's  life  and  energies  been  so  far  absorbed  in 
business  pursuits  and  undertakings,  as  to  make  him  neglectful  of 
other  and  higher  duties.  His  life  as  a  citizen  has  not  been  unevent- 
ful. In  1859-60,  he  took  an  active  part  in  the  Municipal  Reform 
movement  of  that  year,  and  was  a  candidate  for  the  second  branch 
of  the  City  Council  on  the  same  ticket  with  George  William  Brown, 
for  Mayor,  and  was  elected  by  a  large  majority.  In  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  branch,  although  the  youngest  member,  Mr.  Baker  was 
elected  president ;  which  position  he  continued  to  fill  during  the 
stormy  and  memorable  days  of  April,  1861,  and  the  period  which 
followed, — acting  as  Mayor  of  the  city,  ex  officio,  from  September, 
1861,  to  January,  186:2,  while  Mayor  Brown  was  a  prisoner  in  Forts 
Lafayette  and  Warren. 

The  interest  in  religious  matters  which  led  Mr.  Baker  to  identify 
himself  early  in  life  with  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  has  never 
failed  or  ceased.  In  1855,  he  was  associated  as  trustee  of  Balti- 
more City  Station  with  the  late  R.  G.  Armstrong,  David  Thomas, 
John  G.  Chappell,  Br.  Roberts,  and  others,  and  was  connected  and 
prominently  identified  with  various  religious  movements  and  enter- 
prises, such  as  the  extension  and  rebuilding  of  the  Eutaw  Street  M. 
E.  Church,  the  erection  of  the  Madison  Avenue  M.  E.  Church,  and 
in  the  cause  of  missions,  particularly  the  German  Mission,  under 
Dr.  Jacoby,  in  Bremen,  Frankfort,  and  elsewhere  in  Germany.  As 
one  of  the  trustees  of  Dickinson  College,  he  manifested  his  interest 
and  kept  alive  his  connection  with  the  Alma  Mater  of  his  youth. 
The  dissensions,  however,  which  disturbed  the  peace  of  the  Metho- 
dist Episcopal  Church  after  1860,  led  to  Mr.  Baker's  withdrawal 
from  the  position  which  he  held  in  that  body.  He  assisted  in  organ- 
izing the  Chatsworth  Independent  Methodist  Church,  and  in  build- 
ing the  present  church  edifice  at  the  corner  of  Franklin  and  Pine 
streets,  and,  subsequently,  in  1867,  he  aided  in  building  the  Bethany 
Independent  Methodist  Chapel  at  Franklin  square. 

The  leading  traits  of  Mr.  Baker's  character  may  be  readily  in- 
ferred from  the  foregoing  incidents  in  his  career.  Energy  and 
probity  in  business  ;  a  high  sense  of  duty  in  all  the  relations  of  life, 
public   and   private ;  a  spirit  and  temper  firm  in  the  recognition 


and  advocacy  of  principle,  yet  withal  kindly  and  conciliatory,  and 
always  governed  by  the  rules  of  Christian  charity,  and  a  liberal 
heart  and  hand  in  the  support  of  all  undertakings,  secular  or  re- 
ligious, Avhich  commend  themselves  to  his  sympathy  and  judgment, 
have  made  Mr.  Baker  widely  respected,  trusted  and  esteemed  in  this 

Mr.  Baker  married,  in  1842,  Miss  Elizabeth  Bosserman,  of  Car- 
lisle, Pa.,  daughter  of  Ephraim  Bosserman,  a  merchant  of  that 


This  distinguished  naval  commander  was  born  in  Baltimore, 
July  6th,  1759.  Evincing  an  early  predilection  for  the  sea,  he  made 
several  voyages  at  a  very  youthful  age,  and  on  one  of  them  was,  by 
the  sudden  death  of  the  captain,  placed  in  command  of  the  vessel 
when  only  sixteen  years  of  age.  After  many  adventures  abroad  he 
returned  to  the  Chesapeake  in  1775,  learning  on  arrival  of  hostilities 
with  the  mother  country.  He  was  the  first  officer  to  unfurl  the 
American  flag  in  Maryland  on  board  the  "  Hornet''  of  ten  guns,  of 
which  he  was  master's  mate;  and  in  June,  1776,  was  appointed 
lieutenant  in  the  navy.  On  the  6th  of  June  he  sailed  from  Phila- 
delphia in  the  "  Sachem,"  commanded  by  Capt.  Robinson,  and  soon 
captured  a  letter  of  marque  brig  after  a  fight  of  two  hours.  Bring- 
ing their  prize  into  Philadelphia,  and  being  transferred  to  the 
Andrea  Doria  of  fourteen  guns,  they  again  sailed  and  captured  the 
"  Racehorse"  of  twelve  guns.  Barney  was  shortly  afterward  taken 
prisoner  on  one  of  his  own  prizes  by  the  "  Perseus"  of  twenty  guns, 
cruising  off  the  Capes  of  the  Chesapeake,  carried  to  Charleston,  and 
released  on  parole.  He  was  captured  again  in  the  "  Virginia" 
frigate  by  the  British  squadron  in  the  Chesapeake,  and  sub- 
sequently made  a  voyage  to  France.  He  was  married  in  1780  to 
a  daughter  of  Gunning  Bedford,  of  Philadelphia.  He  again  sailed 
from  that  port  in  the  IT.  S.  Ship  "  Saratoga"  of  sixteen  guns,  which 
made  several  prizes,  among  others  an  English  ship  of  thirty-two 
guns,  which  was  boarded  by  Barney  at  the  head  of  fifty  men.  He 
was  ordered  into  the  Delaware  with  his  prize,  but  was  again 
captured  by  a  squadron  of  the  enemy  and  carried  prisoner  to 
England.  He  adroitly  escaped  from  prison,  and  after  various 
adventures,  once  more  landed  in  Philadelphia  in  1782. 

In  a  few  days  after  his  return  home  he  was  appointed  to  the  com- 
mand of  the  "Hyder  Ali,"  a  small  vessel,  carrying  sixteen  guns, 
and  one  hundred  and  ten  men,  being  fitted  out  by  the  State  of 
Pennsylvania  to  aid  in  destroying  the  numerous  Tory  craft,  which, 
under  cover  of  the  British  men  of  war,  made  great  havoc  with  the 


commerce  of  Philadelphia.  She  sailed  on  the  8th  of  April,  1782,  iu 
company  with  a  fleet  of  merchantmen,  with  orders  to  convoy  them 
to  the  Capes  of  the  Delaware,  and  then  return  into  the  hay  for  its 
protection.  On  approaching  Cape  May  road,  the  convoy  was  met 
by  two  ships  and  a  brig,  and  put  back  up  the  bay  again.  The  brig 
saluted  Barney  with  a  broadside,  of  which  he  took  no  notice,  and 
then  ran  after  the  fleet,  when  the  "  Hyder  Ali,"  waiting  for  one  of 
the  ships  to  come  within  pistol  shot,  poured  into  her  a  tremendous 
fire,  and  then,  as  she  fell  along  side,  caught  her  jibboom  in  the 
u  Hyder  Ali's"  rigging  ;  thus  giving  Barney  such  a  raking  position 
that  iu  twenty-five  minutes  the  enemy  struck  his  colors.  Putting 
his  first  lieutenant  and  thirty-five  men  on  board  her,  and  eluding 
the  other  ship,  Barney  found  that  he  had  captured  his  Britannic 
Majesty's  ship  "  General  Monk,"  of  twenty  guns,  and  one  hundred 
and  thirty-six  men.  For  this  gallant  action,  which  diffused  great 
joy  through  the  whole  country,  Captain  Barney  received  the  thanks 
of  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature,  which  voted  him  also  a  costly 

The  name  of  the  captured  "  General  Monk"  being  changed  to 
"  General  Washington,"  Captain  Barney  was  placed  in  command  of 
her,  in  May,  1782,  proceeded  to  Havana,  and  on  his  return  to  the 
Delaware,  made  a  successful  attack  on  a  number  of  Tory  barges, 
destroying  them,  and  recapturing  the  vessels  of  which  they  had 
taken  possession.  In  October,  1782,  he  was  selected  to  carry  out  to 
Dr.  Franklin  the  instructions  of  his  Government  before  the  British 
commissioners  should  arrive  at  Paris,  and  returned  to  Philadelphia 
on  the  12th  of  March,  1783,  bearing  the  news  of  peace,  and  the 
passport  for  his  ship  of  the  King  of  Great  Britain.  During  the 
next  few  years  he  embarked  in  various  commercial  enterprises,  and 
in  1793  his  vessel  was  captured  by  three  privateers.  His  spirit  and 
courage  did  not  forsake  him  on  this  occasion,  and  five  days  after- 
ward, he,  with  the  aid  of  two  warrant  officers,  rose  upon  the  prize 
crew  and  recaptured  his  vessel,  bringing  his  English  assailants 
home  with  him.  He  again  sailed  for  the  West  Indies,  and  on  his 
return,  the  second  day  out  from  Tort  au  Prince,  he  was  captured  by 
the  Penelope  frigate,  carried  to  Jamaica,  and  there  tried  for  piracy 
in  recapturing  his  own  vessel.  The  jury  acquitted  him,  but  his 
cargo  was  condemned,  and  a  number  of  years  elapsed  before  he 
succeeded  in  recovering  his  property. 

On  his  return  home  he  was  appointed  commander  of  one  of  the 
six  ships  authorized  by  Congress  to  comprise  the  navy  of  the  United 
States,  but  declined  to  serve  on  account  of  a  question  of  rank.     He 

JOSHUA     BARNEY.  183 

shortly  afterward  proceeded  to  France,  sailing  in  company  with  Mr. 
Mnnroe,  the  minister  to  that  country,  and  was  by  him  selected  to 
bear  the  American  flag  presented  to  the  national  convention.  He 
soon  entered  into  the  service  of  France,  and  held  his  command  until 
1802,  when  he  resigned,  and  returned  to  the  United  States.  He 
continued  in  pursuit  of  his  private  affairs  until  the  declaration  of 
war  with  Great  Britain  in  1812,  when  he  at  once  offered  his 
services,  and  in  less  than  a  month,  after  the  commencement  of 
hostilities,  sailed  on  a  short  cruise  in  the  "  Rossie,"  of  ten  guns, 
doing  much  damage,  and  capturing  a  letter  of  marque. 

Being  appointed  to  the  command  of  a  flotilla,  fitted  out  at 
Baltimore,  for  the  protection  of  the  Chesapeake,  he  left  the 
Patnxent  river  on  the  1st  of  June,  1814,  with  the  "  Scorpion"  as  his 
flag- ship,  accompanied  by  a  couple  of  gun  boats  and  several  barges. 
He  pursued  two  British  schooners,  but  as  he  was  coming  up  with 
them  a  large  two  decker  came  in  sight,  and  bearing  down  on  the 
flotilla  forced  it  to  seek  shelter  again  in  the  Patnxent,  From  the 
6th  to  the  11th  of  June,  the  enemy,  being  joined  by  other  vessels, 
several  attacks  were  made  upon  Barney,  which  were  gallantly 
repulsed  in  each  instance.  Learning  at  this  time  of  the  meditated 
attack  on  Baltimore  and  Washington,  and  communicating  his  in- 
telligence to  the  government  at  Washington,  he  received  orders  to 
run  his  flotilla  as  far  as  he  could  up  the  river,  destroy  it  if  liable  to 
capture  by  the  enemy,  and  then  to  join  his  forces  with  General 
Winder  in  defence  of  the  Capitol.  On  the  21st  of  August,  the 
British  troops  having  moved  up  from  Benedict,  on  the  Patuxent, 
accompanied  by  a  number  of  barges,  under  command  of  the 
ruffianly  Cockburn,  reached  lower  Marlborough,  when  Barney's 
flotilla  sailed  farther  up  the  stream  to  Pig  Point,  being  there  left 
under  charge  of  Lieutenant  Frazier ; — Barney  having  landed  with 
four  hundred  men  and  marched  to  the  aid  of  General  Winder,  at 
Wood  Yard,  on  the  road  from  Upper  Marlborough  to  Washington, 
and  twelve  miles  from  the  Capitol.  The  flotilla  was  blown  up  the 
next  day,  August  22d,  when  Cockburn's  barges  approached  and 
began  firing  upon  it.  On  the  21th  of  August,  Barney,  with  Win- 
der's little  army,  marched  to  Bladensburg,  where  they  found  near 
the  village  the  remainder  of  the  American  forces  under  General 
Stansbury.  The  gallant  part  which  Barney  took  in  the  battle  that 
ensued,  and  its  unfortunate  result,  have  been  too  often  narrated  to 
need  repetition  in  the  limited  space  at  our  command.  Commodore 
Barney  was  not  again  engaged,  and  peace  being  declared  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1815,  relieved  him  of  his  command.     He  was  selected  by  the 


President  as  bearer  of  despatches  to  the  American  plenipotentiaries 
in  Europe,  and  made  a  voyage  in  that  capacity ;  and  in  Xovember, 
1817,  was  appointed  naval  officer  of  the  Port  of  Baltimore.  He  was 
about  removing  to  Kentucky,  where  he  had  claims  on  a  large  tract 
of  land,  when  he  was  suddenly  seized  with  illness  at  Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania,  and  died  there  on  December  1st,  1818,  aged  fifty-nine 
years.  He  belonged  to  a  school  of  naval  officers  of  which  few 
specimens  now  remain,  owing  to  the  great  changes  in  the  service. 
Trained  in  a  career  of  perilous  hardihood,  he  was  rough  and 
impetuous,  but  of  kind  feelings,  strict  integrity  and  dauntless 



James  Laurence  Bartol,  Chief  Judge  of  the  Court  of  Appeals  of 
Maryland,  was  born  June  4th,  1813,  at  Havre  de  Grace,  in  Harford 
county,  Maryland.  His  father,  George  Bartol,  was  a  respected  and 
successful  merchant  in  that  place ;  his  mother  he  had  the  misfortune 
to  lose  when  he  was  not  quite  three  years  old.  His  early  education 
was  received  at  Havre  de  Grace,  and  was  chiefly  directed  to  his 
preparation  for  the  business  of  a  merchant.  In  1828,  at  the  age  of 
fifteen,  he  came  to  Baltimore,  inclined  to  accept  a  position  that  had 
been  offered  him  in  a  mercantile  house,  but,  upon  inquiry  and  re- 
flection, was  led  to  think  better  of  his  plans,  and  decided  to  resume 
and  continue  his  studies.  Returning  to  his  home,  he  was  placed  by 
his  father  as  a  private  pupil  in  the  family  of  the  Rev.  Samuel 
Martin,  D.  I).,  a  highly  accomplished  scholar,  who  then  resided  at 
Chanceford,  in  York  county,  Pennsylvania.  Here  young  Bartol  re- 
mained until  1830,  and  so  thoroughly  did  he  profit  by  the  instructions 
of  his  learned  preceptor,  that  he  was  enabled  at  the  age  of  seventeen 
to  enter  the  junior  class  of  Jefferson  College,  Penns}'lvania,  where 
he  graduated  two  years  later,  with  college  honors.  In  subsequent 
years,  and  amid  all  the  engrossing  cares  and  duties  of  professional  life 
and  of  a  high  judicial  station,  Judge  Bartol  has  never  lost  his  early 
love  of  classical  literature  and  belles-lettres,  but  has  wisely  known 
how  to  find  time  and  leisure  for  both.  Apart  from  the  possession  of 
naturally  refined  and  scholarly  tastes,  which  have  made  at  all  times 
the  paths  of  literature  both  welcome  and  easy  to  him,  this  fortunate 
result  is,  no  doubt,  partly  due,  in  his  case,  as  in  that  of  most  men 
who  are  similarly  able  to  retain  and  indulge  in  later  life  their  fond- 
ness for  classical  studies,  to  the  thoroughness  and  excellence  of  his 
early  training,  which  he  received  when  under  the  roof  of  the  learned 
Dr.  Martin.  That  so  man}'  men  in  this  country,  even  among  those 
who  are  accounted  liberally  educated,  lose,  within  a  very  few  years 
after  leaving  college,  the  ability  to  construe  tolerably  a  page  of  any 
Greek  or  Latin  author,  is  quite  as  often  due  to  the  superficial  char- 
acter of  the  education  imparted,  as  to  the  occupations  of  a  busy  life, 


which  have  driven  from  the  mind  all  recollection  of  lessons  which 
could  never  have  been  more  than  half  learned,  else  they  would  not 
have  been  so  soon  and  easily  forgotten. 

After  quitting  college,  Mr.  Bartol  commenced  the  study  of  the 
law,  in  the  office  of  Otho  Scott,  Esq.,  at  Bel  Air,  in  Harford  county. 
He  was  as  fortunate  in  the  choice  of  a  legal  as  he  had  previously 
been  in  the  selection  of  a  classical  instructor.  Mr.  Scott  was  de- 
servedly considered  in  his  day  to  be  one  of  the  ablest  lawyers  in 
Maryland,  and  his  were  the  brilliant  and  palmy  days  when  the  fame 
of  Harper,  Pinkney,  Wirt  and  Luther  Martin  had  not  yet  faded,  and 
when  Taney,  Johnson,  Nelson  and  McMahon  were  at  the  height  of 
their  great  reputation.  Among  these  leaders  of  the  bar,  Otho  Scott 
held  a  foremost  place,  and  enjoyed  a  high  repute  both  for  the  extent 
and  soundness  of  his  legal  learning,  and  for  the  ability  and  acute- 
ness  which  he  displayed  in  the  conduct  of  nisi  prius  cases. 

"While  at  college,  and  afterwards,  young  Bartol's  health  became 
seriously  impaired,  so  much  so  that  he  was  compelled  to  intermit 
his  close  application  to  the  study  of  the  law,  and  undertake  a  voyage 
to  Cuba,  where,  and  in  the  balmy  climate  of  Florida,  he  passed  the 
fall  and  winter  of  1835-36.  He  consequently  did  not  apply  for 
admission  to  the  bar  until  1836.  In  the  year  following  his  admis- 
sion, he  settled  in  Caroline  county  and  commenced  the  practice  of 
the  profession,  which  he  continued  in  that  and  the  adjoining  coun- 
ties of  the  Eastern  Shore,  for  more  than  seven  years.  During  this 
period  he  had  frequent  opportunities,  had  he  been  so  disposed,  to 
enter  into,  political  life ;  but  his  tastes  did  not  incline  in  that  direc- 
tion, and  he  kept  aloof  from  the  vortex  of  active  politics.  A  more 
congenial  labor  was  that  which  he  undertook  in  connection  with 
the  establishment  and  organization  of  the  Denton  Academy,  in  the 
success  of  which  institution,  as  in  the  cause  of  education  generally, 
he  manifested  the  warmest  interest. 

In  the  spring  of  1845,  Judge  Bartol  removed  to  Baltimore  city, 
still  continuing  the  practice  of  his  profession ;  although  in  1855,  on 
account  of  his  health,  which  was  still  infirm,  he  fixed  his  residence 
a  short  distance  from  the  city,  in  Baltimore  county.  Although  at 
all  times  a  consistent  Democrat  of  the  old-fashioned  States  rights 
school,  as  already  remarked,  he  had  never  been  a  politician;  and  it 
was  therefore  with  feelings  of  greater  surprise  than  gratification, 
that  he  received  the  announcement  that  without  any  solicitation,  or 
previous  knowledge  even  on  his  part,  he  had  been  appointed  by 
Governor  Ligon  to  fill  the  vacancy  on  the  Bench  of  the  Court  of 
Appeals,  occasioned  by  the  resignation  of  the  Hon.  John  Thomson 


Mason.  This  was  in  1857,  and  in  the  fall  of  the  same  year,  the 
choice  which  Governor  Ligon  had  made  was  ratified  by  the  people 
in  the  election  of  Judge  Bartol,  as  a  member  of  the  Appellate 
Court,  for  the  judicial  district  composed  of  the  counties  of  Alle- 
ghany, Washington,  Frederick,  Carroll,  Harford  and  Baltimore. 
His  term  of  service  expiring  in  1867,  and  he  having,  in  the  mean- 
time, removed  to  Baltimore  city,  where  he  now  resides,  he  was 
specially  elected  by  the  people  of  Baltimore  a  Judge  of  the  Court  of 
Appeals,  under  the  revised  constitution  of  that  year,  and  was  desig- 
nated by  the  Governor,  by  and  with  the  advice  of  the  Senate,  Chief 
Judge  of  the  Court  over  which  he  now  presides. 

The  judicial  character  of  Judge  BartoPs  mind  appears  to  have 
been  recognized  by  the  profession  even  before  he  had  been  called  to 
the  Bench.  On  the  election  of  the  late  Judge  Constable,  under  the 
Constitution  of  1851,  it  became  necessary  that  a  special  judge 
should  be  chosen  to  sit  in  the  trial  of  the  many  important  causes  in 
Harford  county,  in  which  Judge  Constable  was  disqualified.  By 
the  unanimous  request  of  the  members  of  the  bar  of  that  county, 
Mr.  Bartol  was  appointed  to  fill  that  office,  which  he  did  to  the 
entire  satisfaction  of  the  bar  and  the  public ;  holding  several  terms 
of  the  Court,  and  deciding  many  important  causes.  He  has  been 
frequently  called  upon  to  act  as  arbitrator  in  controversies  which 
the  parties  desired  to  settle  without  the  delays  and  formalities  inci- 
dent to  a  trial  at  law.  For  this  delicate  and  responsible  duty,  the 
clearness  and  fairness  of  Judge  Bartol's  mind,  his  strict  impar- 
tiality, his  calm,  judicial  temper,  and  his  readiness  to  hear  patiently 
both  sides,  and  to  withhold  his  own  judgment  until  the  case  was 
fully  before  him,  particularly  qualified  him.  He  has  now  sat  upon 
the  Bench  of  the  highest  Court  of  the  State  for  thirteen  years. 
His  term  of  service  has  extended  through  the  most  trying  period  in 
the  history  in  the  country  and  the  State,  during  all  which  time  no 
imputation  has  been  cast  upon  his  personal  or  judicial  character  from 
any  quarter ;  and  he  has  commanded  always  the  respect  and  confi- 
dence of  men  of  all  parties,  and  of  the  entire  people  of  the  State. 
Conservative  both  by  nature  and  by  habit,  he  is  singularly  free 
from  those  judicial  crotchets  and  vagaries  from  which  sometimes 
the  ablest  judges  do  not  escape,  and  into  which  the  most  learned 
and  the  cleverest  are,  perhaps,  the  most  prone  to  fall.  He  brings  to 
the  consideration  of  every  case  which  comes  before  him  a  mind 
remarkably  free  from  undue  prejudice  or  bias.  His  judicial  manner 
is  also  singularly  fortunate.  It  is  a  model  of  judicial  courtesy  and 
blandness.    It  is  true,  that  judges  in  an  Appellate  Court  escape  many 


of  the  annoyances  and  vexations  which  try  the  temper  of  nisi  prius 
judges.  Still  there  is  no  judicial  station  which  is  without  its  share 
of  weariness  both  of  flesh  and  spirit.  In  the  Court  of  Appeals  of 
Maryland,  counsel  are  usually  limited  in  their  speeches  to  one  hour 
and  a  half.  It  is  very  possible,  however,  to  be  both  wordy  and  dull 
within  the  limits  allowed,  but  under  no  infliction  of  the  kind  is 
Judge  Bartol  ever  known  to  betray  the  slightest  discomposure  or 
impatience.  This  faculty  itself  of  listening  patiently  is  very  desirable 
in  a  judge,  and  when  it  is  accompanied,  as  in  Judge  Bartol's  case,  by 
a  manner  unexceptionally  kind  and  genial,  it  inspires  confidence  on 
the  part  of  counsel  and  suitors,  and  wins  universal  regard.  To 
young  lawyers,  especially,  his  manner  is  always  particularly  reassur- 
ing and  pleasant,  tending  to  relieve  their  inexperience  and  embar- 
rassment. Judge  Bartol's  opinions,  delivered  since  he  has  been  upon 
the  Bench  of  the  Court  of  Appeals,  are  to  be  found  in  every  volume 
of  the  published  Maryland  Reports,  from  the  tenth  to  the  thirty- 
first,  (the  last  published,)  inclusive.  They  are  inferior  neither  in 
matter  nor  manner  to  any  which  those  volumes  contain,  and  support 
the  high  reputation  which  the  Court  has  always  enjoyed  for  ability, 
impartiality  and  learning.  The  term  for  which  Judge  Bartol  is 
elected  is  fixed  by  the  Constitution  at  fifteen  years,  and  the  age  at 
which,  by  the  same  instrument,  a  judge  ceases  to  be  eligible  for  re- 
election, is  seventy  years.  Judge  Bartol's  term  will  not  expire  until 
1882,  when  he  will  be  within  one  year  of  the  age  at  which  the  Con- 
stitution would  make  him  ineligible. 

The  personal  popularity  of  a  judge  is  not  always  the  best  criterion 
of  his  fitness  for  the  position ;  but  in  Judge  Bartol's  case,  it  may  be 
fairly  accepted  as  the  just  reward  of  important  public  duties  faith- 
fully performed.  As  a  man  he  is  not  less  respected  and  esteemed 
than  as  a  judge.  Indeed,  purity  of  private  life  and  of  personal 
character  are  so  essential  to  the  judicial  office,  that  it  is  difficult 
to  understand  how  the  two  can  be  separated,  or  how  men  can 
retain  that  respect  for  the  magistrate  which  they  have  lost  for  the 
man.  In  the  case  of  Judge  Bartol  there  is  no  occasion  to  draw 
the  invidious  distinction ;  but  the  same  qualities  which  distinguish 
his  official  career  adorn  and  dignify  his  private  life. 



The  long  and  terrible  struggle  for  supremacy  between  Parliament 
and  the  Crown,  in  England,  disastrous  as  it  was  to  the  mother 
country,  was  fruitful  in  benefits  to  America,  in  enriching  her 
population  by  immigrants  of  such  character,  qualities  and  social 
position  as  would  scarcely  have  thought  of  voluntary  expatriation 
under  any  less  stringent  pressure.  As  King  or  Commonwealth 
triumphed,  prominent  Cavaliers  or  Puritans  found  themselves  too 
deeply  compromised  for  safety,  or  grew  desperate  of  their  cause, 
and  sought  refuge  from  danger,  or  peace  after  long  strife,  among 
their  friends  in  the  jSTew  World. 

Among  these  were  General  Berry's  paternal  ancestors,  who  emi- 
grated to  this  country  during  the  reign  of  Charles  L,  and  settled 
in  a  tract  of  country  then  known  as  a  The  Forest,"  in  Prince 
George  County,  Maryland.  About  a  hundred  years  later,  his  ma- 
ternal great-grandfather  also  quitted  England,  and  took  up  his 
abode  in  "  The  Forest," 

Colonel  John  Berry,  the  father  of  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  was 
well  known  to  the  last  generation  as  a  patriotic  and  worthy  citizen; 
and  he  formed  one  of  that  honored  band,  now  dwindled  to  a  handful, 
who  defended  Baltimore  in  the  last  war  with  England. 

In  the  early  part  of  the  year  1812,  in  view  of  the  impending  war, 
the  United  States  Government  issued  a  circular,  calling  upon  the 
citizens  to  devise  means  for  the  production  at  home  of  various 
important  articles  for  which  we  were  then  dependent  upon  Eng- 
land, and  among  the  rest,  of  a  fine  brick,  equal  to  the  Stowbridge 
brick,  which  was  a  staple  article  of  importation.  At  this  day, 
many  old  houses  may  be  seen  throughout  the  State,  built  of  the 
large  and  dingy  English  bricks,  brought  over  at  heavy  cost ;  while, 
had  they  but  known  it,  almost  at  their  doors,  lay  the  finest  brick 
clay  in  the  world. 

In  response  to  this  call,  Mr.  John  Berry,  in  1812,  established  a 
manufactory  of  fire  brick,  on  the  corner  of  Howard  and  Lee  streets, 
and  succeeded  in  producing  an  article  which  has  maintained  to  this 


day  a  high  reputation  for  excellence,  and  is  still  extensively  used  by 
the  Government,  and  in  iron,  copper  and  gas  works. 

In  1814,  when  the  British  fleet  had  entered  the  Patapsco  under 
cover  of  night,  and  Fort  McIIenry  had  sustained  a  fierce  bombard- 
ment for  twenty-four  hours,  its  brave  defenders  began  to  grow 
discouraged,  as  they  found  that  their  guns  were  of  too  light  calibre 
to  reach  the  enemy's  vessels,  which,  lying  safely  out  of  range, 
rained  shot  and  shell  upon  the  heads  of  the  garrison.  It  was  then 
that  Captain  Berry,  commanding  the  Washington  Artillery,  re- 
membered that  the  wreck  of  a  French  frigate  L'Eole,  had  been 
for  years  lying  in  the  river ;  and  taking  a  squad  of  men  he  pro- 
ceeded to  the  wreck,  and  with  great  labor  succeeded  in  getting  off 
two  large  guns,  which  they  brought  up  and  mounted  in  the  fort. 
No  sooner  were  they  in  position  than,  without  waiting  for  orders, 
he  fired  a  shot  from  one  which  passed  clear  over  the  most  distant 
vessel,  while  the  shot  from  the  other  gun,  which  immediately 
followed,  tore  through  her  rigging.  So  surprised  were  the  enemy 
by  this  unexpected  reinforcement  of  heavy  artillery,  that  they  soon 
weio-hed  anchor  and  retired  down  the  river.  General  Armistead, 
the  commanding  officer,  sent  for  Captain  Berry,  and  publicly  com- 
plimented him,  saying  that  he  had  deserved  well  of  his  country. 

After  the  close  of  the  war,  General  Scott,  for  his  bravery  and 
good  service,  issued  a  commission  to  Captain  Berry  as  a  colonel  in 
the  regular  army,  for  the  Eastern  District  of  the  United  States ;  but 
considering  that  his  country  had  no  further  need  of  his  services,  he 
declined  the  appointment. 

John  Summerfield  Berry,  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  was  born 
June  18th,  1822,  and  was  educated  partly  in  Baltimore,  and  partly 
at  Dickinson  College,  Carlisle,  Pennsylvania.  On  leaving  college,  his 
tastes  inclining  him  to  active  business  pursuits,  he  entered  the  dry- 
goods  store  of  Beale  PI.  Richardson,  with  whom  he  remained  for 
more  than  a  year. 

In  1845,  he  became  associated  with  his  brother-in-law,  Mr.  John 
Hurst,  in  the  wholesale  dry  goods  business,  and  the  firm  carried  on 
an  extensive  trade  for  eleven  years,  after  which  he  retired  from  the 

In  1857,  he  was  elected  as  a  Delegate  to  the  Maryland  Legisla- 
ture, from  Baltimore  County,  where  he  resided,  and  on  the  assem- 
bling, of  that  body,  was  chosen  Speaker  of  the  House.  The  position 
of  Speaker  at  this  Session  was  a  peculiarly  arduous  one.  Party 
feeling  ran  high,  and  occasions  continually  arose  where  the  presence 
in  the  chair  of  a  man  of  judgment,  firmness  and  tact,  was  of  the 


highest  importance.  Mr.  Berry,  moreover,  was  an  entire  novice  in 
public  life ;  he  had  never  before  taken  a  seat  in  a  deliberative  body, 
and  was  absolutely  ignorant  of  parliamentary  rules.  But  he  applied 
himself  diligently  to  the  study  of  the  duties,  annexed  to  his  diffi- 
cult and  responsible  position,  and  with  such  effect  that  during  his 
whole  term  of  service,  no  appeal  was  ever  taken  from  his  decision. 

In  the  very  first  days  of  his  speakership,  an  incident  occurred, 
which  we  shall  relate  somewhat  at  length,  as  it  is  not  only  highly 
characteristic  of  those  stormy  times,  but  is  also  almost  without  a 
parallel  in  parliamentary  history. 

The  House  was  in  Committee  of  the  Whole,  the  Speaker  having 
left  the  chair,  and  a  highly  excited  and  acrimonious  debate  was 
in  progress  upon  certain  portions  of  the  Governor's  Message,  which 
reflected  severely  upon  the  party  then  in  power.  The  House  was  a 
full  one,  and  the  lobbies  crowded  with  spectators,  as  the  leading 
men  on  both  sides  had  taken  part  in  the  debate.  A  member  had 
the  floor,  and  in  the  course  of  his  remarks  indulged  in  very  severe 
denunciations  of  the  Governor,  when  another  member  excitedly 
interrupted  him,  and  persisted  in  the  interruption  in  spite  of  the 
orders  of  the  Chairman.  A  scene  of  wild  confusion  followed, 
which  all  the  efforts  of  the  Chairman  were  powerless  to  suppress. 
It  was  known  that  not  only  the  two  disputants,  who  were  now 
wrought  to  a  high  pitch  of  excitement,  were  armed,  but  so  also 
were  many  of  their  friends,  who  were  scarcely  less  excited,  and  at 
any  moment  very  deplorable  consequences  might  have  ensued.  The 
Chairman  himself,  carried  away  by  the  excitement  of  the  moment, 
declared  that  he  would  compel  the  interrupting  member  to  take  his 
seat ;  and  leaving  the  chair  he  advanced  upon  him  with  the  evident 
purpose  of  using  force  to  that  end ;  an  attempt  which  would  have 
given  the  signal  for  an  outbreak  of  violence,  and  perhaps  a  terrible 
catastrophe.  But  the  instant  the  Chairman  vacated  the  chair, 
Speaker  Berry  sprang  into  it,  and  in  a  commanding  voice  called  the 
House  to  order.  Quiet  was  partially  restored ;  the  two  gentlemen 
who  had  heen  the  cause  of  the  tumult  took  their  seats  at  the  com- 
mand of  the  Speaker,  when  a  member  arose,  declaring  that  the  Com- 
mittee had  not  been  dissolved,  and  demanding  by  what  authority  the 
Speaker  had  resumed  the  Chair.  "  By  the  authority  of  this  House, 
and  to  preserve  the  honor  and  dignity  of  the  State  of  Maryland, 
and  to  bring  this  disorderly  body  to  order,"  was  the  reply.  The 
objector  refusing  to  recognize  the  authority  and  to  take  his  seat, 
the  Speaker  at  once  placed  him  under  arrest,  and  ordered  him  into 
the  custody  of  the  Sergeant-at-arms.     Finally,  his  friends  persuaded 


him  to  make  an  apology  to  the  Speaker.  On  his  being  brought  to 
the  Bar  of  the  House,  and  the  apology  having  been  made,  the  House 
passed  an  order  that  he  should  be  publicly  reprimanded  by  the 
Speaker,  upon  which  he  remarked :  "  I  deserve  it."  The  Speaker 
instantly  said :  "  The  gentleman  has  pronounced  his  own  repri- 
mand," and  ordered  his  discharge.  Thus  ending  a  scene,  which,  but 
for  the  presence  of  mind  and  firmness  displayed  by  the  presiding 
officer,  might  have  had  the  most  unfortunate  consequences. 

We  have  spoken  of  this  as  an  incident  almost  without  parallel  in 
parliamentary  history ;  but  there  is  one  instance  on  record  which 
curiously  resembles  it.  In  the  year  1675,  when  Sir  Edward  Sey- 
mour was  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Commons,  in  a  division  in 
Committee  of  the  Whole  a  fierce  dispute  arose.  Swords  were  drawn 
and  bloodshed  seemed  imminent,  when,  as  the  record  states,  "  the 
Speaker  very  opportunely  and  prudently  rising  from  his  seat,  near 
the  bar,  in  a  resolute  and  slow  pace  made  his  three  respects  through 
the  crowd  and  took  the  chair.  The  mace  having  been  forcibly  laid 
upon  the  table,  all  the  disorder  ceased,  and  the  gentlemen  present 
took  their  places.  The  Speaker,  having  sat,  spoke  to  this  purpose, 
that  '  to  bring  the  House  into  order  again,  he  had  taken  the  chair, 
though  not  according  to  order.'  Some  gentlemen  excepted  against 
his  coming  into  the  chair  ;  but  the  doing  it  was  generally  approved 
as  the  only  expedient  to  suppress  the  disorder." 

The  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Representatives,  then  considered 
one  of  the  ablest  presiding  officers  in  the  country,  wrote  to  Speaker 
Berry  to  compliment  him  on  the  presence  of  mind  and  energy  he 
had  displayed. 

In  1861,  Mr.  Berry  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Legislature  then 
assembled  in  extra  session,  as  also  to  the  next  regular  session 
beginning  in  the  following  year,  on  which  occasion  he  was  again 
chosen  Speaker  of  the  House,  over  a  number  of  distinguished  com- 
petitors. The  House,  indeed,  was  notable  this  session  for  the  num- 
ber of  men  eminent  for  their  talents  or  public  services,  which  it 
reckoned  among  its  members,  comprising  such  names  as  Beverdy 
Johnson,  John  A.  J.  Creswell,  Benjamin  G.  Harris,  Judge  Ma- 
gruder,  Thomas  S.  Alexander,  Thomas  Donaldson,  and  others. 
Political  feeling  still  ran  high  in  the  State,  and,  of  course,  was 
concentrated  in  the  Legislature,  making  the  position  of  Speaker, 
as  before,  one  of  great  difficulty. 

In  1862  he  was  appointed  by  Governor  Bradford,  Adjutant 
General  of  the  State,  to  the  duties  of  which  post  he  devoted  him- 
self assiduously,  to  the  neglect  of  his  private  business. 


At  the  earnest  request  of  Governor  Swarm,  who  succeeded  Gover- 
nor Bradford,  General  Berry  retained  the  office,  and  devoted  much 
time  and  attention  to  carrying  out  all  the  requirements  of  the 
law  creating  the  Maryland  National  Guard.  Some  months  after 
Governor  Bowie's  entrance  into  office,  General  Berry  resigned  his 
position,  and  the  Governor  in  accepting  his  resignation,  compli- 
mented him  highly  on  the  efficiency  and  fidelity  which  he  had 
displayed  during  his  long  term  of  service. 

In  1864  General  Berry  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Convention 
called  to  frame  a  new  Constitution  for  the  State :  in  which,  though 
himself  a  slaveholder,  he  advocated,  on  practical  grounds,  the  inser- 
tion of  the  article  abolishing  slavery.  General  Berry  has  been  three 
times  elected  as  Grand  Master  of  the  Masonic  Order  in  the  State  of 

Since  his  resignation  of  the  office  of  Adjutant  General,  General 
Berry,  though  often  solicited  to  re-enter  public  life,  has  steadily 
refused  to  do  so,  but  has  devoted  his  time  to  his  private  affairs,  and 
to  the  advancement  of  various  benevolent  and  religious  objects ; 
and  has  taken  a  prominent  part  in  the  furtherance  of  many  noble 
charities,  giving  liberally  of  his  own  means,  and  inducing  others  to 
follow  his  example.  In  the  unostentatious  though  useful  life  he  is 
now  leading,  he  is  perhaps  accomplishing  as  much  good  for  his 
fellow  citizens,  as  when  serving  them  in  public  capacities. 


The  establishment  in  the  city  of  Baltimore,  while  it  was  jet  in 
its  infancy,  of  a  commercial  house,  which,  from  small  beginnings, 
gradually  grew  and  prospered,  and,  in  the  course  of  time,  sent  out 
into  the  great  capitals  of  this  country  and  England,  vigorous  off- 
shoots, which,  in  their  turn,  grew  and  prospered,  until  they  have 
come  to  be  known  and  recognized  everv where  as  anion o-  the  leading 
firms  of  the  world,  distinguished  as  much  for  honor  and  integrity 
as  for  wealth  and  enterprise,  is  an  event  which  deserves  to  be  com- 
memorated, not  only  for  its  important  influence  on  the  trade  of 
Baltimore,  but  for  its  extensive  connection  with  both  English  and 
American  commerce. 

Such  was  the  work  accomplished  by  the  late  Alexander  Brown, 
the  founder  of  the  house  of  Alexander  Brown  &  Sons,  who  was  born 
in  the  north  of  Ireland,  in  17»31,  of  that  hardy  Xorth  Irish  stock 
which  is  so  numerously  and  honorably  represented  in  the  United 
States  by  men  who  have  achieved  distinction  in  business,  in  the 
learned  professions,  and  in  political  life.  Mr.  Brown  married  at 
Ballymena,  Ireland,  where  all  his  children  were  born,  and  where  he 
was  engaged  in  business.  In  the  year  1800,  leaving  his  younger 
children,  George,  John  A.  and  James  to  be  educated  in  England,  he 
came  with  his  wife  and  his  eldest  son,  William,  to  Baltimore,  having 
been  induced  to  take  this  step  by  his  brother,  Stewart  Brown,  who 
had  previously  established  himself  in  business  in  Baltimore,  and  by 
his  friend  and  brother-in-law,  Dr.  George  Brown,  who  had  married 
a  sister  of  his  wife,  and  who,  without  being  related  to  him  by 
blood,  bore  the  same  surname,  and  had  settled  in  Baltimore  in 
the  year  1783. 

Mr.  Brown  brought  with  him  a  small  capital,  and  immediately 
engaged  in  the  business  of  importing  and  selling  Irish  linens,  at  that 
time,  before  the  great  development  of  the  growth  and  manufacture 
of  cotton,  an  important  branch  of  commerce,  but  with  this  was 
gradually  combined  a  shipping  and  other  business. 

In  the  year  1810,  the  eldest  son,  William,  went  to  Liverpool,  and 


there  established  with  his  brother  James,  the  firm  of  William  & 
James  Brown  &  Company,  which  subsequently  became  Brown, 
Shipley  &  Co.,  a  branch  of  which  has  since  been  established  in  Lon- 
don. It  may  be  here  stated  that  William  Brown  died  in  Liverpool 
in  1864,  possessed  of  great  wealth,  after  having  for  many  years  rep- 
resented the  county  of  Lancashire  in  the  British  Parliament,  and 
having  been  created  a  Baronet  in  1862. 

This  honor  was  tendered  in  a  manner  which  was  the  more  grati- 
fying as  it  was  wholly  unexpected.  Lord  Palmerston  writing  to 
him,  on  the  13th  of  November,  1862,  by  authority  of  the  Queen, 
stated  that  the  Dignity  was  offered  to  him  in  consideration  of  his 
eminent  commercial  position  and  his  generous  conduct  toward  the 
people  of  Liverpool  with  respect  to  the  munificent  gift  which  he 
had  made  to  them. 

This  gift  consisted  in  the  endowment  of  a  Free  Public  Library 
and  the  erection  of  a  noble  building  for  its  accommodation. 

In  the  year  1811,  the  firm  of  Alexander  Brown  &  Sons  was 
formed  in  the  city  of  Baltimore,  and  still  continues  to  exist,  being 
now  composed  of  George  S.  Brown  and  William  H.  Graham,  son 
and  son-in-law  of  George  Brown. 

In  1818,  John  A.  Brown  established  a  branch  of  the  house  in 
Philadelphia,  under  the  name  of  John  A.  Brown  &  Co.,  and,  in 
1825,  James  Brown  settled  in  New  York,  and  established  the 
firm  of  Brown  Brothers  &  Co.  George  Brown  continued  to  reside 
in  Baltimore  with  his  father,  to  whom  he  was  always  a  devoted 
son,  as  well  as  most  efficient  partner.  John  A.  Brown  retired  in 
1839,  and  the  business  is  now  carried  on  in  Philadelphia,  as  well 
as  in  New  York,  under  the  firm  of  Brown  Brothers  &  Co. 

While  Mr.  Alexander  Brown  lived,  Baltimore  continued  to  be  the 
headquarters  of  all  the  houses,  and  several  times  a  year,  and  on 
every  important  occasion,  it  was  the  custom  of  all  the  brothers  in 
this  country  to  meet  together  to  take  counsel  with  their  father  and 
each  other.  The  early  education  of  Mr.  Brown  had  been  defective, 
but  he  was  a  man  of  great  vigor  both  of  mind  and  body,  quick  in 
perceiving  and  deciding,  and  rapid  in  executing,  of  strong  will,  of 
sound  judgment,  inflexible  honesty,  and  untiring  industry.  In  cases 
of  doubt  and  difficulty,  his  potential  voice  generally  decided  the 
question,  and  rarely,  if  ever,  has  a  family,  consisting  of  father  and 
four  sons,  worked  together  for  so  long  a  time  and  with  such  admira- 
ble harmony  and  efficiency,  or  better  illustrated  the  familiar  maxim 
that  in  anion,  and  especially  in  family  union,  there  is  strength.  The 
business,  after  the  death  of  Alexander   Brown,  gradually  became 

ALEXANDER     BROWN    &    SONS.  197 

exclusively  that  of  exchange  and  banking,  and  with  the  different 
branches  in  Baltimore,  Philadelphia,  New  York,  Liverpool,  and 
London,  with  their  large  capital  and  still  larger  credit,  the  success 
which  has  attended  it  is  in  proportion  to  the  great  advantages 

But  devoted  as  Mr.  Brown  was  to  business,  he  was  not  wholly 
absorbed  by  it.  He  and  his  son  George  had  the  sagacity  to  perceive 
the  vast  advantages  which  were  destined  to  result  from  the  con- 
struction of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad ;  and,  from  the  very 
beginning,  were  among  its  most  efficient  and  zealous  friends  and 
promoters,  not  only  aiding  it  liberally  with  their  means,  but  de- 
voting to  its  business  and  to  the  various  experiments  made  for  its 
benefit,  much  personal  care  and  attention.  The  first  meeting  of 
those  who  projected  the  enterprise  was  held  in  the  parlor  of  Mr. 
George  Brown. 

Mr.  Alexander  Brown  died  in  the  year  1834,  of  pneumonia,  which 
he  contracted  at  a  meeting  of  merchants,  over  which  he  presided, 
held  on  a  cold  day  in  winter,  at  the  Exchange,  on  the  occasion  of  a 
panic  which  then  prevailed,  growing  out  of  the  failure  of  the  Bank 
of  Maryland.  With  reference  to  that  panic,  Mr.  Brown  is  known 
to  have  declared,  with  his  characteristic  decision  and  energy,  that 
no  merchant  in  Baltimore  who  could  show  that  he  was  solvent, 
should  be  permitted  to  fail. 

George  Brown,  the  second  son  of  Alexander,  was  born  at  Bally- 
mena,  in.  1787,  and  came  to  America  when  he  was  fifteen  years  of 
age.  As  a  business  man  he  wras  distinguished  by  caution  and  pru- 
dence rather  than  enterprise,  by  sterling  integrity,  by  quickness  of 
perception  and  indefatigable  application.  When,  in  1827,  the  Me- 
chanics Bank  was  reduced  almost  to  insolvency  by  bad  manage- 
ment, he  consented  to  become  its  president,  and  in  a  short  time 
raised  it  to  a  state  of  great  prosperity ;  and  it  is  a  fact  worthy  of 
notice  that  a  long  time  afterwards  his  son,  George  S.,  successfully 
presided  over  the  same  institution,  having  been  called  to  the  man- 
agement in  consequence  of  a  serious  disaster  which  it  had  sustained. 
Afterwards,  George  Brown  became  the  principal  founder  of  the 
Merchants  Bank,  of  which  he  was  for  some  time  the  president. 

He  was  characterized  by  deep  domestic  affections,  by  warm  re- 
ligious feeling,  and  sincere  benevolence.  The  House  of  Refuge 
for  juvenile  offenders  was  a  special  object  of  his  care,  and  the  monu- 
ment to  his  memory  which  has  since  his  death  been  there  erected 
by  the  liberality  of  the  late  Benjamin  Deford,  worthily  attests  his 
generosity  and  valuable  services  to  that  Institution.  He  was  the 


first  president  of  the  excellent  charity  known  as  the  Baltimore 
Association  for  the  Improvement  of  the  Condition  of  the  Poor. 

Although  his  modesty  and  retiring  disposition  always  made  him 
shrink  from  public  view,  he  was  not  deficient  in  public  spirit,  and 
at  the  age  of  forty-nine,  when  he  was  a  merchant  of  the  highest 
standing,  very  largely  engaged  in  business,  he  faithfully  served,  first 
as  a  private  soldier  and  afterwards  as  first  lieutenant,  in  a  volunteer 
cavalry  company  which  was  raised  after  the  great  riot  of  1835,  by 
a  number  of  our  best  citizens,  with  the  laudable  object  of  preserving 
the  peace  of  the  city.  He  was  one  of  the  original  trustees  of  the 
Peabody  Institute,  and  took  a  warm  interest  in  its  affairs  as  long  as 
he  lived. 

On  his  decease,  in  1859,  he  was  possessed,  it  is  believed,  of  the 
largest  fortune  which  had  ever  been  left  by  an  individual  in  Mary- 
land ;  but,  true  to  a  principle  which  had  actuated  him  during  life, 
that  his  charities  should  be  distributed  as  unostentatiously  as  possi- 
ble, he  made  no  provision  for  them  by  will,  except  by  making  his 
widow  the  'almoner  of  his  bounty ;  and  we  may  be  permitted  here 
to  say,  what  is  known  to  many,  that  well  and  faithfully  has  she 
executed  the  responsible  and  difficult  trust.  The  beautiful  Presby- 
terian Church,  on  Park  avenue,  known  as  the  Brown  Memorial 
Church,  which  she  has  recently  erected,  attests  not  only  her  devo- 
tion to  his  memory,  but  his  fervent  attachment  to  the  faith  in  which 
he  had  been  educated,  in  which  he  lived,  and  in  humble  reliance  on 
which  he  died. 


George  William  Brown  traces  his  ancestry,  on  the  paternal  side, 
from  a  family  long  settled  in  Ireland.  His  grandfather,  Dr.  George 
Brown,  the  founder  of  the  family  in  America,  was  educated  at  the 
University  of  Glasgow  and  graduated  in  medicine  at  that  of  Edin- 
burgh. In  1783,  he  came  to  this  country  with  his  family,  and 
established  himself  as  a  practising  physician  in  Baltimore,  where,  at 
the  time  a  severe  epidemic  was  raging.  The  success  of  his  treat- 
ment soon  gave  him  a  high  professional  reputation,  and  his  other 
estimable  qualities  secured  him  a  distinguished  place  in  society.  His 
name  is  mentioned  in  Griffith's  Annals  as  having,  in  conjunction 
with  six  other  physicians,  established  a  Baltimore  Medical  Society. 
The  deficiency  of  anatomical  material,  and  the  intense  popular 
odium  which  attached  to  dissections,  prevented  this  association  from 
developing  into  a  Medical  School. 

His  eldest  son,  George  John  Brown,  born  in  1787,  embarked  in 
business  pursuits,  and  became  a  partner  in  the  firm  of  Brown  and 
Hollins.  He  married  in  1810,  Esther  Allison,  the  daughter  of  the 
Bev.  Dr.  Patrick  Allison,  first  pastor  of  the  First  Presbyterian 
Church,  a  gentleman  distinguished  for  his  zeal  and  abilities  in  the 
discharge  of  his  calling,  and  also  for  his  vigorous  polemical  and 
political  writings.  In  particular,  he  engaged  in  an  ardent,  though 
courteous  controversy  with  Bishop  Carroll,  on  the  occasion  of  the 
assumption  by  the  latter  of  the  title  "  John,  Bishop  of  Baltimore. " 
Though  antagonists  in  theology,  these  reverend  gentlemen  were 
cordially  united  on  the  subject  of  education  ;  and  we  read  in  the 
Annals  of  the  city,  that  a  classical  academy  for  the  youth  of  Balti- 
more was  established  in  1786,  under  the  patronage  of  the  Rev. 
Drs.  Carroll,  West  and  Allison.  They  also  united  in  an  effort  to 
build  up  and  endow  St.  John's  College,  Annapolis ;  and  in  1795, 
we  find  their  names,  as  wrell  as  Dr.  Brown's,  at  the  head  of  the 
list  of  founders  of  the  Library  Company  of  Baltimore,  the  first 
circulating  library  in  the  city. 

George  William  Brown  was  born  in  Baltimore,  on  October  13th, 


1812,  being  the  eldest  son  of  George  John  and  Esther  Brown.  He 
received  his  early  education  in  this  city,  and  when  nearly  sixteen 
entered  the  sophomore  class  of  Dartmouth  College,  New  Hampshire. 
The  death  of  his  father,  who  left  his  family  in  straitened  circum- 
stances owing  to  misfortunes  in  business,  led  to  his  return  home 
before  he  had  completed  his  first  year  at  college,  and  but  for  the 
liberality  of  his  uncle  by  marriage,  Mr.  John  A.  Brown  of  Philadel- 
phia, he  would  not  have  been  able  to  complete  his  collegiate  course, 
which  he  did  at  Rutgers  College,  New  Jersey,  graduating  at  the 
head  of  his  class,  in  1831. 

Returning  home,  he  began  the  study  of  the  law,  in  the  office  of 
Mr.  (afterwards  Judge)  John  Purviance,  and  at  the  end  of  two 
years  was  admitted  to  the  bar. 

In  1839,  he  entered  into  partnership  with  Mr.  Frederick  W. 
Brune,  his  former  schoolmate  and  most  intimate  friend,  under  the 
firm  of  Brown  &  Brune,  and  soon  afterwards  married  the  young- 
est sister  of  his  partner.  This  firm,  subsequently  enlarged  by  the 
admission  of  Mr.  Stewart  Brown  and  Mr.  Brown's  eldest  son  Mr. 
Arthur  Geo.  Brown,  is  still  in  existence  under  the  same  name. 

The  first  instance  in  which  Mr.  Brown  took  any  prominent  part  in 
public  aifairs,  was  on  the  occasion  of  the  Bank  of  Maryland  Riot 
of  1835,  a  sketch  of  which  is  given  in  another  part  of  this  volume. 
The  ineffectual  attempts  made  by  the  civic  authorities  to  suppress 
the  riot,  only  had  the  effect  of  emboldening  the  mob,  and  a  hesitat- 
ing recourse  to  fire-arms,  resulting  in  the  death  of  several  of  the 
rioters,  enraged  instead  of  intimidating  them.  Great  apprehensions 
were  felt  in  the  city,  various  houses  were  sacked  and  countless 
rumors  were  afloat  of  terrible  vengeance  to  be  wreaked  by  the  mob. 
At  this  crisis,  three  persons,  of  whom  Mr.  Brown  was  one,  (the  others 
being  Mr.  "Wm.  G.  Harrison  and  Mr.  Geo.  H.  Brice,)  by  active  per- 
sonal application,  assembled  a  number  of  law-abiding  citizens  at  the 
Exchange.  Upon  meeting,  it  was  evident  that  the  first  thing  to  be 
done  was  to  obtain  a  judicious  and  courageous  leader;  and  it  was 
resolved  to  send  at  once  for  General  Samuel  Smith,  then  at  his 
country  seat,  two  miles  from  the  city.  The  revolutionary  veteran, 
of  eighty-three  years,  came  promptly  at  the  summons  of  duty  and 
danger,  and  his  presence  wrought  an  instantaneous  change  in  the 
state  of  affairs,  lie  allowed  no  time  to  be  wasted  in  framing  resolu- 
tions  or  making  speeches;  but  in  a  few  energetic  words  insisted  that 
an  armed  force  should  be  at  once  organized  and  the  riot  put  down 
with  a  strong  hand.  His  plan  was  immediately  adopted ;  he  took 
his  seat  in  a  carriage  from  which  the  United  States  flag  was  dis- 


played,  and  proceeded  at  once  to  Howard's  Park,  near  the  monu- 
ment, the  meeting  following  him,  marching  in  column.  Here  they 
were  joined  by  multitudes  of  citizens  ;  the  whole  mass  was  organized 
into  companies  who  chose  their  own  leaders,  and  speedily  were 
furnished  with  arms.  For  many  nights  these  armed  volunteers 
patrolled  the  city  ;  but  the  mob  vanished  from  existence  as  soon  as 
a  competent  force,  with  a  courageous  leader,  was  prepared  to  try 
conclusions  with  it. 

In  the  winter  of  1842,  a  number  of  persons  assembled  in  An- 
napolis in  what  they  called  a  "  Slaveholders'  Convention,"  and 
adopted  a  series  of  resolutions  urging  upon  the  Legislature  of  the 
State  certain  radical  changes  in  its  policj^  with  regard  to  the  neoro 
population.  These  proposed  measures  were  of  a  harsh  and  oppres- 
sive character;  discouraging  manumissions,  and  laying  such  burdens 
upon  the  free  blacks  as  would  have  compelled  them  to  leave  the 
State.  As  these  proceedings  elicited  no  outspoken  opposition,  and 
there  seemed  a  probability  that  the  Legislature  would  act  upon  the 
suggestions  of  a  body  which  in  no  sense  represented  the  people  of 
the  State,  Mr.  Brown,  through  the  public  press,  entered  an  earnest 
protest  against  such  a  course,  on  grounds  of  both  expediency  and 
justice.  He  showed  that  the  true  policy  of  the  State  had  ever  been 
to  encourage  manumissions  :  and  that  the  rigorous  measures  urged 
against  the  free  blacks  were  as  impolitic  as  they  were  oppressive. 

The  first  of  the  series  of  articles  concluded  as  follows  :  "I  shall 
hereafter  endeavor  to  show  that  the  policy  of  the  State  has  been, 
and  that  its  true  policy  still  is,  to  encourage  manumissions ;  that 
it  has  not  ceased  to  look  forward  to  the  da}'-  when,  by  the  volun- 
tary acts  of  its  own  citizens,  it  would  be  emphatically  and  without 
exception,  a  free  State,  and  that  the  harsh  measures  now  proposed 
against  the  people  of  color  who  are  already  free,  are  as  inconsistent 
with  the  real  welfare  of  this  commonwealth,  as  they  are  at  variance 
with  the  feelings  of  humanity." 

These  papers  excited  much  attention,  and  elicited  from  various 
quarters  expressions  of  approbation.  Public  meetings  were  held 
and  a  committee  of  influential  citizens  was  appointed  to  wait  on 
the  Legislature,  which,  perceiving  the  sentiment  of  the  community, 
dropped  the  obnoxious  propositions. 

In  the  earlier  years  of  Mr.  Brown's  legal  career,  there  was  no 
public  law  library,  and  young  lawyers  found  themselves  compelled 
to  provide  themselves  with  books  at  heavy  expense,  or  be  subject  to 
great  inconvenience  in  their  practice.  Perceiving  the  serious  detri- 
ment to  the  profession  thus  occasioned,  Mr.  Brown  and  Mr.  fm.  A. 


Talbott  commenced  a  movement,  which  resulted  in  the  foundation 
of  the  present  excellent  Baltimore  Bar  Library,  an  institution  which 
is  now  an  indispensable  necessity  to  both  the  Bench  and  Bar ;  and 
of  which  Mr.  Brown  is,  and  has  long  been,  President. 

In  March,  1853,  Mr.  Brown  was  invited  to  give  a  lecture  before 
the  Maryland  Institute,  and  selected  as  his  theme  "  Lawlessness,  the 
Evil  of  the  Bay."  This  was  the  first  occasion  on  which  he  came 
conspicuously  forward  as  the  advocate  of  certain  much  needed 
reforms  in  the  municipal  government,  and  was  perhaps  the  first  step 
toward  the  Reform  movement  which  some  years  later  assumed  a 
definite  shape,  and  finally  obtained  a  complete  triumph  in  1860. 

In  the  peaceful  and  orderly  administration  to  which  we  are  at 
present  accustomed,  we  almost  forget  the  greatness  of  the  change 
wrought  in  the  last  twelve  or  fifteen  3Tears,  and  can  scarcely  realize 
the  state  of  affairs  at  the  time  when  Baltimore  bore  the  opprobrious 
name  of  "  mob-town,"  and  when  outrages  which  now  would  shock 
the  whole  community,  were  of  nearly  daily  occurrence,  and  regarded 
almost  as  matters  of  course.  In  the  address  referred  to,  the  magni- 
tude and  danger  of  the  growing  evil  were  forcibly  presented — 
indeed  too  forcibly,  in  the  opinion  of  some.  The  only  paper  which 
published  the  address  at  length,  adverted  to  it  in  a  very  favorable 
editorial,  in  which,  after  doing  justice  to  the  earnestness  and  motives 
of  the  speaker,  and  admitting  the  formidable  character  of  the  evil 
he  denounced,  still  thought  it  prudent  to  disavow  entire  concurrence 
in  his  views.  And  yet  the  remedial  measures  he  proposed  contained 
nothing  more  revolutionary  than  the  recommendations  that  the 
constables  and  watchmen  of  the  old  system  should  be  replaced  by 
a  uniformed  metropolitan  police ;  that  the  turbulent  volunteer  fire 
companies  should  give  way  to  a  paid  fire  department ;  that  juvenile 
offenders  should  be  sent  to  the  House  of  Refuge  ;  that  ruffians  and 
thieves,  when  caught,  should  not  be  released  on  "  straw  bail,"  but 
should  be  tried  and  receive  sentences  bearing  some  proportion  to 
the  magnitude  of  their  offences  ;  and  that  when  finally  sentenced, 
the  annulling  of  the  sentence  by  a  pardon  should  be  the  exception 
rather  than  the  rule. 

We  have  lived  to  see  most  of  these  reforms  adopted,  and  to 
look  upon  them  as  the  merest  essentials  of  good  order ;  and  can  now 
scarcely  understand  how  their  recommendation  could  be  looked 
upon  as  an  almost  revolutionary  proceeding,  to  which  prudent 
citizens  could  only  concede  a  hesitating  and  qualified  approval. 

In  1858  a  conviction  that  some  movement  to  secure  the  peace  and 
restore  the  reputation  of  the  city  was  necessary,  had  become  general, 


and  several  prominent  citizens,  among  whom  Mr.  Brown  was  one  of 
the  most  active,  united  to  form  a  "  Reform  Association,"  the  object 
of.which  was  by  regular  meetings  and  appeals  through  the  press,  to 
organize  the  friends  of  law  and  order  into  a  body  sufficiently  influ- 
ential and  powerful  to  secure  quiet  and  fairness  at  the  polls,  which 
at  that  time,  were  the  scenes  of  the  most  disgraceful  fraud,  violence 
and  disorder.  In  addition  to  the  ordinary  acts  of  riot  and  intimi- 
dation, unfortunate  wretches  were  frequently  seized  and  "  cooped  " 
in  vile  dens,  stupified  with  whiskey,  and  then  carried  round  in 
omnibuses  and  "  voted  "  in  ward  after  ward,  the  police  offering  no 
opposition,  and  judges  of  election  receiving  the  votes.  Fire-arms 
were  openly  displayed  and  sometimes  used,  resulting  in  at  least  one 
murder.  A  singular,  but  effective  means  of  annoyance  and  intimi- 
dation, was  brought  into  play  by  the  use  of  small  awls,  which 
ruffians,  in  a  dense  crowd,  thrust  into  the  persons  of  their  adver- 
saries in  a  manner  which  easil}'  escaped  detection. 

At  the  October  election  of  1858,  an  effort  was  made  in  the  Tenth 
"Ward,  whore  Mr.  Brown  resided,  to  elect  a  conspicuous  politician  of 
the  then  predominant  party,  and  a  strong  opposition  was  made  by 
the  Reformers.  The  awls  and  other  modes  of  annoyance  soon  drove 
the  challenger  of  the  Reform  party  from  the  polls,  and  kept  back 
their  voters.  In  this  emergency  Mr.  Brown  took  the  place  of  the 
challenger  and  held  it  for  hours,  in  spite  of  insults,  threats,  and  even 
personal  violence,  and  it  was  mainly  through  his  efforts  that  the 
election  resulted,  very  unexpectedly,  in  the  success  of  the  Reform 
candidate.  This,  however,  was  but  a  temporary  check,  and  the 
violence  and  outrage  which  then  prevailed,  culminated  in  the  scenes 
of  the  ensuing  November  elections,  which  were  afterwards  the  sub- 
ject of  an  investigation  by  Congress. 

This  election,  indeed,  was  the  proximate  cause  of  the  great 
reformation  which  subsequently  took  place.  The  Reformers,  with 
resolution  unshaken  by  difficulties,  prepared  a  law,  taking  the 
appointment  and  control  of  the  police  from  the  municipal  authori- 
ties, and  providing  safeguards  for  the  purity  and  freedom  of  elections. 
This  law  met  with  violent  opposition,  but  was  passed  by  the  Legis- 
lature and  sustained  by  the  Court  of  Appeals.  Its  salutary  action 
at  once  removed  the  evils  from  which  the  city  had  so  long  suffered. 

At  the  next  following  election  Mr.  Brown  was  brought  forward 
by  the  Reform  party  as  their  candidate  for  the  office  of  Mayor. 
The  choice  was  sustained  by  the  almost  unanimous  approval  of  the 
press  ;  and  in  an  election,  fair  and  orderly  beyond  precedent,  he 
received  a  majority  of  about  two  to  one.     He   entered  upon  office 


November  12th,  1860,  at  a  peculiarly  critical  period,  when  the  whole 
country  was  agitated  by  the  election  of  Mr.  Lincoln.  During  the 
excitement  which  accompanied  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  he  exerted 
himself  to  the  utmost  to  preserve  the  peace  and  order  of  the  city. 

When  it  was  known  that  Federal  troops  would  be  sent  through 
the  city,  the  Board  of  Police  requested  that  their  arrival  might  be 
notified  in  advance  by  telegraph,  so  that  a  sufficient  police  escort 
might  be  provided,  as  it  was  feared  the  excited  temper  of  the 
citizens  might  lead  to  some  outbreak :  but  this  precaution  was 
neglected  or  omitted  by  the  Federal  authorities  in  the  case  of  the 
Massachusetts  troops,  who  reached  the  city  on  the  19th  of  April, 
1861.  About  half  an  hour  only  before  their  arrival  at  the  Philadel- 
phia Station,  instructions  were  received  to  have  a  police  force  in 
readiness  at  the  Washington  Station,  as  the  troops  were  not  to 
march  through  the  city,  but  to  pass  through  in  the  cars.  The  first 
cars  indeed  passed  through  in  safety,  but  some  of  the  cars  which 
followed  were  checked  b}^  obstructions  on  the  track,  and  the  soldiers 
undertook  to  march  to  the  latter  station.  The  streets  were  lined  by 
an  angry,  though  unarmed  crowd,  who  commenced  to  assail  the 
troops  with  stones,  which  the  latter  returned  with  volleys  of  mus- 
ketry. The  Mayor  had  left  the  Washington  Station,  supposing  that 
all  the  troops  had  passed  in  safety,  when  information  was  brought 
to  him  of  the  collision,  and  he  at  once  hastened  to  the  spot,  ordering 
the  Marshal  to  follow  with  a  body  of  police.  He  met  the  troops 
rapidly  marching,  followed  by  the  crowd,  and  placing  himself  at 
their  head,  marched  with  them  for  some  distance,  but  his  presence 
did  not  avail  either  to  protect  them  from  attack,  or  the  citizens 
from  their  indiscriminate  fire.  Soon,  however,  the  Marshal,  George 
P.  Kane,  at  the  head  of  about  fifty  men,  came  rapidly  up,  passed 
to  the  rear  of  the  troops,  and  forming  a  line  across  the  street, 
with  pistols  presented,  checked  the  advance  of  the  crowd,  and  the 
troops  without  further  molestation  reached  the  station,  where  a 
train  was  awaiting  them.  By  this  means  much  bloodshed  was 
happily  prevented. 

The  excitement  which  this  collision  produced  was  very  great. 
Several  persons  had  been  killed  on  each  side,  and  a  number  more 
wounded.  The  citizens  feared  that  the  attempt  to  bring  more 
troops  through  the  city,  as  was  known  to  be  the  intention  of 
the  Federal  authorities,  would  lead  to  consequences  still  more 
deplorable.  The  city  authorities  telegraphed  to  Washington,  but 
received  no  reply.  As  a  temporary  precaution,  the  Mayor  and 
Police   Commissioners,  with  the  approbation   of  Governor  Hicks, 


who  was  then  in  Baltimore,  caused  certain  bridges  on  the  Northern 
Central  and  Philadelphia  railroads  to  be  disabled,  and  this  was 
done  just  in  time  to  prevent  a  body  of  unarmed  Pennsylvania  troops 
from  entering  the  city.  On  the  following  Sunday,  the  21st,  the 
Mayor  received  a  telegram  from  President  Lincoln,  requesting  an 
interview,  and  he  proceeded  at  once  to  Washington,  accompanied 
by  several  prominent  citizens.  The  President  recognized  the  good 
faith  in  which  the  authorities  had  acted,  and  gave  an  assurance  that 
no  more  troops  should  be  sent  through  Baltimore,  while  other  lines 
of  transportation  were  open,  and  at  his  request,  Gen.  Scott,  the 
commander  in  chief,  ordered  some  Pennsylvania  troops  who  had 
approached  the  city,  to  be  sent  round  it. 

We  need  not  detail  at  length  the  events  which  followed.  The 
excitement  soon  subsided  to  a  great  extent,  and  large  bodies  of 
troops  passed  constantly  through  the  city  without  molestation. 
Military  possession  was  taken  of  the  city,  and  military  rule  estab- 
lished. The  Marshal  of  Police  was  arrested  and  imprisoned,  and  the 
police  disbanded.  The  Commissioners  of  Police  were  also  arrested 
and  placed  in  confinement. 

The  Mayor,  however,  continued  to  discharge  his  duties,  except 
those  pertaining  to  the  police,  unmolested,  until  the  night  of  the 
12th  of  September,  when  he  was  arrested  at  his  house  and  taken  as 
a  prisoner  to  Fort  McHenry,  whence  he  was  successively  removed  to 
Fortress  Monroe,  Fort  Lafayette,  and  Fort  Warren.  The  officer 
who  made  the  arrest  said  that  he  had  no  warrant,  but  acted  by  the 
authority  of  the  United  States.  The  leading  members  of  the  Legis- 
lature of  the  State  were  arrested  at  the  same  time.  While  in  con- 
finement various  offers  were  made  to  Mr.  Brown  on  the  part  of  the 
Government,  to  release  him  ;  but  all  clogged  with  conditions  which 
he  could  not  accept  with  honor.  Finally,  when  his  term  of  office 
had  expired,  and  another  Mayor  had  been  elected,  Mr.  Brown,  was 
with  the  other  political  prisoners  from  Maryland,  then  remaining, 
released  unconditionally  on  November  27th,  1862,  after  an  imprison- 
ment of  more  than  fourteen  months,  when  be  returned  to  Baltimore 
and  resumed  the  practice  of  his  profession. 

In  1867,  a  new  constitution  was  deemed  necessary  for  the  State,  to 
replace  that  which  had  been  adopted  in  1865,  and  Mr.  Brown  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  Constitutional  Convention.  This  is  the 
last  public  position  he  has  occupied,  he  having  declined  in  the  same 
year  a  renomination  to  the  Mayoralty. 

In  the  foregoing  sketch,  Mr.  Brown's  connection  with  public 
matters  has  been  chiefly  considered,  but  it  constitutes  only  a  small 


episode  in  his  life,  which,  since  his  manhood  has  been  mainly  devoted 
to  the  studies  and  labors  of  his  arduous  profession,  and  the  reports 
of  the  Court  of  Appeals  of  Maryland,  as  well  as  of  the  Supreme 
Court  of  the  United  States,  attest  his  ability  as  a  lawyer.  The  case 
of  Brown  vs.  McGran,  in  the  latter  Court,  which  he  successfully 
argued  in  1840,  at  the  age  of  twenty-seven,  reversing  the  judgment 
of  the  Circuit  Court  of  South  Carolina,  has  become  a  leading  case 
in  reference  to  the  power  and  duties  of  commission  merchants.    . 

"While  his  time  has  been  so  largely  occupied  by  the  engagements 
of  his  profession,  he  has  yet  found  leisure  to  take  an  active  part  in 
the  management  of  various  benevolent  and  literary  institutions, 
including  the  Peabody  Institute,  of  which  he  has  been  a  Trustee 
from  its  commencement. 



F.  W.  BRUNE  &  SONS. 

Two  of  the  leading  merchants,  in  the  City  of  Baltimore,  in  their 
day,  were  Frederick  ¥m.  Brune  and  John  C.  Brune,  father  and 
son,  former  members  of  the  present  commercial  house  of  F.  "W.  Brune 
&  Sons,  which,  in  regular  succession,  has  descended  from  the  firm  of 
Von  Kapff  &  Auspach,  founded  in  Baltimore  in  1795.  The  senior 
partner  of  that  firm,  Bernard  J.  Yon  KapfT,  was  a  native  of  Bremen, 
and  in  1799,  was  in  Europe  on  a  visit  when  his  junior  partner,  Mr. 
Anspach,  died.  Mr.  Brune,  senior,  who  was  horn  in  Bremen  in 
1776,  and  had  there  received  his  mercantile  education  in  the  count- 
ing house  of  Mr.  Yon  Kapff 's  brother,  had  in  the  year  1799  arrived 
in  Xew  York,  with  the  intention  of  joining  his  brother  in  business 
in  that  city,  but  Mr.  Anspach  having  died,  and  Mr.  Yon  Kapff 
having  no  authorized  attorney  in  this  country,  such  was  the  con- 
fidence placed  in  Mr.  Brune,  by  the  friends  of  the  firm  of  Yon 
Kapff  &  Anspach,  that  he  was  invited  to  come  from  New  York  to 
take  charge  of  its  business  in  Baltimore,  under  the  guarantee  of 
Messrs.  Smith  &  Buchanan,  Valck  &  Co.  and  Focke  &  Co.,  three  of 
the  first  houses  in  the  city,  that  the  transactions  of  Mr.  Brune 
would  be  confirmed  by  Mr.  Yon  Kapff.  On  the  return  of  Mr.  Yon 
Kapff,  he  entered  into  partnership  with  Mr.  Brune,  under  the  firm 
of  Yon  KapfT  &  Brune,  which  continued  until  about  the  year  1828, 
when  Mr.  Yon  Kapff  died.  AYhile  it  existed,  it  was  successfully 
and  most  honorably  engaged  in  a  varied  commerce  with  almost  all 
parts  of  the  world. 

The  firm,  soon  after  its  establishment,  became  ship  owners,  but 
wras  at  first  chiefly  occupied  in  the  importation  of  German  linens  (of 
which  Baltimore  was  then  a  great  entrepot)  and  in  the  exportation 
of  tobacco  and  colonial  produce ;  and  this  business  was  carried  on 
until  after  our  war  with  England,  in  spite  of  the  difficulties  to 
American  commerce,  growing  out  of  the  British  orders  in  council, 
and  the  Berlin  and  Milan  decrees  of  Napoleon,  from  which  this  firm 
and  many  other  Baltimore  merchants  were  great  sufferers. 

AVhen   the   South  American  States  became    independent,  Yon 


Kapff  &  Brune  embarked  actively  in  the  trade,  which  grew  up 
with  those  States,  especially  on  the  Pacific  coast,  and  which  pro- 
duced the  fast  sailing  vessels,  known  all  over  the  world  as 
Baltimore  clippers. 

One  of  their  vessels  made  a  passage  of  sixty-nine  days  from 
Valparaiso,  beating  a  celebrated  clipping  schooner  of  Mr.  Isaac 
McKim  by  a  day  from  the  same  port. 

Another  vessel,  the  brig  Harriet,  having  made  a  very  successful 
voyage  with  flour  round  the  Horn,  her  master  ventured,  without 
instructions,  to  stop,  on  his  return,  at  Rio,  and  invest  the  proceeds 
of  the  flour  in  coffee,  and  this  small  cargo  of  Rio  coffee,  which  now 
constitutes  a  chief  article  in  the  foreign  commerce  of  Baltimore,  was 
then  so  little  known  and  so  unsalable  that  it  was  sent  to  Havre  and 
there  sold  at  a  loss  about  equal  to  the  profit  on  the  flour. 

Mr.  Brune  was  not  only  an  accomplished  merchant,  but  he  was  a 
public  spirited  citizen,  and  was  connected  with  most  of  the  useful 
institutions  and  enterprises,  which  were  projected  during  his  event- 
ful career.  He  became  a  director  of  the  United  States  Bank  in 
1819,  and  held  this  place  until  the  Bank  ceased  to  be  a  national 
institution.  He  also  helped  to  found  those  excellent  institutions,  the 
Savings  Bank,  and  the  Equitable  Fire  Insurance  Company,  and  the 
German  Society  of  Maryland,  and  he  was  largely  interested  in  the 
turnpike  road  companies,  which  were  such  important  aids  in  advanc- 
ing the  early  prosperity  of  the  city. 

Mr.  Brune  died  in  the  year  1860,  at  the  age  of  eighty-four, 
universally  respected,  having  seen  the  city  of  his  adoption  grow 
from  a  place  of  30,000  inhabitants  to  a  city  of  more  than  200,000. 
His  firm  passed  happily  through  the  commercial  difficulties  of  the 
years  1799, 1819,  1825,  and  1837,  and  he  has  been  heard  to  say,  that 
of  these  periods,  that  of  1799  was  by  far  the  most  disastrous  to  the 
commerce  of  the  city. 

Mr.  Brune  was  a  peculiarly  modest  man,  but  he  so  blended  a 
simple  dignity  and  urbanity  of  manner,  with  a  strong  sense  of 
justice,  and  uprightness  of  character,  that  he  secured  for  a  long  life 
the  unvarying  esteem  of  his  fellow  citizens  of  all  classes. 

His  second  surviving  son,  John  Christian  Brune,  was  born  in 
1814,  and  educated  at  the  celebrated  Round  Hill  school,  at  North- 
ampton, Massachusetts,  which  was  then  under  the  charge  of  Mr. 
Cogswell,  afterwards  of  the  Astor  Library,  and  Mr.  Bancroft,  now 
American  Minister  at  Berlin.  At  this  school  he  laid  the  foundation 
of  his  knowledge  of  the  principal  modern  languages,  which  was  of 
much  importance  to  him  in  after  life.     He  also  acquired  a  love  of 

F.    W.     DRUNE    &    SONS.  209 

reading,  and  a  power  of  expressing  his  opinions,  clearly  and  some- 
times  eloquently. 

lie  declined  to  go  to  college,  and  entered  his  father's  counting 
room  at  an  early  age,  where  his  energy  and  intelligence  soon  became 
so  conspicuous  that  a  neighbor  of  his  father  offered  him,  at  the  age 
of  eighteen,  the  post  of  supercargo  of  a  ship  bound  round  Cape 
Horn.  He  sailed  in  the  vessel,  but  she  was  crippled  in  a  storm,  and 
the  voyage  was  broken  up  The  same  merchant,  however,  immedi- 
ately afterward  sent  him  as  supercargo  to  Rio,  where,  at  that  early 
age,  he  formed  friendships  which  lasted  for  many  years.  At  the 
age  of  twenty-one  he  became  a  partner  with  his  father,  and  soon 
extended  the  business  of  the  firm  by  active  operations  with  old 
correspondents  in  South  America  and  the  West  Indies,  and  by 
forming  personally  new  connections  with  those  regions.  In  a  few 
years  his  house  became  a  leading  one  in  the  trade  with  these 
countries,  and  his  large  acquaintance  with  the  sugar  business  in- 
duced him,  in  the  year  1852,  with  the  aid  of  other  merchants  and 
capitalists,  to  found  the  Maryland  Sugar  Refinery,  which,  with 
the  other  refineries  in  the  city,  has  very  considerably  enlarged 
its  commerce.  Mr.  Brune  was  elected  the  first  President  of  this 
refinery ;  and  his  firm,  which  is  still  carried  on  by  his  brother  and 
surviving  partner,  William  H.  Brune,  have  always  been  its  agents. 

Mr.  Brune's  talent,  high  sense  of  honor  and  public  spirit,  as  a 
merchant,  and  his  popular  manners,  generosity  and  warmth  of 
heart,  as  a  man,  gave  him  a  large  influence  among  his  fellow 
citizens,  and  he  had  much  to  do  in  reviving  and  establishing  on  a 
firm  basis  the  Board  of  Trade,  which  now  so  honorably  represents 
the  commercial  interests  of  the  city.  He  was  elected  its  first 
President  in  1849,  under  the  new  organization,  and  was  constantly 
re-elected  until  the  }Tear  1862. 

He  was  also  in  1857  elected  President  of  the  Baltimore  Association 
for  the  Improvement  of  the  Condition  of  the  Poor,  in  which  he  took 
the  deepest  interest,  and  he  gave  to  its  operations  a  life  which  is  still 
felt.  He  was  twice  re-elected  to  this  honorable  office  during  his 
absence  from  the  country ;  but,  in  1863,  declined  a  re-election. 
Mr.  Brune  also  took  a  lively  interest  in  public  affairs,  and  he  was 
for  many  years  a  very  influential  member  of  the  old  Whig  party  ; 
he  subsequently  allied  himself  with  the  Democratic  party,  and 
became  an  ardent  supporter  of  the  doctrine  of  State  Rights,  and 
his  sentiments  on  this  subject,  together  with  his  good  sense,  com- 
mercial   knowledge,   winning   manners    and    generous    hospitality, 


secured  for  liim  an  intimacy  with  many  of  the  most  distinguished 
politicians  of  his  own  State  and  the  South. 

It  was  therefore  natural  that  such  a  man  should  be  called  upon, 
with  others  of  our  best  citizens  to  represent  the  city  of  Baltimore  in 
the  House  of  Delegates  of  the  Legislature,  which  was  called  to  meet 
in  Frederick,  in  May,  1861,  and  Mr.  Brune,  who  had  previously 
declined  all  offers  of  public  station  of  a  political  kind,  thought  it  his 
duty  to  sacrifice  his  private  interests  to  serve  his  city  and  State  at 
that  anxious  and  perilous  period. 

He  was  appointed  Chairman  of  the  Committee  of  Ways  and 
Means,  and  the  proceedings  of  that  Assembly  show  that  Mr.  Brune 
co-operated  heartily  with  the  majority  of  that  body  in  the  course 
pursued  in  reference  to  the  momentous  questions  then  before  the 
State  and  the  nation. 

Mr.  Brune  was  the  only  member  from  Baltimore,  who,  by 
accident,  escaped  the  arrest  under  the  coup  d'etat  of  the  12th  of 
September,  1861,  by  which  a  large  number  of  the  members  of  the 
General  Assembly  were  incarcerated  for  upwards  of  a  year. 

After  the  arrest  of  his  fellow  members,  Mr.  Brune  remained  con- 
cealed in  the  neighborhood  of  the  city  for  some  time,  until  he  found 
that  they  were  to  be  kept  in  prison  without  charge  or  trial ; 
upon  this  he  went  to  Canada,  and  although  he  was  notified,  that 
the  order  for  his  arrest  had  been  withdrawn,  he  resolved  not  to 
return  to  his  native  city,  so  long  as  his  associates  continued  in 
prison  and  the  city  was  under  military  control. 

He  therefore  lived  self-banished  from  his  home,  which  he  loved 
so  well,  passing  the  summer  in  Canada,  and  the  winter  in  the  \Vest 
Indies,  until  the  7th  of  December,  1864,  when,  upon  a  voyage  in  the 
steamer  from  Southampton  to  Havana,  his  valuable  life  was  sud- 
denly terminated  by  disease  of  the  heart  resulting  in  brain  fever. 

Mr.  Brune's  example  as  a  merchant  did  much  to  elevate  the  pro- 
fession to  which  it  was  his  pride  to  belong,  and  his  energy  and  earn- 
estness have  left  an  impress  for  good  which  will  extend  much  bej-ond 
the  large  circle  of  his  attached  friends,  and  into  another  generation. 





In  Druid  Hill  Park,  within  the  enclosure  of  the  family  burial- 
ground  reserved  in  the  sale  of  the  estate  to  the  city,  repose,  the 
American  ancestors  of  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  themselves  of 
Scotch  descent,  of  Lenny.  The  visitor  who  turns  aside  from  the 
main  road,  and  looks  over  the  rude  fence  which  separates  the  con- 
secrated soil  of  the  dead  of  a  hundred  and  twenty  years,  from  the 
grand  and  beautiful  grounds,  now  devoted  to  the  pleasures  of  the 
living,  will,  by  close  scrutiny,  be  enabled  to  trace  upon  a  broken 
tomb,  moss-covered,  weather-beaten,  hoary  with  age,  the  name  of 
Doctor  George  Buchanan,*  buried  here  in  1750,  and  who,  as  the 
record  on  the  decaying  marble  reads,  "  was  one  of  the  founders  of 
Baltimore."  This  was  the  grandfather  of  James  M.  Buchanan. 
Next  the  tomb  of  Doctor  George  Buchanan,  may  be  seen  another 
tomb,  in  ruins,  that  of  Andrew  Buchanan,  his  son,  bearing  the 
following  inscription :  "  In  memory  of  Andrew  Buchanan,  who 
departed  this  life  on  the  12th  of  March,  1785,  in  the  53d  year  of 
his  age.  He  was,  during  the  contest  that  secured  the  independence 
of  America,  Lieutenant  of  this  county,  and  served  with  great  re- 

*  In  a  book  entitled  Mnemonika,  or  the  Tablet  of  Memory,  prepared  by  William 
Darby,  and  published  by  Edward  J.  Coale,  at  Baltimore,  1829,  under  the  head  of 
"Eminent  Persons,"  we  find  the  following  :  "Buchanan,  George,  M.  D.,  one  of 
the  founders  and  first  Commissioners  engaged  in  1729,  to  settle  and  purchase 
the  land  of  the  city  of  Baltimore,  died  1745— [an  error,  he  died  1750.]  And  in 
the  same  book,  under  the  head  of  "Baltimore,"  is  the  following:  "Baltimore 
city,  of  the  United  States,  in  Maryland,  on  a  small  bay  of  Patapsco  river, 
founded  1729,  is  extremely  well  situated  for  commercial  connections  with  the 
valley  of  Ohio  ;  it  commands  the  trade  of  Maryland,  more  than  one-half  of  that 
of  Pennsylvania,  and  a  part  of  New  York.  Having  the  advantage  of  climate, 
the  harbor  of  Baltimore  is  not  so  liable  to  obstruction  from  ice  as  that  of  Phila- 
delphia. The  site  of  the  city  was  a  farm  belonging  to  the  father  of  Charles 
Carroll  of  Carrollton,  now  living,  and  purchased  by  Doctor  George  Buchanan 
and  others.     William  Buchanan,  his  son,  died  about  three  years  since,  (1828.)" 

See  also  Griffith's  Annals  of  Baltimore,  p.  15. 

Doctor  George  Buchanan  was  a  prominent  member  of  the  General  Assembly 
of  the  Colony  of  Maryland,  and  Deputy  Commissary  General  of  Baltimore  county 
for  many  years. 


pute  for  many  years  as  Chief  Judge  of  the  Court.  He  was  au 
affectionate  husband,  a  tender  parent,  an  honest  man ;  in  short, 
endowed  with  every  virtue  that  could  complete  an  exalted  charac- 
ter." It  may  here  be  remarked  that  James  M.  Buchanan,  his 
nephew,  more  than  half  a  century  after,  presided  as  Judge  in  the 
same  county. 

William  Buchanan,  the  youngest  son  of  Doctor  George  Bu- 
chanan, and  father  of  James  M.  Buchanan,  is  buried  near  Govans- 
town,  at  his  former  country  seat,  now  owned  by  David  M.  Perine, 
half-brother  of  James  M.  Buchanan.  William  Buchanan*  was  one 
of  the  Committee  of  Correspondence,  elected  from  among  the  free- 
holders of  Baltimore  County  and  Town,  to  correspond,  prior  to  and 
in  the  days  of  the  Revolution,  with  neighboring  colonies,  as  the 
exigencies  of  affairs  might  require.  Under  the  State  Constitution 
of  1776  he  was  appointed  Register  of  Wills  for  Baltimore  county, 
and  served  in  that  capacity,  with  great  satisfaction  to  the  public, 
for  forty-five  years. 

James  M.  Buchanan,  his  eldest  surviving  son,  was  born  at  the 
country  place,  near  Govanstown,  where  his  father  is  buried.  Much 
of  his  early  youth  was  spent  in  this  neighborhood,  lie  was  chiefly 
educated  at  the  Baltimore  College  and  St.  Mary's,  in  Baltimore. 
Having  determined  on  the  profession  of  law,  he  began  his  studies 
in  the  office  of  Hugh  Davey  Evans,  and  closed  them  under  the 
preceptorship  of  Judge  Walter  Dorsey.  After  his  admission  to  the 
bar,  he  offered  himself  in  Baltimore  county,  as  a  candidate  for  the 
State  Legislature,  and  was  elected  a  member  of  that  body  when 
he  had  but  barely  reached  legal  age.  He  took  his  seat,  a  mere 
youth,  amid  learned  and  venerable  men,  with  inexperience,  but  not 
without  promise  and  ability,  as  his  subsequent  re-election  to  the 
succeeding  term  gave  sufficient  proof.  After  serving  with  credit 
to  himself  and  usefulness  to  the  State,  two  terms,  in  the  Legisla- 
ture, he  betook  himself  earnestly  to  his  profession,  and  was  soon 
favored  with  a  lucrative  practice.  By  assiduity  and  attention  to 
business  he  increased  his  practice,  and  at  one  time  had  the  largest 
at  the  county  bar. 

In  1824,  he  was  the  Secretary  of  a  meeting,  which  was  the  first 
in  Maryland  to  hoist  the  name  of  Andrew  Jackson  for  the  Presi- 

*  It  is  proper  to  mention  that  William  Buchanan,  son  of  Doctor  George,  and 
father  of  J.  M.  Buchanan,  was  a  native  of  Maryland.  There  was  another  William 
Buchanan  also  on  the  Committee  of  Correspondence,  active  and  conspicuous  in 
affairs  dining  the  Revolution,  who  was  born  in  Lancaster,  Pennsylvania,  and 
emigrated  to  Baltimore  with  John,  the  father  of  General  Samuel  Smith. 

JAMES    M.     BUCHANAN.  213 

In  1835,  he  was  commissioned  aid-de-camp  to  the  Brigadier 
General  of  the  City  Guards,  by  Brigade  Order,  Number  3,  which 
reads  as  follows  (from  the  copy  of  the  same  before  us) : 

Headquarters,  City  Guards, 

Baltimore,  December  16,  1835. 

Brigade  Order,  No.  3. 

Ordered  that  James  M.  Buchanan  and  Cornelius  McLean  be  and 
they  are  hereby  appointed  Aids-de-Camp  to  the  Brigadier  General 
of  the  City  Guards,  and  they  will  be  obeyed  accordingly. 

By  order  of 

Vm.  Pinkney, 

Brigade  Major  and  Inspector  City  Guards. 

In  General  Harrison's  campaign  for  the  Presidency,  he  was  nomi- 
nated elector  on  the  part  of  the  State,  but  declined  for  political 
reasons,  entertaining,  however,  a  high  personal  esteem,  respect  and 
attachment  for  the  veteran  hero  and  patriot. 

In  1841,  Mr.  Buchanan  was  nominated  for  Congress  by  an  almost 
unanimous  vote,  at  a  convention  held  at  Ellicott's  Mills,  which 
convention  was  composed  of  delegates  from  the  city  of  Baltimore, 
and  from  Anne  Arundel  county.  This  nomination  was  considered 
as  tantamount  to  an  election,  but  was  declined,  because  of  his  pro- 
fessional and  private  engagements. 

Under  the  administration  of  President  Polk  he  was  appointed 
postmaster  of  the  city  of  Baltimore,  and  conducted  the  affairs  of 
that  office  ably  and  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  Government  and 
public.  He  remained  in  this  office  for  upwards  of  four  years, 
practising  his  profession  at  the  same  time. 

Mr.  Buchanan  was  a  member  of  the  State  Constitutional  Conven- 
tion of  1851.  This  convention  was  composed  of  many  of  the  ablest 
representative  men  of  Maryland,  numbering  among  its  members  the 
names  of  Louis  McLane,  Gen.  Benjamin  C.  Howard,  Judge  Ezekiel 
F.  Chambers,  Albert  Constable,  Gov.  Francis  Thomas,  William  Cost 
Johnson,  Judge  T.  B.  Dorsey,  Gov.  William  Grason,  B.  E.  Presst- 
man,  A.  R.  Sollers,  and  others  of  high  character  and  note. 

Mr.  Buchanan  (an  accident  having  befallen  General  Chapman, 
president  of  the  convention,  and  which  threatened  to  detain  him 
from  its  sessions)  was  elected  president  pro  tern.,  bearing  the  grave 
responsibilities  of  the  position  with  a  becoming  dignity  and  de- 
corum. He  served  in  this  convention  six  months,  from  the  begin- 
ning to  the  completion  of  its  labors,  and  except  during  its  tem- 
porary adjournments,  was  never  absent  a  single  day. 


In  the  early  part  of  1852,  Mr.  Buchanan  was  appointed  a  com- 
missioner (Otho  Scott,  Esq.,  of  Harford  county,  being  the  other) 
by  the  governor  of  Maryland,  under  instructions  of  the  General 
Assembly,  to  proceed  to  Pennsylvania  and  "to  collect  all  the  facts 
and  circumstances  connected  with  the  killing  of  a  fugitive  slave, 
in  Lancaster  county,  Pennsylvania,  by  Archibald  G.  Ridgely,  of 
Baltimore  city,  and  to  confer  with  the  governor  of  Pennsylvania 
relative  to  the  same."  Great  excitement  existed  in  Pennsjdvania 
at  the  time  of  the  killing  of  this  fugitive  slave,  who  met  his  death 
at  the  hands  of  an  officer  of  the  law,  from  Maryland,  acting,  as  it 
was  claimed,  in  the  discharge  of  his  duty,  and  in  nowise  feloniously 
culpable.  But  a  feeling  was  abroad  that  an  injustice  and  crime  had 
been  committed,  and  that  the  governor  of  Pennsylvania  ought,  con- 
sequently, to  demand  the  rendition  by  the  authorities  of  Maryland, 
of  the  officer,  who  had  escaped  over  the  lines.  There  was  great 
danger,  therefore,  of  a  breach  of  the  amicable  relations  existing 
between  the  two  States,  which  was  happily  prevented  by  a  skillful 
adjustment  of  the  difficulty  by  the  commissioners  and  the  gover- 
nor and  authorities  of  Pennsylvania.  Following  upon  this,  some 
short  time  after,  the  governor  and  Legislature  of  Pennsylvania 
extended  to  the  governor,  heads  of  departments  and  Legislature 
of  Maryland,  an  invitation  to  visit  Harrisburg,  the  capital  of  the 
State,  which  invitation  was  accepted.  The  resolutions  expressing 
the  acknowledgments  of  the  Legislature  of  Maryland,  alter  the 
visit,  is  worthy  of  notice  as  an  illustration  of  Maryland's  appre- 
ciation of  Pennsylvania's  hospitality  and  of  the  existence  and  con- 
tinuance of  that  good  will  between  the  States,  which,  but  a  little 
while  before  had  been  threateningly  endangered.  These  resolutions, 
passed  April  23d,  1853,  are  as  follows: — 

Resolved  by  the  General  Assembly,  That  the  Senate  and  House  of 
Delegates  entertain  a  grateful  sense  of  the  courtesy  and  hospitality 
extended  to  them  by  the  Legislature  of  Pennsylvania  on  their 
recent  visit  to  Harrisburg,  and  they  recognize  in  the  cordial  invita- 
tion, assiduous  kindness,  and  devoted  attention  of  the  authorities, 
the  fullest  disposition  on  the  part  of  the  people  of  the  Common- 
wealth of  Pennsylvania,  to  cultivate  those  relations  of  mutual 
respect  and  amity,  on  which  neighboring  States  so  largely  depend 
for  their  prosperity. 

Be  it  further  resolved,  That  the  governor  is  hereby  requested  to 
communicate  this  resolution  to  the  governor  of  Pennsylvania,  with 
a  request  that  it  should  be  laid  before  the  Legislature  of  that  State, 
and  to  express  further  to  the  executive  the  full  appreciation  by  the 

JAMES     M.     BUCHANAN.  215 

people  of  Maryland,  of  his  patriotism  and  dignified  courtesy,  and 
their  high  respect  for  his  personal  and  official  conduct. 

In  1855,  Mr.  Buchanan  was  appointed  judge  of  the  Circuit 
Court  of  the  Sixth  Circuit  of  Maryland,  embracing  Harford,  Cecil 
and  Baltimore  counties,  to  fill  the  vacancy  occasioned  by  the  death 
of  the  Hon.  Albert  Constable.  On  entering  upon  his  official  career, 
his  first  sad  duty,  in  response  to  the  proceedings  of  the  bar  in 
Cecil,  was  to  give  utterance  to  the  deep  grief  by  which  his  and 
all  hearts  were  bowed  down,  in  the  great  loss  sustained  by  the 
death  of  the  gifted  jurist  whom  he  succeeded.  The  touching 
tribute  of  the  living  to  the  departed  judge,  is  at  once  a  truthful 
portraiture  of  the  character  and  worth  of  both;  and  what  so  fitly 
was  spoken  of  the  one,  may  well  be  said  of  the  other,  when  his 
lips,  too,  shall  be  sealed  and  his  eyes  closed  in  the  long  last  sleep. 
Judge  Buchanan,  on  the  solemn  occasion  referred  to,  spoke  as  fol- 
lows : — "  The  court  heartily  sympathizes  with  the  sentiments  and 
action  of  the  bar  in  reference  to  our  beloved  departed  brother. 
In  the  prime  of  manhood — in  the  paths  of  duty — in  the  vigor  of 
intellect  and  in  the  fullness  of  fame,  he  went  down  into  the  valley 
and  shadow  of  death.  '  And  now  he  sleepeth  in  the  dust,  and  we 
may  seek  for  him  in  the  morning,  but  he  shall  not  be.' 

"l  God  is  all  wisdom,  all  justice,  all  mere}'.  Yes,  gentlemen,  all 
mercy !  Confiding  in  these,  as  Christians,  let  us  feel  assured  that 
our  brother  has  but  left  a  world  of  strife  and  suffering  here,  for  a 
blissful  immortality  beyond. 

"  It  would  be  needless,  in  this  presence,  to  dilate  on  the  varied 
accomplishments  of  the  lamented  dead.  He  was  your  neighbor, 
your  associate,  your  friend,  your  brother.  You  knew  him  well. 
You  were  proud  of  him.  You  were  justly  so.  We  may  not  look 
upon  his  like  again.  What  a  charm  in  his  eloquence !  What  a 
fire  in  his  eye !  What  a  dignity  in  his  manner !  What  a  melody 
in  his  voice  !  What  a  warmth  in  his  heart  1  He  was  one  of  na- 
ture's orators. 

k-  What  a  keen  sense  of  justice!  What  a  steady  hand  wherewith 
to  hold  the  balances  thereof.  What  a  total  disregard  of  all  merely 
worldly  distinctions  among  those  who  came  to  seek  their  rights  at 
the  shrine  where  he  ministered. 

"  How  considerate  of  suitors !  How  kind  and  gentle  towards  wit- 
nesses !  How  respectful  to  the  juries,  to  the  officers  of  the  court, 
and  to  the  members  of  the  bar  !  He  was  the  very  embodiment  of 
a  judge.  How  companionable  in  social  life;  how  tender  of  the 
feelings  of  those  with  whom  he  was  brought  in  contact ;  how  gener- 


ous,  how  conciliatory,  how  refined.     He  was,  in  very  truth,  a  gen- 

"  Thus  we  knew  him  as  he  lived.  How  did  he  die?  For  months 
he  lingered  in  the  arms  of  death.  Patiently  he  bore  his  sufferings  ; 
and  when,  at  last,  the  irrevocable  mandate  came,  surrounded  by 
those  who  of  all  the  earth  he  loved  the  dearest,  at  peace  with  man 
and  assured  of  heaven,  his  immortal  spirit  winged  its  final  flight 
for  the  bosom  of  its  Father  and  its  God. 

'Night  dews  fall  not  more  lightly  on  the  ground, 
Nor  weary,  worn  out  winds  expire  so  soft.' 

"  Let  the  resolutions  be  recorded  with  the  proceedings  of  the 
court,  and  the  court  stand  adjourned  until  to-morrow  morning, 
at  ten  o'clock." 

In  April,  1856,  Mr.  Buchanan  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Demo- 
cratic National  Convention  which  assembled  at  Cincinnati,  and 
which  convention  nominated  James  Buchanan,  of  Pennsylvania, 
for  the  Presidency  of  the  United  States. 

In  1858,  Mr.  Buchanan  was  appointed  United  States  Minister  to 
the  kingdom  of  Denmark.  During  his  residence,  with  his  family, 
in  the  brilliant  city  of  Copenhagen,  he  lived  in  a  style  becom- 
ing his  representative  capacity,  making  the  American  embassy  an 
agreeable  centre  of  attraction.  He  remained  in  Europe  about  eight 

Mr.  Buchanan  is  married :  has  had  nine  children,  six  of  whom 
are  living.  His  family  connection,  both  in  and  out  of  Maryland, 
is  large  and  influential,  and  in  many  prominent  instances  distin- 
guished on  the  score  of  personal  merit.  Admiral  Franklin  Bu- 
chanan, "  the  hero  of  Hampton  Roads,"  and  grandson  of  General 
Andrew  Buchanan,  whom  we  have  referred  to  in  this  sketch  as 
buried  at  Druid  Hill,  is  the  second  cousin  of  James  M.  Buchanan, 
as  is  also  Major  General  Robert  C.  Buchanan  of  the  United  States 
Army.  He  is,  by  marriage,  brother-in-law  of  the  Hon.  John 
Rowan,  Jr.,  of  Kentucky,  who  was  Minister  to  Naples,  in  Mr. 
Polk's  administration,  and  the  son  of  the  venerable  John  Rowan, 
Chief  Justice  and  United  States  Senator,  of  Kentucky,  in  other  days. 

Mr.  Buchanan  in  person  is  tall,  about  six  feet  one  inch  in  height, 
and  spare;  commanding  in  appearance,  polished  and  dignified  in 
manners.  Ai^Q,  which  has  whitened  his  locks,  has  not  bowed  his 
form;  while  the  genius  and  spirit  of  youth  and  of  manhood  are 
undimmed  and  unbroken  by  time's  heavy  hand.  Buoyant  and 
erect  in  body  and  mind,  he  yet  stands  at  his  post  amid  the  con- 
tests and  duties  of  life. 



Francis  Burns  is  descended  from  that  hardy^  Scotch-Irish  stock, 
which,  from  the  earliest  settlement  of  the  country,  has  furnished 
one  of  the  most  valuable  and  important  elements  of  American 
population,  to  which  so  many  of  the  most  distinguished  men  of 
America  are  proud  to  trace  their  origin,  and  which  in  eveiy  walk 
of  life,  has  produced  useful  and  valuable  citizens.  Mr.  Burns  was 
born  in  county  Antrim,  Ireland,  April  11th,  1792.  His  parents 
emigrated  to  this  country  in  1798,  wheu  he  was  but  six  years  of 
age,  landing  at  Philadelphia,  in  which  city  his  father  engaged  in 
the  trade  of  brick  making.  Francis  Burns  began  life  in  the  brick 
yard  at  twelve  years  of  age  ;  but  in  1818,  being  then  just  turned  of 
twenty-six,  he  removed  to  Baltimore.  Here  he  established  himself 
in  the  same  line  of  business,  having  formed  an  association  with 
Mr.  George  Whitman,  which  continued  for  three  years.  Upon  the 
termination  of  his  partnership  with  Mr.  Whitman,  Mr.  Burns  con- 
cluded to  continue  business  by  himself,  which  he  did  for  a  period  of 
forty  years,  until  his  final  retirement  in  1860.  During  this  long 
period,  he  carried  the  art  of  brick  making  to  great  perfection, 
excelling  in  the  manufacture  especially  of  pressed  brick,  the  finer 
qualities  of  which,  used  in  Baltimore  for  the  fronts  of  houses  of  a 
superior  class,  excel  in  durability,  hardness,  smoothness  and  beauty 
of  finish,  and  in  color,  those  produced  in  any  other  city.  The 
bright  appearance  for  which  the  streets  and  houses  of  Baltimore  are 
noted,  is  largely  attributable  to  the  superior  quality  of  this  budd- 
ing material.  Yet  when  Mr.  Burns,  after  great  pains,  succeeded  in 
turning  out  in  1823,  a  better  article  of  pressed  brick  than  had  been 
previously  in  use,  he  found  so  much  difficulty  in  introducing  into 
general  use,  that  for  awhile  he  was  compelled  to  offer  it  at  the 
price  of  common  brick,  viz. :  $5.50  per  thousand.  It  has  since  sold 
as  high  as  $55.00  per  thousand,  an  increase  of  one  thousand  per 
cent. !  The  pressed  brick  of  Baltimore  have  since  acquired  a  high 
reputation  abroad,  and  are  largely  exported  to  other  cities.  For 
many   years   Mr.  Burns  controlled   the   Xew  York  market  in  this 


particular,  selling  more  brick  of  the  finer  qualities  in  that  city  than 
any  other  manufacturer.  His  brick  yards  were  the  most  extensive 
in  or  a/ound  Baltimore,  producing  from  six  to  seven  millions  of 
bricks  annually.  In  his  own  business,  Mr.  Burns  soon  established  a 
character  for  industry,  honesty  and  fair  dealing,  that  won  him  the 
confidence  and  esteem  of  the  entire  business  community.  For  more 
than  twenty  years  he  has  been  a  director  in  the  Western  Bank, 
lie  was  also  a  director  in  the  old  Baltimore  Savings  Bank,  until  the 
establishment  of  the  Eutaw  Savings  Bank,  when  he  resigned  in 
order  to  fill  the  same  position  in  the  latter  institution,  which  he  yet 
holds.  He  is  also  a  director  in  the  Associated  Firemen's  Insurance 
Company,  and  since  the  administration  of  Mr.  William  S.  Harrison 
as  president  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  Company,  has 
been  one  of  the  most  useful  and  efficient  directors  of  that  great 

Mr.  Burns  is  one  of  the  oldest  Masons  in  the  State,  having  been 
"  raised"  in  the  year  1816,  and  having  filled  for  several  years  the 
position  of  Deputy  Grand  Master  of  the  Order.  During  his  long  life 
and  residence  in  this  city,  he  has  seen  the  wonderful  changes  which 
have  taken  place  in  the  value  of  property,  consequent  upon  the 
city's  development  and  growth  in  population.  When  he  first  came 
here,  he  could  have  bought,  for  a  song,  buildings  within  a  stone's 
throw  of  his  dwelling,  which  are  now  valuable  warehouses.  Mr. 
Burns  has  manifested  his  interest  in  public  affairs,  and  borne  his 
part  in  the  discharge  of  the  duties  of  a  citizen,  by  serving  for 
several  3'ears  in  the  City  Council,  in  which  .body  he  represented  the 
old  Eleventh  Ward.  In  politics  he  was  always  a  Whig,  but  never  a 
politician.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Presbyterian  Church,  of  which 
the  Rev.  Dr.  Leyburn  is  pastor.  Mr.  Burns  was  married  January 
12th,  1819,  to  Miss  Elizabeth  Hyland,  of  Philadelphia.  He  has 
the  good  fortune  to  have  living  five  sons,  all  of  whom  are  success- 
fully established  in  business,  besides  several  daughters  well  and 
happily  married.  His  eldest  son,  William  F.  Burns,  is  engaged  in 
the  brick  manufacture,  head  of  the  firm  of  Burns,  Russell  &  Co. 
A  second  son  is  Samuel  Burns,  of  the  firm  of  Bums  &  Sloan, 
lumber  merchants.  Two  other  sons,  Francis  Burns,  Jr.,  and  Find- 
ley  II.  Burns,  are  members  of  the  large  and  prosperous  commission 
house  of  Wilson,  Burns  &  Co.,  the  senior  of  which  firm,  Col. 
■William  Wilson,  Jr.,  married  Mr.  Burns's  eldest  daughter.  The 
youngest  son,  George  W.  Burns,  is  engaged  in  the  boot  and  shoe 
trade.  To  have  lived  to  see  all  the  members  of  his  large  family  thus 
comfortably  and  honorably  established  in  the  world,  is  Mr.  Burns's 


greatest  happiness.  At  his  advanced  age,  seventy-eight,  he  is  neces- 
sarily largely  withdrawn  from  the  more  active  pursuits  and  duties 
of  life,  but  his  faculties  remain  clear  and  bright  as  ever,  and  his 
character  remains  a  striking  illustration  of  what  energy  and  per- 
severance, with  probity /will  accomplish  in  life,  as  well  as  a  fine  type 
ol  the  manly  and  generous  qualities  of  the  warm-hearted  race  from 
which  he  is  sprung. 

/(£' V-*>&v 


The  parents  of  Mr.  Coates  were  both  of  Scotch  descent,  but  were 
themselves  born  in  Belfast,  Ireland.  They  came  to  this  country 
about  the  year  1792,  and  in  1795  Mr.  Francis  Coates,  his  father, 
was  married  in  the  city  of  Baltimore  to  Charlotte  Linton. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Coates  were  among  the  early  disciples  of  John 
Wesley,  and  were  strongly  attached  to  the  principles  of  the  Metho- 
dist Church,  founded  by  that  great  and  good  man.  They  were 
blessed  with  a  number  of  children,  and  on  ^he  11th  of  January, 
1800,  John  Coates  was  born.  He  was  brought  up  by  his  parents  in 
conformity  with  the  doctrines  and  practices  of  Methodism.  He 
received  a  good  common  education,  intended  to  fit  him  for  the 
active  duties  of  a  commercial  or  mechanical  life.  At  an  early  age 
he  commenced  life  as  a  clerk  in  a  respectable  dry  goods  house,  and 
remained  there  until,  in  the  vicissitudes  of  business,  his  employers 
failed  and  gave  up  business.  By  them,  the  clerk  who  had  secured 
their  confidence,  was  strongly  recommended  to  another  house  in 
the  same  line.  After  a  "brief  career  this  house  also  went  down  in 
the  periodical  convulsions  that  sweep  over  the  commercial  circles, 
and  our  young  adventurer  was  again  thrown  upon  the  world.  Dis- 
couraged with  the  uncertainties  of  mercantile  life,  the  young  man 
determined  to  abandon  that  field,  and  try  his  fortune  as  a  mechanic. 
Accordingly  he  went  to  his  father  and  told  him  that  he  had  made 
up  his  mind  to  be  a  mechanic  and  not  a  merchant.  The  father 
suffered  him  to  choose  his  own  future  occupation,  and,  forthwith, 
John  sought  and  found  a  builder,  who  immediately  on  understand- 
ing his  determination,  agreed  to  take  him  into  his  employ.  Setting 
to  work  with  a  hearty  good  will,  the  young  man  soon  mastered 
his  trade,  and  whilst  acting  as  an  apprentice  he  undertook  work  on 
his  own  account,  and  actually  put  up  a  number  of  buildings  with 
hands  employed  by  himself,  and  superintended  by  him  at  nights, 
and  at  hours  when  other  parties  were  resting.  Having  served  out 
his  time  with  his  employers,  in  1822,  Mr.  Coates  commenced  busi- 
ness as  a  builder  on  his  own  account,  and  for  two  years  pushed 


ahead  with  marked  vigor  and  judgment.  In  1824  the  late  Judge 
John  Glenn,  of  the  United  States  Court,  who  had  been  a  friend  of 
Mr.  Coates  from  his  boyhood,  persuaded  him  to  give  up  building 
and  go  into  the  lumber  trade,  offering  to  furnish  all  necessary 
capital  for  the  successful  prosecution  of  the  business.  The  generous 
offer  was  accepted,  and  hence  arose  the  well  known  firm  of  Coates 
&  Glenn.  The  business  was  always  conducted  by  Mr.  Coates, 
though  for  thirty  odd  years  the  name  of  the  firm  was  continued. 
During  all  the  long  period  of  his  business  career,  one  remarkable 
fact  is  deserving  of  record.  He  never  gave  a  note,  or  had  a  dis- 
count from  bank,  though  his  transactions  were  at  all  times  large 
and  varied.  Such  was  the  confidence  inspired  by  his  admirable  tact 
and  business  capacity,  that  if  he  wanted  money  at  any  time,  there 
were  friends  at  hand  to  proffer  any  needed  amount.  For  about 
twenty  years  uninterrupted  success  had  followed  his  labors,  in  which 
time  he  had  accumulated  a  handsome  fortune,  and  greatly  enlarged 
and  extended  the  lumber  trade  of  the  city. 

In  1842  a  disastrous  fire  occurred,  at  a  time  when  there  was  on 
hand  a  large  stock  of  material,  and  in  a  few  hours  the  destroying 
element  swept  out  of  existence  the  results  of  the  labors  and  earn- 
ings of  many  years. 

The  loss  of  the  firm  was  very  great.  Many  thought  it  was 
entirely  ruined.  But  on  the  morning  after  the  fire,  Mr.  Coates  was 
found  by  some  of  his  friends  in  the  midst  of  the  charred  and 
blackened  fragments  of  his  late  crowded  yard,  busily  at  work 
clearing  off  the  debris,  and  preparing  to  renew  his  business.  The 
value  of  a  good  character,  was  never  more  strikingly  shown  than 
at  this  period  in  the  life  of  Mr.  Coates.  Eelying  upon  this,  many 
friends  came  forward  voluntarily  to  tender  their  assistance,  and  as 
much  as  one  hundred  thousand  dollars  was  offered  him  by  various 
parties  to  enable  him  to  go  on.  But,  whilst  thanking  these  friends 
for  their  kindly  offers,  they  were  all  declined,  and  he  set  himself 
earnestly  to  work  to  gather  up  the  fragments  left  him,  and  with 
renewed  zeal  to  commence  his  work  again.  The  effort  was  emi- 
nently successful,  and  in  a  few  brief  years,  the  heavy  loss  was  all 
made  up,  and  wealth  and  ease  were  again  possessed.  In  all  this 
extended  time,  Mr.  Coates  neither  made  nor  gave  a  note,  or  had 
discount.  We  may  here  remark,  that  on  the  night  when  Mr. 
Coates  reached  his  twenty-first  year,  he  applied  for  admission  into 
Warren  Lodge,  ]S"o.  51,  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  was  promptly 
elected,  and  for  thirty-five  years  occupied  the  position  of  Treasurer 
of  the  Lodge ;  having  during  that  time  passed  through  all  the  subor- 

JOHX    COATES.  223 

dinate  degrees,  and  was  elected  to  the  position  of  Grand  Master, 
which  he  held  by  the  unanimous  vote  of  his  brethren  for  the 
unusual  term  of  six  years.  He  also  served  for  ten  years  as  director 
in  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  Company ;  for  six  years  as 
president  of  the  Board  of  Managers  of  Baltimore  City  Jail,  and  for 
the  same  number  of  years,  a  director  in  the  Maryland  State  Peni- 
tentiary. He  has  been  for  sixteen  years  a  director  in  the  Western 
National  Bank,  and  for  an  equal  time  a  director  in  the  F.utaw 
Savings  Bank — both  of  which  places  he  still  occupies.  In  1864  he 
obtained  from  the  State  Legislature  a  charter  for  the  incorporation 
of  the  Union  Fire  Insurance  Company.  Upon  the  organization  of 
this  company,  he  was  unanimously  elected  president,  which  place  he 
has  continuously  filled,  up  to  the  present  time,  and,  with  his  usual 
zeal  and  business  tact,  has  made  the  institution  a  successful  and 
prosperous  concern.  As  was  said  at  the  commencement  of  this 
sketch,  he  was  brought  up  a  Methodist,  and  for  many  years  was  a 
member  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church;  but  upon  the  organiza- 
tion of  what  he  regarded  as  the  more  liberal  government  of  the 
Methodist  Protestant  Church,  he  withdrew  from  the  old  body,  and 
united  with  that.  With  this  body  he  is  still  connected,  and  its 
business  interests  he  has  had  it  in  his  power  often  to  assist  and 
advance.  In  all  the  relations  of  social  and  private  life,  Mr.  Coates 
has  ever  sustained  the  character  of  a  kind  and  genial  man,  and 
his  house  has  been  the  home  of  the  ministers  and  friends  of  the 
church  at  all  times.  In  the  possession  of  a  vigorous  constitution, 
confirmed  and  developed  by  an  active  temperate  life,  he  presents  the 
appearance  of  sound  health,  with  the  prospect  of  living  many  years 
to  enjoy  his  well  earned  wealth  and  honors. 


The  annals  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  have  been  frequently 
graced  by  men  of  most  exalted  merit,  but  rarely  by  one  of  more 
fervent  piety  and  gentleness  of  spirit  than  Rev.  John  Carroll,  the 
lirst  bishop  and  archbishop  of  his  church  in  the  See  of  Baltimore, 
and  the  earliest  in  the  United  States.  Born  in  Upper  Marlborough, 
Maryland,  in  1735,  his  early  piety  determined  him  on  devoting  his 
life  to  religion,  and  with  this  view  he  was  sent  abroad  and  was  edu- 
cated at  the  College  of  St.  Omers,  in  France,  and  afterward  at  Liege, 
in  Belgium ;  the  American  Colonies  at  that  period  having  no  ecclesi- 
astical institution  for  the  training  of  priests.  Mr.  Carroll  was  the 
cousin  of  Charles  Carroll  of  Carrollton,  and  not  his  brother,  as  he  is 
frequently  represented.  In  Liege  he  was  ordained  priest.  He  sur- 
rendered to  his  brother  all  his  own  share  in  his  patrimonial  estate, 
and  joined  the  order  of  the  Jesuits.  On  the  suppression  of  the 
order  in  France  he  was  chosen  to  act  as  their  Secretary,  in  corres- 
pondence with  the  French  government  regarding  the  temporal 
possessions  of  the  order ;  his  thorough  knowledge  of  French  and 
Latin,  and  the  elegance  of  his  written  style  in  both  languages,  par- 
ticularly qualifying  him  for  the  position  of  Secretary. 

He  took  refuge  in  England,  and  was  chosen  by  Lord  Houston,  a 
Roman  Catholic  nobleman,  as  the  tutor  of  his  son,  and  appointed  to 
make  the  tour  of  Europe  with  him.  While  engaged  in  this  situa- 
tion he  wrote  for  the  instruction  of  his  pupil  a  concise  and  excellent 
history  of  England,  recalling  the  example  of  Fenelon  who  composed 
the  adventures  of  Telemachus  for  his  royal  charge,  the  Duke  of 
Burgundy.  He  was  a  professor  at  Bruges  in  1773,  but  afterward 
returned  to  England  and  resided  for  some  years  in  the  family  of  the 
Earl  of  Arundel.  At  that  period  the  laws  of  the  realm  imposing 
disabilities  on  the  Catholics  were  in  full  force,  as  they  had  been 
ever  since  the  overthrow  of  Kino;  James  the  Second.  The  Catholics 
had  no  representation  in  Parliament,  and  their  nobility  were  denied 
their  seats  in  the  House  of  Peers,  while  the  exercise  of  their  religion 
could  only  be  conducted  in  private.     Most  of  the  Roman  Catholic 


nobility  therefore  bad  their  own  special  chaplains  and  confessors ; 
and  Mr.  Carroll  exercised  such  functions  at  Arundel  Castle,  one  of 
the  ancestral  seats  of  the  family  of  Howard. 

On  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  with  the  mother  country,  Mr. 
Carroll,  however,  resisted  all  importunities  to  remain  in  England, 
and  with  the  spirit  of  a  true  patriot  returned  to  America.  He  fixed 
his  residence  in  Baltimore,  which  he  never  afterward  left,  except 
upon  special  occasions.  In  February,  1776,  he  was  appointed  by  the 
Continental  Congress,  in  connection  with  his  cousin,  Charles  Carroll 
of  Carrollton,  Judge  Samuel  Chase,  and  Dr.  Benjamin  Franklin,  to 
proceed  upon  a  mission  to  Canada.  Of  this  journey  Charles  Carroll 
has  left  a  full  account.  The  object  of  the  expedition  was  to  create  a 
sympathy  in  Canada  with  the  American  cause,  and  to  induce  that 
province,  if  possible,  to  make  common  issue  with  the  Colonies 
against  Great  Britain.  Dr.  John  Carroll  was  selected  on  account  of 
his  very  high  standing  as  a  Catholic  clergyman,  in  hope  that  he 
could  have  great  influence  with  those  of  the  same  faith  in  the 
Canadas,  as  they  possessed  a  vast  numerical  superiority  over  the 
Protestants.  The  hope,  however,  was  disappointed.  The  defeat  of 
Montgomery  before  Quebec,  and  the  very  strong  opposition  of  the 
Catholic  clergy  to  the  measures  of  union  with  the  Colonies,  rendered 
all  efforts  on  the  part  of  the  Commissioners  unavailing.  Leaving 
Charles  Carroll  and  Judge  Chase,  Dr.  Franklin  and  Dr.  Carroll 
returned  together.  The  strongest  personal  friendship  grew  up  be- 
tween these  two  eminent  men,  which  continued  unimpaired  through 

After  the  establishment  of  peace  with  Great  Britain  the  American 
Catholics  became  very  anxious  that  a  hierarchy  should  be  instituted 
in  their  own  country,  so  as  to  render  them  separate  from  that  of 
England,  on  which  they  had  always  depended.  Dr.  Franklin  was 
at  that  time  residing  at  Passy,  near  Paris,  as  x\meriean  ambassador, 
and,  having  the  highest  opinion  of  Dr.  Carroll's  learning,  piety  and 
ability,  was  enabled  by  his  personal  friendship  to  have  much  influ- 
ence regarding  his  appointment  to  a  higher  position  in  the  Church. 
Accordingly,  in  1786,  Dr.  Carroll  was  created  Vicar  General  for  the 
United  States,  and  three  years  later  Bishop  of  Baltimore,  being  the 
first  American  prelate  consecrated  in  the  .Roman  Catholic  Church, 
thus  giving  primacy  to  the  See  of  Baltimore.  There  being  no 
bishops  at  that  period  in  the  United  States,  Dr.  Carroll  was  obliged 
to  go  to  England  to  be  consecrated.  He  then  returned  to  Baltimore 
and  entered  zealously  upon  the  duties  of  his  charge.  For  a  number 
of  years  he  continued  the  sole  Roman  Catholic  bishop  in  the  country, 


his  diocese  extending  over  all  the  States  and  territories.  In  1810, 
five  years  before  his  death,  which  occurred  ou  the  3d  of  December, 
1815,  he  was  advanced  to  the  dignity  of  Archbishop.  His  labors 
were  necessarily  great  in  consequence  of  the  vast  extent  of  his 
province,  but  he  fulfilled  them  with  exemplary  fidelity  until  he  was 
called  from  the  scene  of  his  labors  at  the  age  of  eighty  years.  2sTo 
one  was  more  beloved  and  respected  by  all  classes  and  sects  than 
Archbishop  Carroll.  Whiie  devoted  to  his  own  church,  he  invari- 
ably inculcated  the  spirit  of  charity,  and  cultivated  the  kindest  rela- 
tions between  Catholics  and  Protestants. 

Of  the  spread  of  his  religion  in  this  country,  some  idea  may  be 
formed  from  the  fact  that  in  1808,  nineteen  years  after  his  consecra- 
tion, there  were  in  all  the  United  States  only  two  bishops,  sixty- 
eight  priests,  eighty  churches,  and  two  ecclesiastical  institutions. 
There  was  then  but  one  Catholic  to  every  sixty-eight  Protestants. 
In  1870,  according  to  the  Catholic  Almanac,  there  are  seven  arch- 
bishops and  fifty-two  bishops.  For  forty  years  after  "  Baltimore- 
Town"  was  laid  oat,  no  Catholic  church  was  erected ;  but  in  1770,  a 
part  of  St.  Peter's  chapel  was  reared  on  Saratoga  street,  west  of 
Charles  street,  on  the  site  of  "  Carroll  Hall,"  now  occupied  by  the 
order  of  Christian  Brothers;  bat  no  priest  was  regularly  settled 
there  until  1780.  Another  small  chapel  was  built  on  the  Point  in 
1796,  which  has  given  place  to  St.  Patrick's  on  Broadway.  The 
German  Catholics  in  1799  erected  a  chapel  on  Saratoga  street,  of 
which  St.  Alphonsus,  corner  of  Saratoga  and  Park  streets,  now 
occupies  the  site.  St.  Mary's  Chapel,  connected  with  the  Seminary 
on  Pennsylvania  avenue,  was  completed  in  1807,  and  in  1806  Bishop 
Carroll  laid  the  corner-stone  of  the  Cathedral  now  rearing  its  ma- 
jestic proportions  on  Mulberry  and  Cathedral  streets.  Such  was 
the  humble  status  of  Roman  Catholic  buildings  in  this  city  at  the 
death  of  Archbishop  Carroll,  in  place  of  the  numerous  splendid 
churches  and  other  institutions  which  now  adorn  Baltimore. 

cxT  tys\t&£*Y'     *> 


The  ancestors  of  Mr,  Cat  or,  on  both  father's  and  mother's  side, 
emigrated  from  England  to  the  United  States  in  the  year  1675,  and 
settled  in  Calvert  count}-,  Maryland,  whence  their  descendants  re- 
moved to  Dorchester  county  in  1719  and  1723. 

Mr.  B.  F.  Cator  was  born  on  February  10th,  1824,  in  the  city  of 
Baltimore,  then  the  residence  of  his  father,  who,  however,  soon  after 
removed  to  the  old  homestead  in  Dorchester,  where  young  Cator 
passed  his  boyhood.  As  a  school  boy  he  was  quick  to  learn  and 
unusually  bright  and  intelligent  for  his  years.  His  amiable  nature 
and  happy  disposition  endeared  him  to  his  teachers  as  well  as  his 
schoolmates.  As  a  youth  he  was  diligent  in  business,  eager  to  ac- 
quire knowledge  that  might  qualify  him  for  his  future  calling,  and 
prompt  to  sacrifice  his  own  gratifications  at  the  call  of  duty. 

In  1838  he  removed  to  Baltimore,  and  obtained  a  position  with 
Mr.  J.  ~N.  Lewis,  wholesale  stationer,  with  whom  he  learned  his  first 
lessons  of  business.  In  1846  he  left  this  house,  and  accepted  the 
position  of  salesman  in  the  house  of  Cushings  &  Brothers,  wholesale 
booksellers,  where  he  remained  until  1852. 

During  these  years  he  found  opportunity  to  form  an  unusually 
extensive  acquaintance  not  only  with  the  business  community  of  the 
city,  but  with  the  numerous  merchants  who  were  in  the  habit  of 
visiting  Baltimore  for  purposes  of  trade.  "With  these,  indeed,  his 
acquaintance  was  perhaps  more  general  than  that  of  any  other  mer- 
chant in  the  city. 

In  1852  he  became  a  partner  in  the  house  of  Armstrong  &  Cator, 
the  junior  member  of  which  firm  was  his  younger  brother.  This 
house  was  originally  founded  by  Mr.  Thomas  Armstrong,  when  only 
sixteen  years  of  age,  in  the  year  1806.  After  a  prosperous  career  of 
thirty-six  years,  this  gentleman  found  himself  reduced  to  poverty  by 
a  series  of  disasters ;  he,  however,  manfully  struggled  to  rebuild  his 
fortunes,  and  with  such  success  that  in  a  short  time  he  was  able  to 
pay  off  every  dollar  of  his  indebtedness.  In  1847  he  formed  a  part- 
nership with  Mr.  E.  W.  Cator,  and  the  business  continuing  to 


enlarge,  about  five  years  later  Mr.  B.  F.  Cator  was  induced  to  enter 
the  house,  the  name  of  which  was  changed  to  Armstrong,  Cator  & 
Company.  Mr.  Armstrong  subsequently,  at  various  times,  disposed 
of  his  entire  interest  in  the  business  to  Messrs.  J.  F.  Bealmear,  W. 
J.  H.  "Watters,  and  W.  H.  Pagon,  (all,  like  the  Cators,  Mary  landers 
by  birth,)  and  died  in  1868,  in  his  seventy-ninth  year,  leaving  a 
handsome  fortune,  and  bequeathing  thirty-five  thousand  dollars  for 
charitable  purposes.  Notwithstanding  his  retirement  and  subsequent 
decease,  the  name  of  Mr.  Armstrong  is  still  retained  in  that  of  the 
house  Avhich  he  founded, — the  present  firm  believing  in  the  old  Eng- 
lish custom,  that  when  a  house  has  been  thoroughly  established  it 
should  continue  under  the  same  style. 

After  the  admission  of  Mr.  B.  F.  Cator,  the  prosperity  and  reputa- 
tion of  the  house  continued  to  increase,  and  in  1861  it  had  perhaps 
no  rival  in  its  special  branch  of  trade.  At  the  commencement  of  the 
war,  in  1861,  their  house,  which  did  a  large  Southern  business,  felt 
the  effects  to  a  considerable  degree.  In  the  fall  of  that  year  Mr. 
Cator  went  through  the  lines  into  the  Southern  States  on  business, 
and  remained  there  until  the  following  spring,  when  he  returned, 
happily  without  the  annoyance  and  molestation  to  which  many 
business  men  who  had  made  a  similar  journey  were  subjected. 
Though  Mr.  Cator  was  known  to  be  a  strong  and  conscientious 
sympathizer  with  the  Southern  cause,  he  had  done  nothing  hostile 
to  the  Government  from  which  his  State  had  not  separated,  con- 
fining his  active  manifestations  of  sympathy  to  the  charitable  task 
of  contributing  to  relieve  the  sufferings  of  Southern  prisoners,  and 
ministering  to  the  wants  of  the  sick  and  wounded,  in  which  case  he 
looked  to  the  necessities  and  not  to  the  politics  of  the  sufferers, 
though  of  course  those  who  were  cut  off  from  their  homes  and 
friends  presented  by  far  the  most  urgent  claims  for  relief.  During 
the  whole  period  of  the  war  these  gentlemen  were  most  untiring  in 
these  deeds  of  charity,  in  which  they  spent  the  larger  part  of  their 

At  the  close  of  the  war  they  exhibited  great  liberality  in  extending 
facilities  to  their  former  Southern  customers,  who  were  then  greatly 
reduced  in  circumstances,  and  frequently  almost  penniless,  while  the 
real  estate  they  held  had  scarcely  any  value  in  the  market.  But 
the  firm  knew  their  men;  and  where  they  knew  there  was  integrity 
and  energy  they  did  not  hesitate  to  repose  confidence.  In  this  way 
they  were  able  to  render  inestimable  service  to  numbers  of  worthy 
men.  By  the  general  liberality  of  their  dealings  they  have  built  up 
a  flourishing  trade  with  all  the  Southern  States,  which  now  reaches 

BENJAMIN    F.     CATOE.  231 

an  amount  annually  of  $1,250,000,  which  is  about  one-fourth  more 
than  that  of  any  Northern  house  in  the  same  line  of  business.  The 
experience  of  this  house  is,  that  the  Southern  dealers,  finding  equal 
advantages  in  variety  of  stock,  prices  and  liberal  terms  with  any 
that  the  Northern  merchants  can  offer,  prefer  to  deal  in  a  Southern 
city.  Of  course  to  be  able  to  offer  these  advantages  requires  great 
judgment  in  selecting,  purchasing,  and  indeed  in  all  the  details  of 
the  business. 

A  peculiar  feature  of  their  business,  which  this  house  has  been 
the  first  to  introduce  in  Baltimore,  is  the  direct  importation  of 
pattern  bonnets  and  hats  from  France.  At  the  beginning  of  each 
season  they  import  one  or  two  hundred  samples  of  the  leading  styles 
for  the  season,  made  up  and  trimmed  by  the  first  artists  in  that 
department  in  Paris,  and  costing  from  twenty-five  to  seventy-five 
dollars  apiece.  These  as  soon  as  received  are  displayed  for  general 
inspection,  and  then  sold  to  the  trade  as  patterns  at  less  than  half 
the  cost  of  importation,  thereby  enabling  milliners  to  obtain  in  their 
own  market,  and  at  greatly  reduced  prices,  what  they  would  other- 
wise have  to  order  abroad  at  very  heavy  expense.  These  patterns 
are  only  used  as  designs,  the  cost  being  sixty  per  cent,  greater  than 
the  American  manufactured  article.  At  the  same  time  that  the 
domestic  dealers  are  thus  assisted,  the  house  finds  its  return  in 
keeping  to  Baltimore  a  valuable  trade  which  would  otherwise  be 
drawn  off  by  the  Northern  importers. 

While  enjoying  as  business  men  to  a  high  degree  the  confidence 
of  the  community,  the  brothers  are  no  less  esteemed  in  private  life. 
They  dispense  large  sums  in  unostentatious  works  of  beneficence, 
and  are  ever  ready  to  lend  a  helping  hand  to  deserving  young  men 
about  entering  on  a  business  career. 

In  the  summer  of  1869  Mr.  Cator's  health  suffered  severely  from 
too  close  application  to  business,  and  he  is  now  seeking  its  restora- 
tion in  the  mild  and  genial  climate  of  Florida. 


Samuel  Chase  was  born  in  the  county  of  Somerset,  Maryland,  in 
1741.  His  father  Rev.  Thomas  Chase,  was  an  Englishman,  and  left 
his  native  country  in  1738,  for  the  Island  of  Jamaica,  where  he 
practiced  medicine,  remaining,  however,  in  the  island  only  a  few 
months.  !Not  very  long  after  his  arrival  in  the  colonies,  he  married 
in  January,  1740,  Matilda  Walker,  the  daughter  of  a  respectable 
farmer  of  Somerset  county,  Maryland.  This  lady  died  in  giving 
birth  to  her  son  Samuel ;  and  in  1743  the  Rev.  Thomas  Chase 
having  been  appointed  Rector  of  St.  Paul's  parish  in  Baltimore,  he 
removed  to  that  city  with  his  infant  son.  The  youth  was  carefully 
educated  under  the  supervision  of  his  father,  and  at  the  age  of 
eighteen  was  sent  to  Annapolis,  where  he  studied  law,  and  in  1761 
was  admitted  to  the  practice  of  the  law  in  the  provincial  courts. 

The  following  year  Mr.  Chase  was  married  to  Miss  Anne  Bald- 
win of  Annapolis,  who  bore  him  six  children.  He  now  entered 
with  great  zeal  and  industry  on  the  practice  of  his  profession,  and 
soon  acquired  a  wide  reputation,  not  only  as  a  lawyer,  but  also  as  a 
statesman,  taking  the  strongest  ground  in  favor  of  the  American 
Colonies  against  the  arrogant  pretensions  and  tyranny  of  Great 
Britain.  In  1764  he  began  his  public  career  in  the  General  Assem- 
bly of  Maryland,  continuing  an  active  and  influential  member  of 
that  body  for  nearly  twenty  years.  He  was  a  vigorous  and  untiring 
opponent  of  the  "  stamp  act,"  losing  no  opportunity  of  denouncing 
its  purpose,  and  of  exposing  to  the  people  at  large  the  full  measure 
of  its  baleful  effects.  He  was  one  of  the  framers  of  that  important 
instrument,  the  "  Declaration  of  Rights  of  Maryland,"  and  the 
author  of  numerous  popular  appeals  and  expositions  of  the  political 
affairs' of  that  excited  period;  essays  and  pamphlets  which  have 
now  been  lost  sight  of,  but  which  had  much  weight  in  their  day. 

In  1774  he  was  chosen  a  delegate  to  the  first  Congress  and  re- 
elected in  1776.  In  the  same  year  he  was  sent  on  a  mission  to 
Canada,  with  Charles  Carroll  of  Carrollton,  and  his  cousin  John 
Carroll.     Their  object  was  to  induce  the  Canadians  to  unite  their 


efforts  with  the  Colonies,  in  throwing  off  the  yoke  of  Great  Britain, 
but  the  mission  proved  abortive.  On  his  return  he  most  diligently 
canvassed  Maryland,  and  brought  public  opinion  to  bear  in  favor  of 
the  resolution  of  Independence,  the  State  having  been  reluctant  to 
accede  to  it.  He  returned  to  Philadelphia  in  season  to  vote  for  the 
much  desired  measure.  He  was  one  of  the  signers  of  the  Declara- 
tion of  Independence,  and  his  influence  was  undoubtedly  very  great 
in  gaining  the  consent  of  Maryland  to  join  her  sister  States  in  that 
memorable  compact.  In  1782,  the  Governor  of  Maryland  appointed 
him  agent  and  trustee  with  full  powers  to  proceed  to  England,  for 
the  purpose  of  recovering  the  stock  of  the  Bank  of  England  owned 
by  the  State  of  Maryland.  He  remained  in  England  for  a  year,  and 
there  married  his  second  wife,  Miss  Hannah  K.  Giles,  of  London. 
She  bore  him  two  daughters,  and  some  of  their  descendants  are  now 
living  in  Baltimore.  At  the  period  when  Mr.  Chase  resided  in  Eng- 
land, Pitt,  Burke,  Fox,  Sheridan,  and  many  other  celebrated  men 
where  in  the  height  of  their  fame  and  power,  and  he  mingled  with 
this  illustrious  circle  on  terms  of  cordial  intimacy,  his  own  distin- 
guished reputation  and  genial  manners,  readily  giving  him  access  to 
the  best  society  of  the  British  Metropolis. 

After  his  return  to  America  he  removed  his  residence  to  Balti- 
more in  1786,  and  in  1791  he  was  appointed  Judge  of  the  General 
Court  of  Maryland,  and  in  1793,  Judge  of  the  Criminal  Court  for 
Baltimore  county,  when  he  resigned  his  judgeship  in  the  General 
Court.  He  was  a  man  of  great  personal  courage,  and  in  1794, 
during  a  riot  he  caused  the  arrest  of  two  men.  They  refused  to  give 
bail,  and  as  they  were  popular  citizens,  the  sheriff'  was  apprehensive 
of  a  rescue  at  the  hands  of  the  mob  if  he  attempted  to  take  them  to 
prison.  "Call  out  the  posse  comitatus,"  said  the  judge,  on  being 
informed  of  the  sheriff's  fears.  "No  one  will  serve  on  it,  sir," 
answered  that  officer.  "  Then,  sir,"  returned  Judge  Chase,  "  sum- 
mon me,  I  will  be  the  posse  comitatus.  I  will  take  them  to  jail 

In  1796,  President  Washington  appointed  him  one  of  the  Judges 
of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States.  On  the  bench  he 
proved  his  signal  ability,  as  he  had  before,  as  an  advocate,  and  many 
of  his  opinions  were  held  in  high  estimation.  In  1804,  however, 
charges  of  malfeasance  in  office  was  brought  against  him,  and  he 
was  impeached  in  the  House  of  Representatives.  The  trial  attracted 
very  great  attention.  Aaron  Burr  the  Vice-President  of  the  United 
States,  who  was  himself  afterward  tried  for  high  treason,  presided 
on  the  occasion  ;  and  Judge  Chase  was  defended  by  Robert  Goodloe 

SAMUEL    CHASE.  235 

Harper,  and  Luther  Martin,  then  at  the  height  of  their  fame. 
Judge  Chase  was  impeached  at  the  instance  of  John  Randolph  of 
Roanoke,  and  it  was  charged  against  him  in  reference  to  Callender's 
trial  five  years  before,  that  his  conduct  was  marked  "by  manifest 
injustice,  partiality  and  intemperance."  He  was  by  nature  some- 
what overbearing  and  peremptory,  but  he  was  acquitted  by  the 
Senate  of  all  the  charges  and  specifications,  and  on  the  5th  of 
March,  1805,  discharged,  when  he  resumed  his  seat  upon  the  bench, 
which  he  held  for  the  remainder  of  his  life.  He  died  June  19th, 
1811,  aged  seventy  years,  leaving  a  worthy  reputation  as  statesman, 
patriot  and  jurist. 

^J^gJ[  ,J^&>^i^ 



Before  the  use  of  iron  had  so  largely  superseded  that  of  wood  in 
the  construction  of  sea-goiug  vessels,  especially  of  the  class  which 
are  built  for  speed,  and  before  the  application  of  steam,  with  the 
same  object,  had  wrought  a  revolution  in  the  art  of  ship  buildino-, 
as  well  as  in  that  of  navigation,  the  ship  builders  of  Baltimore 
enjoyed  a  world-wide  reputation  for  the  superiority  of  their  models 
of  fast  sailing  vessels.  This  reputation  which  dates  back  even  to 
the  days  when  Baltimore  was  a  village,  was  at  its  height  in  the 
earlier  part  of  the  present  century,  when  Hugh'  A.  Cooper,  the  sub- 
ject of  the  present  sketch,  was  apprenticed  to  Messrs.  Harrison  & 
Auld,  to  learn  the  trade  of  a  ship  carpenter.  The  Baltimore  clipper 
was  then  what  the  Clyde  built  steamer  is  now.  For  voyages  to  the 
"West  Indies  and  the  Spanish  Main — for  ocean  races  from  Canton, 
with  cargoes  of  tea — wherever,  in  fact,  rapidity  of  transportation  was 
considered  more  important  than  mere  carrying  capacity,  the  clip- 
per model  was  confessedly  the  best  and  universally  preferred.  Such 
was  the  reputation  in  fact  acquired  by  the  ship  yards  of  .Baltimore 
in  those  days  for  vessels  of  this  build,  that  when  originally  con- 
structed, and  intended  only  for  purposes  of  legitimate  commerce, 
the  Baltimore  clippers  sometimes  found  their  way  subsequently  into 
less  creditable  employments,  in  those  paths  of  hazardous  or  unlaw- 
ful adventure  for  which  their  fast  sailing  qualities  particularly 
recommend  them.  There  is  hardly  an  old  sea  tale,  the  incidents 
of  which  are  laid  in  the  first  part  of  this  century,  in  the  days  of 
French  privateers  and  Spanish  buccaneers,  which  does  not  open 
with  some  description  of  "a  long,  low,  rakish-looking  schooner, 
whose  tapering  spars  and  perfect  lines,"  are  supposed  at  once  to 
suggest  the  skillful  hand  of  the  Baltimore  builder,  and  the  dubious 
character  of  the  vessel's  employment. 

Hugh  A.  Cooper,  born  in  Talbot  county,  Maryland,  January  22d, 
1811,  was  brought  up  in  the  school  of  these  famous  old  masters  of 
the  craft,  whose  reputation  he  worthily  maintained,  although 
belonging  himself  to  a  somewhat  later  day  and  different  era  in  the 


history  of  ship  building.  After  serving  his  apprenticeship  of  four 
years  with  Harrison  &  Auld,  in  1833,  he  commenced  business  for 
himself,  but  the  following  year  he  formed  a  partnership  with  Mr.  J. 
J.  Abrahams,  which  lasted  until  1848.  He  afterward  was  a  member 
of  the  ship  building  firm  of  Cooper  &  Butler,  and  still  more  recently 
of  that  of  Cooper  &  Slicer.  During  the  time  that  he  was  actively 
engaged  in  business,  Mr.  Cooper  built  some  of  the  finest  vessels 
which  have  ever  been  launched  from  American  yards.  He  built 
the  Sinus,  and  the  barks  Roberto,  and  Johannes;  also  the  ship 
Andalusia,  for  the  house  of  William  "Wilson  &  Sons,  and  several  fine 
vessels  for  the  firm  of  James  I.  Fisher  &  Sons.  He  also  built  several 
steamers,  among  them  the  fine  boats  George  Peabody  and  Belvidere, 
of  the  Norfolk  or  Bay  line,  and  the  late  ice  boat  Chesapeake,  a 
steam  vessel  of  great  power,  built  for  the  express  purpose  of 
keeping  open  the  channel  of  the  Patapsco  river  and  the  harbor 
of  Baltimore  during  winters  of  unusual  severity,  and  requiring 
therefore  the  use  of  the  strongest  material  as  well  as  great  care 
in  her  construction.  None  who  examined  this  vessel  doubted  that 
she  would  be  found  thoroughly  efficient  for  the  purpose  intended ; 
and  that  her  capabilities  were  not  put  to  the  test  of  practical 
experiment,  was  owing  to  the  fact  that,  since  she  was  built,  the 
harbor  of  Baltimore  has  happily  remained  unobstructed  by  ice, 
until  the  winter  of  the  present  year,  when  she  was  destroyed 
by  fire. 

Mr.  Cooper,  in  the  course  of  his  active  and  useful  life,  was  called 
upon  to  discharge  various  public  trusts  and  employments,  in  all  of 
which  he  acquitted  himself  with  credit.  He  was  one  of  the  com- 
missioners for  deepening  the  channel  of  the  Patapsco  ;  several  times 
represented  his  ward  in  the  City  Council,  and  at  one  time  repre- 
sented the  city  in  the  lower  house  of  the  State  Legislature.  He 
was  also  a  director,  chosen  on  the  part  of  the  city,  in  the  Baltimore 
and  Ohio  Railroad  Company,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death,  which 
occurred  on  the  11th  of  November,  1870,  was  a  director  in  the 
Second  National  Bank,  and  in  several  insurance  companies.  In 
1867,  in  consequence  of  ill  health,  caused  by  early  exposure  and  too 
close  attention  to  business,  he  retired  from  its  more  active  employ- 
ments, having  previously  disposed  of  his  interest  in  the  dock  to  Mr. 
Abrahams.  He  continued,  however,  to  retain  an  interest  in  various 
enterprises,  both  public  and  private,  and  was  a  part  owner  of  the 
ships  Macauley  and  Annapolis. 

His  successful  career,  aided  to  that  of  so  many  other  men  whose 
lives  are  recorded  in  this  volume,  is  another  example  to  the  young 

HUGH    A.     COOPER.  239 

of  what  honesty,  untiring  industry  and  business  tact  can  accom- 
plish, although  unaided  by  early  advantages  of  friends  or  fortune. 
The  civic  employments  he  filled  attest  the  respect  and  confidence  in 
which  his  character  was  deservedly  held  by  his  fellow  citizens.  It 
can  be  truly  said,  moreover,  that  these  tokens  of  the  public  esteem 
and  good  will  came  to  him  unsought,  for  Mr.  Cooper  was  at  no 
time  of  his  life  a  politician  in  the  ordinary  acceptation  of  the  word, 
and  his  modesty  was  as  characteristic  as  his  merit. 


The  capital  of  Maryland  has  given  birth  to  many  very  distin- 
guished men,  and  one  of  them,  Henry  Winter  Davis,  was  born  in 
Annapolis,  on  the  16th  of  August,  1817.  His  father,  Rev.  Henry 
Lyon  Davis,  was  a  clergyman  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church, 
the  rector  of  St.  Ann's  parish,  and  at  one  period,  president  of  St. 
John's  College.  His  mother,  Jane  Brown  "Winter,  was  a  woman  of 
much  elegance  of  mind  and  person.  Early  in  young  Davis's  life,  his 
father  was  displaced  from  the  presidency  of  St.  John's  on  account  of 
his  Federal  politics,  when  he  removed  to  Wilmington,  Delaware  ; 
eventually  returning  to  Maryland,  and  settling  in  Anne  Arundel 
county,  in  1827.  Henry  Winter  Davis's  early  education  began  at 
home,  under  the  strict  supervision  of  his  aunt,  Elizabeth  Brown 
Winter,  and  a  part  of  his  childhood  was  passed  with  her  in  Alex- 
andria, Virginia.  Later  training  with  his  father,  in  Wilmington 
and  in  Anne  Arundel  county,  fitted  him  for  school,  from  whence  he 
entered  Kenyon  college,  Ohio,  in  the  autumn  of  1833. 

The  primeval  forests  of  Ohio,  forty  years  ago,  had  been  scarcely 
invaded,  and  the  greater  part  of  the  State  was  still  a  wilderness 
when  Davis  entered  upon  his  collegiate  course.  The  system  at 
Kenyon  at  that  time  was  that  of  a  manual  labor  institution,  and  the 
students  were  obliged  to  perform  all  offices  for  themselves.  Davis 
was  not  exempt  from  the  general  hardship  of  the  place,  and  in 
addition  to  the  severe  round  of  duty,  his  means  at  this  period  were 
exceedingly  limited.  His  father  died  during  his  collegiate  course  ; 
the  farm  in  Anne  Arundel  county  yielded  the  most  scanty  return, 
and  his  aunt  kept  him  at  college  only  by  the  strictest  economy  on 
her  own  part.  Stern  and  unpromising  as  his  situation  was  at  this 
time,  no  doubt  the  hard  struggle  proved  of  signal  benefit  in 
training  him  for  the  far  greater  trials  which  later  in  life  he  was 
called  upon  to  confront.  He  graduated  on  the  6th  of  September, 
1837,  at  the  age  of  twenty,  having  by  diligence  in  study  passed 
over  his  Sophomore  year,  being  successful  at  its  commencement  in 
his  examination  for  the  Junior  term. 


On  leaving  college,  lie  was  obliged,  owing  to  his  poverty,  to 
accept  a  situation  as  tutor,  he  steadfastly  refusing  either  to  sell  the 
slaves  which  had  been  left  to  him  under  his  father's  will,  or  to 
receive  a  cent  of  their  wages.  He  was  enabled  to  enter  the  Univer- 
sity of  Virginia  in  October,  1839,  where  he  pursued  a  thorough 
legal  course,  and  also  familiarized  himself  with  the  great  masters  of 
history  and  philosophy,  and  acquired  a  knowledge  of  French  and 
German,  in  addition  to  the  Greek  and  Latin  languages,  which 
he  had  learned  at  Kenyou.  At  the  University  of  Virginia  he 
thoroughly  laid  the  foundation  of  the  elegant  scholarship  which 
distinguished  him  not  less  than  his  legal  research  and  brilliant 

After  a  thorough  course  of  study  at  this  celebrated  institution  of 
learning,  Mr.  Davis  returned  to  Alexandria  and  entered  upon  the 
practice  of  the  law.  His  ability  was  soon  acknowledged,  and  his 
industry  early  obtained  an  extensive  business.  He  was  a  frequent 
contributor  to  the  newspapers,  and  many  of  his  articles  on  political 
subjects  attracted  great  attention.  In  1845  he  married  Miss  Con- 
stance Gardiner.  This  lady  lived  but  a  few  years  after  marriage, 
and  not  long  after  her  death,  Mr.  Davis  left  Alexandria.  He 
settled  in  Baltimore  in  1850.  His  reputation  as  a  talented  and 
rising  lawyer  had  preceded  him,  and  he  at  once  took  rank  in  this 
city  with  the  leading  members  of  the  bar.  In  politics,  he  was 
allied  with  the  Whig  party,  and  took  an  active  part  in  the  Scott 
campaign  of  1852.  On  the  defeat  and  final  extinction  of  the 
Whigs,  Mr.  Davis  adopted  the  principles  of  the  American  party. 
He  was  elected  to  the  National  House  of  Representatives  from  the 
fourth  district  of  Maryland,  to  the  thirty-fourth,  thirty-fifth  and 
thirty-sixth  Congresses.  In  the  Hall  of  Representatives,  he  was 
very  soon  recognized  as  one  of  its  ablest  debaters.  With  thorough 
mastery  of  the  subject  under  discussion,  he  always  commanded  the 
attention  of  the  House  by  his  strictly  logical  reasoning,  his  array  of 
facts,  his  knowledge  of  constitutional  law,  the  chaste  but  fervid 
eloquence  of  his  diction,  the  strength  and  melody  of  his  voice,  and 
his  handsome  and  commanding  presence.  Even  his  strongest 
political  opponents  were  ready  to  acknowledge  his  ability,  and 
listen  to  him  with  pleasure.  He  supported  Mr.  Fillmore  for  the 
Presidency  in  1856,  and  Mr.  Bell  in  I860. 

With  the  election  of  Mr.  Lincoln,  the  political  differences  which 
had  already  so  deeply  agitated  the  entire  country,  took  more 
decided  shape,  although  the  friends  of  peace,  North  and  South,  still 
fervently   hoped   for   a   pacific   solution  of  all   troubles.     It  is  not 


within  the  province  of  this  biography  to  discuss  the  merits  of  the 
question.  Mr.  Davis  strenuously  adopted  the  side  of  the  Union 
against  secession.  On  the  fourth  day  of  the  second  session  of  the 
thirty-sixth  Congress,  the  famous  committee  of  thirty-three  was 
raised,  Mr.  Davis  as  the  member  for  Maryland.  He  argued  in 
favor  of  the  right  of  coercion  by  the  general  government,  of  States 
preparing  to  secede  from  the  Union.  The  fall  of  Fort  Sumter 
finally  destroyed  all  hopes  of  averting  civil  war,  as  the  entire  nation 
rose  in  arms.  The  coming  awful  struggle  subdued  all  other  inter- 
ests in  America,  while  in  Europe  "  kings  sat  still,  and  nations 
turned  to  watch  the  issue." 

On  the  15th  of  April,  1861,  President  Lincoln  issued  his  procla- 
mation, calling  a  special  session  of  Congress.  This  making  an 
election  necessary  in  Maryland,  Mr.  Davis  on  the  same  day  offered 
himself  as  a  candidate  for  Congress  on  the  basis  of  "  the  uncon- 
ditional maintenance  of  the  Union."  He  labored  with  great 
activity  until  the  day  of  election,  June  13th,  but  was  defeated  by 
Mr.  Henry  May,. the  conservative  Union  candidate.  Mr.  Davis, 
however,  did  not  cease  his  exertions,  but  supported  Mr.  Lincoln's 
administration  with  untiring  zeal.  The  question  of  emancipation 
did  not  at  first  enter  into  the  strife,  and  not  for  some  time  after 
the  battle  of  Antietam  was  it  agitated  in  Maryland.  At  length, 
early  in  1863,  it  was  mooted,  its  advocates  at  first  being  very  few  in 
number.  Mr.  Davis  gave  to  the  measure  his  most  earnest  support, 
and  in  the  campaign  of  1863  worked  with  prodigious  industry  on 
the  platform  of  "immediate  emancipation  by  constitutional  means." 
After  extraordinary  exertions  on  bis  part,  not  only  visiting  all 
sections  of  the  State  to  address  popular  meetings,  but  directing  the 
principal  correspondence,  and  writing  leading  articles  for  the  news- 
papers, he  beheld  the  cause  of  immediate  emancipation  completely 
successful.  He  was  returned  to  the  thirty-eighth  Congress  by  the 
Unconditional  Union  party.  In  this,  his  last  public  function,  he 
stood  an  acknowledged  leader  of  the  House  of  Representatives,  and 
was  looked  upon  as  one  certain  of  much  higher  political  distinction 
than  he  had  already  won.  At  the  close  of  the  thirty-eighth  Con- 
gress he  retired  from  public  life.  His  excessive  labors,  and  the 
excitement  and  anxiety  of  the  past  few  years,  had  worn  upon  his 
strength,  and  he  had  determined  to  visit  Europe  in  the  spring  of 
1866,  to  remain  some  length  of  time.  He  was  suddenly  seized  with 
illness  toward  the  latter  part  of  December,  1865,  but  was  not  con- 
sidered in  serious  danger  until  the  day  preceding  his  death.  He 
died  on  Saturday,  December  30th,  aged  forty-eight  years.     Unusual 


honors  were  paid  to  his  memory.  His  funeral  was  largely  attended 
by  members  of  both  Houses  of  Congress,  and  by  cabinet  ministers. 
The  Legislatures  of  several  States  passed  resolutions  of  regret  for  his 
loss,  and  in  the  National  House  of  Representatives,  an  oration  on 
his  life  and  character  was  delivered  by  Hon.  John  A.  J.  Creswell, 
of  Maryland,  on  the  22d  of  February,  1866. 

Mr.  Davis  was  twice  married ;  his  second  wife,  Mrs.  Nancy  Davis, 
daughter  of  John  B.  Morris,  of  this  city,  resides  in  Baltimore  with 
her  two  daughters. 

Beside  the  published  speeches  of  Mr.  Davis,  he  wrote  several 
pamphlets  on  political  subjects,  or,  on  matters  relating  to  the  Prot- 
estant Episcopal  Church,  of  which  he  was  an  earnest  member.  He 
also,  in  1852,  published  a  large  work  in  one  volume,  the  result  of 
researches  of  historical  nature,  entitled  "  the  War  of  Ormuzd  and 
Ahriman  in  the  nineteenth  century." 

The  time  has  not  yet  arrived,  and  probably  is  still  distant,  when 
an  impartial  estimate  will  be  formed  of  Henry  Winter  Davis.  He 
nourished  at  the  most  momentous  period  of  our  national  history, 
when  the  passions  of  men  were  most  violently  excited.  But 
probably  all  parties  will  agree  in  according  to  him  high  resolve  and 
unflinching  courage,  untiring  industry  and  perseverance,  much 
learning  and  cultivation,  excellence  of  private  character,  and 
striking  and  brilliant  gifts -as  an  American  orator  and  statesman. 


The  late  Benjamin  Deford,  son  of  Benjamin  and  Ann  TIntton 
Deford,  was  born  in  Anne  Arundel  county,  Maryland,  in  1799,  and 
at  the  time  of  his  death  which  occurred  in  this  city,  April  17th, 
1870,  had  filled  the  allotted  measure  of  ripe  three-score  and  ten,  the 
whole  of  which  long  term,  from  the  age  of  fourteen,  had  been  spent 
in  Baltimore.  In  February,  1810,  having  had  the  misfortune  to  be 
deprived  by  death  of  both  his  parents,  he  was  taken  to  live  with 
his  maternal  uncle,  Richard  G.  Hutton,  who  resided  in  the  same 
neighborhood.  With  him  he  remained  for  three  years,  sometimes 
assisting  in  the  lighter  labors  of  the  farm,  suitable  to  his  years, 
occasionally  attending  the  village  school.  The  deficiencies  of  his 
early  education  Mr.  Deford  was  accustomed  to  deplore,  as  who  does 
not,  that  has  had  a  similar  experience  ?  These  deficiencies  could 
not  hide,  however,  the  native  vigor  of  his  shrewd  common  sense 
intellect,  particularly,  when  in  late  days,  at  meetings  of  the  Balti- 
more and  Ohio  Railroad  Directors,  and  on  other  occasions  when  busi- 
ness men  were  met  together  to  discuss  business  projects,  Mr.  Deford, 
in  homeliest  phrase,  but  with  unmistakable  clearness  of  mental 
vision,  foresight  and  sagacity,  would  unfold  the  plans  which  he  con- 
sidered were  best  adapted  to  further  the  enterprise  they  had  in  hand. 

In  May,  1813,  he  came  from  his  uncle's  house  in  Anne  Arundel, 
to  Baltimore,  and  was  placed  in  the  store  of  James  C.  Doddrcll,  to 
learn  the  business  of  currying  and  manufacturing  leather.  In 
January,  1823,  he  set  up  in  business  for  himself,  in  a  small  way,  on 
the  present  site  of  the  large  and  handsome  warehouse,  at  the  corner 
of  Calvert  and  Lombard  streets,  where  the  hide  and  leather  trade 
in  which  he  engaged,  and  which  he  successfully  prosecuted  for  half  a 
century,  is  still  being  extensively  carried  on  by  his  sons. 

Mr.  Deford  accumulated  a  large  fortune  by  the  simple  but,  in 
these  speculative  days,  too  often  neglected  and  underrated  means  of 
thrift,  perseverance  and  honesty.  As  his  wealth  increased,  the  same 
shrewd,  practical  judgment  in  business  matters,  which  distinguished 
him  through  life,  guided  him  in  enterprises  of  wider  scope  and 
greater  moment  to  the  community.  He  took  an  active  part  in  pro- 


moting  works  of  public  improvement,  particularly  steamship  and 
railroad  lines.  He  was  for  many  years  a  prominent  Director  in  the 
Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  Company,  in  the  progress  and  de- 
velopment of  which  great  work,  of  vital  importance  to  the  trade  and 
prosperity  of  Baltimore,  he  felt  the  deepest  interest,  and  where  his 
services  were  of  great  value.  He  was  also  one  of  the  founders  and 
the  largest  owner  of  the  Boston  Steamship  Company,  and  one  of  the 
fine  steamers  which  compose  the  line  bears  his  name.  Mr.  Deford 
also  gave  proofs  of  his  enterprise  in  the  erection  of  two  large  cotton 
mills  at  Ellicott  city,  Maryland,  the  first  of  which  was  destroyed  by 
lire  in  1866.  Being  rebuilt  the  following  year,  it  was  again  de- 
stroyed this  time  by  flood,  in  July,  1868,  involving  a  loss  of  more 
than  $350,000.  The  day  of  this  occurrence  will  be  long  and  sadly 
remembered  in  the  beautiful  valley  of  the  Patapsco,  along  whose 
pleasant  banks  the  flood  scattered  wide-spread  ruin  and  desolation, 
as  well  as  in  the  city  of  Baltimore,  which  also  suffered  heavily 
through  the  sudden  rise  in  the  waters  of  Jones's  Falls,  inundating 
the  lower  portion  of  the  city.  The  loss  of  life,  as  well  as  of  property, 
occasioned  by  this  flood  was  very  great,  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Elli- 
cott city,  and  at  other  points  lower  down,  on  the  Fatapsco,  traces  of 
the  disaster  may  still  be  seen,  which  it  will  take  years  to  obliterate. 
Mr.  Deford  was  a  Director  in  the  Mount  Vernon  Manufacturing 
Company,  and  one  of  the  founders  and  Directors  of  the  First 
National  Bank  of  Baltimore,  and  he  was  also  a  Director  in  the 
Mechanics  Bank,  the  Savings  Bank,  the  Equitable  Insurance  Com- 
pany, and  in  various  other  corporations. 

Among  those  institutions  of  benevolence  and  charity,  which  were 
fostered  by  his  liberality,  Mr.  Deford  took  an  especial  interest  in  the 
House  of  Refuge,  established  for  the  reclamation  and  reformation  of 
juvenile  offenders  and  those  unfortunate  waifs  of  society,  who,  in 
the  absence  of  parental  restraints  and  home  influences,  grow  up, 
neglected,  in  the  vagabondage  of  the  streets,  until  they  graduate 
thorough  proficients  in  the  school  of  crime.  Mr.  Deford  felt  that 
no  more  useful  work  could  be  undertaken  than  the  rescue .  and 
reformation  of  this  unfortunate  class,  and  consequently  the  House  of 
Refuge,  a  public  institution  especially  designed  for  this  purpose,  re- 
ceived his  active  encouragement  and  support.  Mr.  Deford's  general 
charities  were  as  diffusive  as  they  were  unostentatious,  amounting 
during  the  last  ten  years  of  his  life  to  thousands  of  dollars  an- 

He  died  April  17th,  1870,  leaving  a  large  estate,  the  accumulation 
of  years  of  patient  industry,  of  prudent  foresight,  and  of  judicious 



*>f  . 


George  Nathaniel  Eaton  was  born  in  the  city  of  New  York, 
December  23d,  1811.  His  father  was  a  native  of  Massachusetts, 
and  his  mother  of  Connecticut.  Both  parents  were  descended  from 
the  earliest  Puritan  colonists,  and  belonged  to  families  well  known 
and  respected  in  their  neighborhood. 

Mr.  Eaton  received  as  good  an  education  as  was  to  be  procured  at 
that  day  outside  the  walls  of  a  college.  A  part  of  his  youth  was 
passed  at  the  homestead  of  his  mother,  near  Bridgeport,  Connecticut, 
where  he  attended  the  district  school  in  the  country,  or  a  higher  one 
in  that  town.  Subsequently  he  pursued  more  advanced  studies  in 
an  academy  in  New  York.  Before  he  reached  the  age  of  fifteen  he 
commenced  a  clerkship  to  mercantile  business,  and  was  thus  engaged 
in  commercial  houses  in  New  York  until  after  he  reached  his 
majority,  by  which  experience  he  obtained,  under  the  guidance  of 
intelligent  and  systematic  merchants,  a  thorough  acquaintance  with 
all  the  details  of  business. 

In  the  year  1834,  while  on  a  visit  to  Baltimore,  he  was  invited  by 
the  late  David  Stewart  to  study  law  in  his  office  with  a  view 
to  adopt  that  profession.  The  invitation  was  accepted,  and  Mr. 
Eaton  removed  to  this  city,  in  which  he  has  ever  since  resided.  He 
devoted  himself  with  great  assiduity  to  his  new  study,  and  his 
progress  and  prospects  were  encouraging.  But  after  a  little  more 
than  a  year  thus  employed,  he  received  an  advantageous  offer  to 
join  his  brothers,  who  were  already  engaged  in  business  in  Balti- 
more ;  and  deeming  this  opportunity  as  opening  a  readier  and  more 
assured  career  to  prosperity  than  the  practice  of  the  law,  he  relin- 
quished, with  reluctance,  the  latter,  and  returned  to  his  former  voca- 
tion. In  the  business  thus  undertaken,  he  has  continued  to  the 
present  time,  making  a  commercial  life  of  over  forty  years. 

Mr.  Eaton  combined  with  thorough  business  habits  a  love  of 
reading  and  study,  which  he  gratified  to  an  extent  not  common 
with  active  business  men,  and  among  the  subjects  that  enlisted  his 
interest  was  that  of  education.     This  characteristic  prompted  his 


former  fellow  student,  the  late  "William  George  Baker,  then  the 
President  of  the  Board  of  Commissioners  of  Public  Schools,  to  sug- 
gest to  him  the  propriety  of  his  taking  a  part  in  the  cause  of  public  ' 
education,  and  at  Mr.  Baker's  instance  he  was  elected  by  the  City 
Council  in  1854  one  of  the  Commissioners.  This  office  he  filled 
until  1865,  during  nine  years  of  which  term  he  held  the  position  of 
President  of  the  Board,  being  annually  elected  with  unanimity  by 
the  Commissioners.  He  was  at  last  compelled  to  decline  a  re- 
election and  retire  from  the  Board  on  account  of  ill  health. 

During  these  eleven  years  he  was  unremitting  in  his  endeavors  to 
promote  the  great  cause  of  education,  and  to  render  the  manage- 
ment of  its  interests  energetic  and  effective.  His  exertions  were 
gratefully  recognized  by  the  public,  and  his  relations  with  his  fellow- 
commissioners,  with  teachers  and  pupils,  were  always  pleasant  and 
friendly.  President  of  the  Board  all  through  the  time  of  the  civil 
war,  his  duties  in  that  position,  as  well  as  those  of  all  the  com- 
missioners, were  important  and  delicate,  in  co-operating  with  the 
public  authorities  to  prevent  disorder  in  the  schools  and  to  keep 
them  to  their  proper  work,  which  was  perhaps  as  useful  a  service 
as  he  could  have  rendered  to  the  community  during  that  critical 

In  1865  Mr.  Eaton  was  unexpectedly  awarded  the  degree  of 
Master  of  Arts,  honoris  causa,  conferred  upon  him  by  Harvard 
College,  "in  recognition,"  as  it  was  stated  by  the  President,  Rev. 
Dr.  Hill,  in  transmitting  the  diploma,  "of  his  long  and  faithful 
services  in  the  cause  of  public  education,  and  in  acknowledgment  of 
his  worth  as  a  citizen  and  as  a  man," — a  valued  compliment,  coming 
form  this  time-honored  institution. 

On  the  visit  to  this  country  in  1867  of  Mr.  George  Peabody,  his 
early  friend,  Mr.  Eaton  was  appointed  by  him  a  trustee  of  the  Pea- 
body  Educational  Fund  for  the  Southern  States  to  represent  the 
State  of  Maryland  in  that  trust.  In  the  duties  of  this  position  he 
has  taken  the  warmest  interest,  and  he  is  a  member  of  the  Executive 
Committee  of  the  Board.  At  the  commencement  of  its  operations 
he  made  a  journey  among  the  States  which  are  participants  in  the 
benefits  of  the  trust,  to  confer  with  their  leading  men  as  to  the  most 
judicious  mode  of  its  administration,  and  on  his  return  made  a  Re- 
port to  the  Board,  giving  the  result  of  his  observations. 

Mr.  Eaton  was  for  many  years  a  Director,  and  for  a  time  a  Vice- 
President,  of  the  Baltimore  Board  of  Trade,  and  for  several  years 
Director  in  the  Union  Bank.  He  is  at  present  a  Director  of  the 
Savings  Bank  of  Baltimore  and  of  the  Maryland  Institution  for  the 


Instruction  of  the  Blind.  In  1844  he  married  the  daughter  of 
William  E.  Mayhew,  an  old  and  respected  merchant  of  Baltimore, 
and  at  the  time  of  his  death  President  of  the  Peabody  Institute 
and  of  the  Farmers  and  Planters  Bank.  In  his  religious  views  Mr. 
Eaton  is  a  Unitarian. 

Though  of  decided  political  opinions,  Mr.  Eaton  has  never  been 
an  active  politician.  On  some  special  occasions  he  has  been  identi- 
fied with  party  action,  but  has  never  sought  office,  being  disinclined 
by  temperament  to  the  excitement  of  public  life.  Always  in  favor 
of  upholding  the  constitutional  provision  as  to  slavery  within  the 
States,  he  was  never  an  admirer  of  that  system,  and  he  accordingly 
sympathized  in  the  efforts  made  to  prevent  its  extension,  and  he  did 
not  waver  in  his  devotion  to  the  cause  of  the  Union  when  he  con- 
sidered its  integrity  was  put  in  peril. 

The  even  tenor  and  regular  routine  of  a  purely  commercial  career 
rarely  furnish  many  of  those  striking  incidents  and  salient  points 
which  add  interest  to  a  biography.  Business  demands  from  its 
followers  a  close  observance  and  undivided  attention  as  the  condi- 
tions of  success,  and  the  ardor  of  the  pursuit  often — perhaps  too 
often — becomes  so  absorbing  as  to  disqualify  them  for  other  occupa- 
tions and  legitimate  enjoyments.  In  this  respect  Mr.  Eaton's  life 
has  been  exceptionally  fortunate,  and  he  has  been  able,  without 
detriment  to  his  more  urgent  affairs,  to  find  leisure  to  devote  to 
those  literary  pursuits  to  which  his  taste  has  always  inclined  him ; 
and  he  has,  moreover,  at  various  times,  enjoyed  the  pleasures  and 
advantages  of  foreign  travel,  including  a  winter's  residence  in  the 
Island  of  Madeira, — thus  agreeably  diversifying  a  life  otherwise 
unmarked  by  noteworthy  events.  At  the  present  time  he  has 
withdrawn  from  an  active  participation  in  business  in  consequence 
of  impaired  health. 



James  Isom  Fisher  was  born  in  Baltimore,  on  the  11th  of  October, 
1798.  In  the  year  1815,  he  entered  the  counting-house  of  Messrs. 
R.  II.  &  William  Douglass,  then  among  the  most  prominent  and 
respected  shipping  merchants  of  the  city.  After  the  death  of  the 
junior  partner,  in  1821,  the  business  was  continued  by  Mr.  Richard 
H.  Douglass,  with  whom  Mr.  Fisher  retained  his  connection,  and 
ultimately  formed  a  co-partnership  under  the  style  of  R.  II.  Doug- 
lass &  Company.  From  the  dissolution  of  this  firm,  by  the  death  of 
Mr.  Douglass,  in  1829,  Mr.  Fisher  carried  on  the  shipping  and  com- 
mission business,  in  his  own  name,  until  1854,  when  he  took  into 
partnership  with  him  his  sons  Robert  A.  and  Richard  D.  Fisher, 
under  the  firm  of  James  I.  Fisher  &  Sons.  In  1863,  Mr.  Fisher 
retired  from  business,  and  the  house  now  bears  the  name  of  Fisher 
Brothers  &  Company,  and  is  extensively  engaged  in  the  West  India 

Forty-eight  years  of  active  business  life,  in  all  its  stages,  secured 
to  Mr.  Fisher  not  only  the  prosperity  and  leading  position  he  de- 
served, but  a  reputation,  justly  unsurpassed,  for  scrupulous  probity 
and  honor.  Educated  to  regard  his  calling  as  a  liberal  profession, 
he  sought  its  rewards  in  none  but  its  legitimate  pursuits,  and  it 
would  be  difficult  to  find  a  better  illustration  than  his  career,  of  the 
reasonable  certainty  with  which  success  may,  by  such  means,  be 
assured,  where  intelligence  and  integrity  are  combined  with  pru- 
dence, industry  and  system.  The  well-balanced  intellect  and  char- 
acter, so  efficient  and  so  fully  recognized  in  the  commercial  life  of 
Mr.  Fisher,  were  equally  conspicuous,  at  the  same  time,  in  all  his 
modest  and  exemplary  relations  to  society.  His  firmness  and  stead- 
fastness of  purpose  and  conviction  were  always  happily  tempered  by 
fairness  and  moderation  and  a  proper  regard  for  the  rights  and 
opinions  of  others.  It  is  thus  that  the  rivalries  and  collisions  of  a 
long  and  busy  life  have  left  no  animosities  to  cloud  his  retirement, 
and  the  respect  in  which  he  is  held  is  as  nearly  universal  and  un- 
qualified as  may  be,  among  men. 



The  Baptist  Church  in  Baltimore  has  counted  among  its  mem- 
bers some  of  our  most  eminent  citizens,  and  although  as  a  sect  it 
was  very  limited  in  the  early  history  of  the  city,  it  now  exhibits  a 
strong  and  rapidly  progressive  growth.  To  this  end  no  one  has 
contributed  so  materially  as  the  Rev.  Dr.  Fuller.  He  was  born  in 
Beaufort,  South  Carolina,  in  1808.  At  an  early  age  he  prepared 
for  college,  and  received  his  degree  at  Harvard  University  in  the 
class  of  1824,  although  he  left  college  at  the  end  of  his  junior  year. 
While  at  Cambridge,  he  was  distinguished  for  scholarship,  and  the 
versatility  of  talent  he  displayed.  On  his  return  to  his  native  State 
he  adopted  the  law  as  his  profession,  and  having  completed  his 
studies  was  admitted  to  the  bar  before  the  age  of  twenty-one,  as 
required  by  the  laws  of  the  State.  He  at  once  entered  on  an  exten- 
sive practice  which  grew  so  rapidly  that,  at  the  third  term  of  the 
court  after  he  was  admitted,  he  had  one  hundred  and  fifty  cases  to 
argue.  While  thus  engaged,  with  every  prospect  of  future  eminence 
as  a  lawyer,  he  was  prostrated  by  a  severe  illness,  during  which  his 
mind  was  much  exercised  on  the  subject  of  religion.  On  his  re- 
covery, he  decided  to  join  the  Episcopal  Church,  and  some  years 
later  was  converted  to  the  Baptist  persuasion.  Having  been  bap- 
tized, and  entering  ardently  into  the  communion  he  had  chosen,  he 
abandoned  his  legal  pursuits,  and  diligently  studied  theology  for  a 
year  in  his  preparation  for  the  ministry.  He  was  then  ordained 
and  took  charge  of  the  Beaufort  Baptist  Church.  During  the  time 
that  he  had  charge  of  it,  lie  extended  the  sphere  of  his  labors  be- 
yond his  own  parish,  and  as  a  missionary  displayed  great  zeal  in 
preaching  the  gospel  among  the  slaves.  In  1836  he  proceeded  to 
Europe,  spending  a  year  there  in  consequence  of  impaired  health, 
and  on  his  return  resumed  his  office  with  great  effect. 

Since  1847,  Dr.  Fuller  has  resided  in  Baltimore,  taking;  charge  of 

'  *  ©  © 

the  Seventh  Baptist  Church,  and  laboring  diligently  and  with 
marked  ability  and  success  in  building  up  the  sect  to  which  he  is 
devoted.     When  he  came  to  this  city  the  Baptists  were,  compared 


with  other  religious  denominations,  very  few  in  numbers,  but  now 
ten  or  twelve  prosperous  churches  attest  the  growth  of  the  sect,  and 
Dr.  Fuller  is  justly  regarded  as  the  most  influential  of  its  pastors. 
Honorary  degrees  have  been  conferred  upon  him  by  Harvard  and 
Columbia  Colleges.  Dr.  Fuller  is  a  powerful  pulpit  orator  and  dis- 
putant. He  has  published  several  works :  his  principal  writings 
being  "  Correspondence  with  Bishop  England  concerning  the  Roman 
Chancery:"  "Correspondence  with  Dr.  Way  land  on  Domestic 
Slavery ;"  "  Sermons  ;"  "  Letters,"  &c.  He  is  also  noted  for  his  collo- 
quial powers,  and  wide  culture  of  mind.  The  society  of  which  Dr. 
Fuller  is  pastor  is  now  erecting  a  new  structure  on  the  corner  of 
Eutaw  and  Dolphin  streets,  facing  Eutaw  Square.  It  is  entirely 
built  of  white  marble,  with  a  lofty  pointed  spire  of  the  same 
material,  and  when  completed,  as  it  will  be  at  no  distant  day,  will 
present  one  of  the  noblest  and  most  beautiful  church  edifices  in  the 


Horatio  E".  Gambrill,  eldest  son  of  John  and  Abigail  Gambrill, 
was  born  in  Anne  Arundel  comity,  Maryland,  on  the  first  day  of 
December,  1810.  In  the  following  year  his  parents  removed  to 
Baltimore  comity,  about  four  miles  from  the  city.  Here  he  received 
an  elementary  education  at  the  country  schools,  until  he  reached 
the  age  of  sixteen,  when  he  was  placed  by  his  father  as  an  appren- 
tice to  the  Savage  Manufacturing  Company  of  Maryland,  to  learn 
the  business  of  the  cotton  manufacture.  The  term  of  his  appren- 
ticeship endured  between  five  and  six  years  ;  during  which  time  he 
was  constantly  and  industriously  employed  in  the  various  depart- 
ments of  the  business.  In  accordance  with  the  custom  of  the  time, 
the  young  apprentice  was  employed  in  many  duties  which  would 
probably  be  looked  upon  by  many  young  men  of  the  present  day  as 
menial ;  but  which,  in  reality,  aided  no  little  in  fostering  habits  of 
industry  and  developing  self-reliance  and  independence  of  character. 
The  salary  he  received  at  this  time  was  about  $100  per  annum  for 
board  and  clothing. 

At  the  age  of  twenty,  young  Gambrill  was  promoted  by  the  agent 
of  the  Compan}7,  Mr.  Amos  A.  Williams,  to  the  responsible  position 
of  overseer  of  the  spinning  department,  and  in  about  a  year  more 
received  further  promotion,  and  was  made  overseer  of  the  carding 
department,  the  most  important  branch  of  the  manufacture.  After 
occupying  this  situation  for  about  two  years,  he  left  the  employment 
of  the  Savage  Company,  taking  with  him  an  excellent  letter  of 
recommendation  from  their  agent. 

Mr.  Gambrill  then  visited  the  West,  with  the  intention  of  taking 
up  his  residence  in  that  section,  but  after  a  short  absence  returned 
to  Maryland,  and  accepted  the  superintendence  of  the  old  Jericho 
Factory,  situated  on  the  Little  Gunpowder  Falls  in  Baltimore 
count\\  In  the  year  183G  he  resigned  this  position,  and  in  connec- 
tion with  David  Carroll,  commenced,  in  a  very  small  way,  the  manu- 
facture of  cotton  yarns  at  a  place  called   Stony  Works,  near  the 


city  of  Baltimore.  The  buildings  occupied  for  this  purpose  were 
those  afterwards  used  by  Michael  Hurley  as  an  ice  house. 

An  incident  which  happened  to  him  at  this  period,  is  worthy  of 
record  as  exhibiting  the  independent  spirit  of  the  young  manufac- 
turer, and  its  ready  appreciation  by  one  who  was  no  ill  judge  of 
character.  One  day,  as  he  was  driving  a  one-horse  wagon,  sitting 
astride  a  round  bale  of  cotton  which  he  was  taking  to  his  factory, 
he  was  stopped  by  the  founder  of  a  prominent  commercial  house  in 
Baltimore,  a  gentleman  still  living  at  an  advanced  age,  who  said  to 
him:  "  Don't  you  know,  young  man,  that  that  is  the  most  honorable 
position  you  can  occupy  ?"  Mr.  Gambrill  was  much  gratified  at 
being  thus  noticed  and  encouraged  by  one  so  much  his  senior  and  a 
leading  merchant ;  and  to  this  day  he  never  fails  to  revert  to  it  with 

In  the  small  business,  thus  commenced  he  was  greatly  assisted  by 
his  old  employers,  the  Savage  Company,  who  furnished  all  the  requi- 
site machinery  on  the  most  reasonable  terms  and  at  long  credit. 
The  last  of  the  notes  which  were  given  in  this  transaction  was 
paid  exactly  two  years  in  advance  of  its  maturity. 

After  continuing  this  business  with  encouraging  success  for  two 
years,  Mr.  Gambrill  leased  from  the  trustees  of  Charles  T.  Ellicott 
the  property  then  known  as  the  Old  Whitehall  Flouring  Mill,  on 
Jones's  Falls,  and,  in  connection  with  others,  built  the  Whitehall 
Cotton  Factory,  where  in  1839  they  commenced,  with  five  looms, 
the  manufacture  of  cotton  duck  for  sails.  In  1842  they  purchased 
the  Woodberry  property  from  Messrs.  Collins  and  Pettigrew  of 
North  Carolina,  and  in  the  following  year  built  the  Woodberry  Fac- 
tory for  the  purpose  of  carrying  on  the  manufacture  on  a  more 
extensive  scale. 

In  1815  he  doubled  the  producing  capacity  of  this  factory,  and 
the  water  power  proving  insufficient,  steam  was  introduced  in  the 
following  year.  In  1817,  in  connection  with  other  parties,  Mr.  Gam- 
brill  purchased  from  Hugh  Jenkins,  the  Laurel  Mill  on  Jones's 
Falls,  and  soon  after  built  the  Mount  Vernon  Mill,  No.  1,  converting, 
later,  the  old  flouring  mill  into  a  cotton  factory. 

In  1852,  Mr.  Gambrill,  with  others,  purchased  the  Washington 
Factory  on  the  same  stream,  and  proceeded  to  rebuild  and  enlarge 
the  establishment,  in  which  he  put  in  operation  52  looms  and  3,500 
spindles  for  the  manufacture  of  the  lighter  numbers  of  cotton  duck. 
In  the  next  year  the  Whitehall  Factory  was  destroyed  by  fire,  and 
upon  its  site  was  erected  the  Clipper  Mill,  a  one-storied  building, 
600  feet  in  length  and  50  feet  wide,  with  such  expedition  that  the 

HORATIO    N.     GAMBRILL.  257 

machinery  commenced  running  in  less  than  six  months  from  the 
day  of  the  fire. 

Shortly  after  the  completion  of  the  Clipper  Mill,  Mr.  Gamhrill 
built  the  Park  Mill  at  Woodbeny,  where  he  commenced  the  manu- 
facture of  netting  for  seines  on  the  machinery  invented  and  patented 
by  the  late  John  McMullen  of  Baltimore. 

Both  branches  of  manufacture  continued  to  increase  until  the 
year  1865,  when  Mr.  G-ambrill  sold  out  his  entire  interest  to  his 
partner,  Wm.  E.  Hooper,  and  commenced  building  the  Druid  Mill, 
at  present  the  largest  manufacturing  establishment  in  Maryland. 
This  mill  was  put  in  operation  in  April,  1866,  and  has  now  running 
eight  lappers,  sixty-six  carding  engines,  eight  thousand  spindles,  and 
one  hundred  duck  looms,  consuming  twenty  bales  of  cotton  dail}*, 
and  turning  out  goods  worth,  at  present  prices,  $55,000  per  month, 
most  of  which  are  sold  in  Philadelphia,  New  York,  and  Boston. 
The  establishment  and  machinery  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  $170,000, 
and  gives  employment  to  three  hundred  persons. 

Before  the  Old  Whitehall  Factory,  previously  mentioned,  was 
built,  all,  or  nearlj7  all,  the  cotton  duck  used  in  this  country  was 
manufactured  by  the  Passaic  and  Phoenix  mills  in  Paterson,  New 
Jersey,  and  the  prices  charged  by  those  establishments  greatly  hin- 
dered the  extension  of  the  trade ;  but  soon  after  the  operations  of 
the  Whitehall  Factory  placed  an  equally  good  article  in  the  market 
at  a  much  lower  price,  the  Maryland  goods  found  such  extensive 
favor  as  to  almost  entirely  drive  from  the  market  the  productions  of 
the  Russian  and  English  looms,  from  which  the  mercantile  marine 
of  the  country  had  hitherto  been  almost  exclusively  supplied.  This 
continued  until  after  the  commencement  of  the  war  of  1861,  when 
the  price  of  the  raw  material  rose  so  high  as  greatly  to  check  the 
manufacture  and  bring  the  foreign  goods  into  the  market  again.  In 
1866  cotton  fell  to  about  forty  cents,  when  the  manufacture  and 
consumption  of  cotton  duck  revived,  and  at  the  present  time  the 
domestic  article  has  again  nearly  driven  the  foreign  from*  the  market. 
The  Passaic  and  Phoenix  mills  have  also  ceased  producing  this  de- 
scription of  goods,  being  unable  to  compete  with  the  Baltimore 
manufacturers  in  the  markets  of  Philadelphia,  New  York  and  Boston. 
Large  quantities  of  these  goods  are  also  exported  to  the  British  Pro- 
vinces, and  to  South  America,  and  they  find  considerable  sale  in  the 
markets  of  Liverpool  and  London. 

All  this  trade  is  supplied  by  the  mills  on  Jones's  Falls;  the 
demand  in  Baltimore  amounting  to  about  $100,000  yearly,  and  for 
the  eastern  cities  about  a  million  and  a  half  dollars.     The  annual 


consumption  of  cotton  by  these  mills  is  about  24,000  bales,  or 
10,800,000  pounds,  which  at  the  present  price  of  sixteen  cents, 
amounts  to  $1,728,000,  from  which  the  goods  produced  reach  a 
value  of  not  less  than  $2,500,000.  The  expenditure  for  labor  in 
the  factories  alone  is  about  $300,000  per  annum. 

This  business,  now  so  extensive  and  valuable  to  the  city  of  Balti- 
more is  the  legitimate  offspring  of  the  five  looms  started  in  the  old 
"Whitehall  Factory,  in  the  year  1839.  Although  during  nearly  the 
whole  of  Mr.  GambriU's  business  life,  other  persons  were  associated 
with  him,  yet  to  his  industry  and  perseverance  is  mainly  due  these 
great  results.  Brief  as  this  memoir  is,  we  know  of  none  which  con- 
tains a  more  valuable  lesson  to  young  men  entering  business  life,  of 
what  results  may  be  obtained  by  diligent  devotion  to  their  business, 
by  freedom  from  that  foolish  pride  which  contemns  honest  manual 
labor  as  unworthy  drudgery,  by  that  ennobling  self-reliance  which 
springs  from  thorough  knowledge;  by  enterprise,  courageous,  but 
not  rash,  and  by  integrity  which  no  temptation  can  make  swerve 
from  the  right. 

During  the  early  period  of  his  business,  several  very  advantageous 
offers  were  made  to  Mr.  Gambrill  to  leave  Maryland,  and  prosecute 
his  manufacture  in  Massachusetts.  A  capital  of  $200,000  was 
offered  for  this  purpose  ;  but  after  duly  weighing  the  proposals,  he 
preferred  to  remain  in  his  native  State. 

Soon  after  the  building  of  the  Woodberry  Factory  in  1843,  it 
was  deemed  necessary  to  have  a  church  for  the  religious  instruction 
of  the  operatives,  and  for  the  accommodation  of  other  persons  in 
the  neighborhood.  Measures  were  accordingly  taken  by  Mr.  Gam- 
brill,  which  resulted  in  the  erection  of  a  very  neat  church,  which 
was  used  as  a  place  of  worship  from  that  time  until  the  year  1867. 
At  this  time,  it  having  become  entirely  inadequate  to  meet  its 
purposes,  it  was  removed  to  give  place  to  the  large  and  elegant 
edifice  just  completed  on  the  old  site.  The  old  church  was  mainly 
built  by  Mr.  Gambrill  and  his  business  associates,  and  was  for 
several  years  used  as  a  place  of  worship  for  all  denominations  of 
Christians.  It  was  finally  presented,  together  with  the  lot  of 
ground  on  which  it  stands,  to  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church. 

Previous  to  the  inauguration  of  the  free  school  system  in  Balti- 
more county,  Mr.  Gambrill,  in  connection  with  his  business  asso- 
ciates, opened  a  school  at  Woodberry,  and  emplo}ring  a  teacher, 
gave  gratuitous  instruction  to  the  children  of  parents  in  their 
employ,  and  to  such  other  children  in  the  neighborhood  as  chose  to 

HORATIO    N.     GAM  BRILL.  259 

avail   themselves   of   the   opportunity.     This  school   was  continued 
until  the  inauguration  of  the  free  school  system  in  the  county. 

Mr.  Gambrill,  for  twenty  years  of  his  life,  was  actively  engaged 
in  the  Sunday  School  cause,  and,  in  connection  with  his  personal 
friend,  the  late  Rev.  E.  Y.  Eeese,  did  much  toward  building  up  the 
Sunday  School  at  \Voodberry,  which  is  now  one  of  the  most  pros- 
perous Sabbath  Schools  to  be  found  in  this  county. 

We  cannot  forbear  mentioning  an  instance  of  his  kindness  to 
those  who  faithfully  serve  him. 

Surely  nothing  would  so  reconcile  (and  prevent  the  many  con- 
flicts of)  labor  and  capital,  and  stimulate  emulation  and  mutual 
interest,  as  appreciative  notice,  and  judicious  reward  to  capable  and 
worthy  men.  In  1860,  the  mill  of  the  Savage  Manufacturing  Co., 
in  which  Air.  Gambrill  served  his  apprenticeship,  was  sold.  Subse- 
quently, Mr.  Gambrill  acquired  one-half  interest  in  the  mill,  and 
disposed  of  it  to  Messrs.  Donaldson  &  Burgee,  the  deserving  super- 
intendents of  the  "  Clipper"  and  the  "  Washington"  Mills.  The 
terms  were  so  generous  and  unexampled,  that  both  gentlemen 
achieved  a  brilliant  pecuniary  success,  and  gratefully  bore  testimony 
to  the  liberality  and  favor  of  their  employer. 

In  connection  with  another  party,  now  deceased,  several  valuable 
improvements  in  machinery  have  been  invented  by  Mr.  Gambrill ; 
among  others,  a  self-stripping  cotton  card,  the  right  of  which  he 
sold  in  England  for  $66,000,  and  from  which  he  receives,  in  the 
United  States,  an  annual  royalty  o*f  S4,000. 

Mr.  Gambrill  is  now  sixty  years  of  age ;  in  the  full  enjoyment  of 
excellent  health,  and  still  in  the  prime  vigor  of  his  bodily  and 
mental  faculties.  He  continues,  in  association  with  two  of  his  sons 
and  Henry  C.  Tudor,  the  prosecution  of  his  large  and  pros- 
perous business.  He  has  embarked  in  no  enterprise  or  speculation 
outside  of  his  legitimate  occupation,  the  cotton  manufacture,  to 
which  his  energies  are  still  devoted,  and  which  now  yields  him,  in 
an  ample  income,  the  well  earned  reward  of  his  active  life. 






John  W.  Garrett,  the  President  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio 
Railroad  Company,  was  born  in  the  City  of  Baltimore,  on  July  31st, 
1820.  He  was  the  second  son  of  the  late  Robert  Garrett,  a  wealthy 
merchant,  largely  engaged  in  foreign  and  domestic  commerce,  who, 
throughout  a  long  life,  enjoyed  the  respect  of  his  fellow  citizens  for 
his  intelligence,  enterprise  and  purity  of  character. 

John  W.  Garrett  was  educated  in  the  city  of  Baltimore,  until 
his  removal  to  Lafayette  College,  in  the  State  of  Pennsylvania, 
where  he  completed  his  studies.  On  his  return  home,  he  entered 
his  father's  counting  room,  and  became  a  partner  with  his  lather 
and  elder  brother,  Henry  S.  Garrett,  at  the  early  age  of  nineteen 
years,  in  the  firm  of  Robert  Garrett  &  Sons. 

Mr.  Robert  Garrett  knew,  thoroughly,  the  unlimited  resources  and 
production  of  the  Western  States,  and  understood  the  geographical 
advantages  which  Baltimore  enjoyed  as  their  market  and  place  of 
supply.  He  therefore  spared  no  pains  in  cultivating  close  relations 
between  the  City  of  Baltimore  and  the  communities  west  of  the 
Alleghany  Mountains,  and  gave  a  zealous  support  to  the  projects  for 
opening  those  communications  by  canal  and  railway,  which  were 
required  by  the  rapid  increase  in  the  population  of  the  States 
bordering  on  the  Ohio  river. 

J  lis  sons,  Henry  S.  Garrett  and  John  W.  Garrett,  shared  the 
opinions  of  their  father,  and,  when  they  entered  into  business  with 
him,  devoted  themselves  to  the  same  great  objects,  while,  by  their 
energy,  they  enlarged  the  scope  of  the  business  of  the  firm  of  Robert 
Garrett  &  Sons.  The  house  became  the  active  correspondents  and 
representatives  of  George  Peabody  &  Co.,  of  London,  and  of  other 
well  known  European  firms,  as  well  as  of  many  leading  mercantile 
firms,  in  the  Western  States,  and  held  a  leading  position  in  the 
commerce  of  the  city. 

"While   thus   engaged    in   active  commercial  life,  Mr.    John  W. 
Garrett  was  a  close  observer  of  the  progress  of  the  construction  of 
the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad.     This  work,  although  nominally 


opened  to  Wheeling,  in  1852,  remained  embarrassed  and  practically 
ineffective  to  as  late  a  period  as  1856.  Mr.  Garrett,  although 
solicited  to  take  part  in  its  affairs  at  an  earlier  day,  declined  to 
participate  in  the  contests  in  which  the  Company  was  engaged, 
until  1857,  when  he  was  induced  to  attend  a  meeting  of  the  Stock- 
holders, which  had  been  called  to  consider  its  affairs.  He  took  an 
active  pari;  in  the  discussions  which  arose  at  that  meeting.  He 
maintained  that,  although  the  stock  of  the  Company  was  owned  in 
part  by  the  State  of  Maryland,  and  in  part  by  the  City  of  Baltimore, 
as  well  as  by  individual  citizens,  yet  the  nature  of  the  ownership  of 
each  proprietor  was  the  same  ;  that  each  was  alike  interested  in  the 
profitable  management  of  the  Company,  and  that  a  similar  obliga- 
tion was  devolved  upon  the  representatives  of  each  class  of  propri- 
etors. He  insisted  that  it  was  the  duty  of  every  Board  of  Directors, 
by  whatsoever  constituency  its  members  were  elected,  to  employ  to 
the  best  and  most  profitable  advantage  the  property  committed  to 
its  charge  ;  to  maintain  a  just  proportion  between  the  expenses  and 
revenues  of  the  Company,  and  to  practice  the  exact  and  rigid 
economy,  in  dealing  with  its  property,  which  any  just  and  intelligent 
agent  would  employ  in  managing  property  belonging  to  himself. 

These  opinions  were  embodied  in  resolutions  which  were  adopted 
by  the  stockholders'  meeting  to  which  we  have  alluded.  They  form 
the  ground  work  of  that  policy  which  has,  after  a  struggle  of  thir- 
teen years,  made  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  m  Company  an 
unrivalled  example  of  successful  management. 

In  October,  1857,  the  stockholders  of  the  Company,  being  deter- 
mined to  give,  if  possible,  effect  to  the  resolutions  which  they  had 
adopted,  requested  Mr.  John  W.  Garrett  to  accept  the  office  of 
Director  in  the  Company.  He  did  not  shrink  from  the  performance 
of  the  laborious  duty,  which  he  had  foreseen  would  devolve  upon 
those  who  undertook  to  reform  the  management  of  the  Company 
and  to  conduct  it  solely  as  an  industrial  enterprise. 

The  embarrassment  in  which  the  Company  was  involved  was  of  the 
most  serious  character ;  and,  although  it  had  arisen  accidentally,  was 
difficult  to  remedy.  When  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  Com- 
pany was  incorporated,  in  the  year  1827,  it  was  believed  that  the 
sum  of  three  millions  of  dollars  would  suffice  to  construct  and  equip 
the  line  from  Baltimore  to  the  Ohio  river.  This  sum,  therefore, 
was  assumed  to  be  the  basis  upon  which  the  ratio  of  representation 
in  the  Board  of  Direction  ought  to  be  computed.  The  Legislature, 
with  great  wisdom,  provided  a  scale  of  representation  which  gave 
the   management   of    the    road    to    the    individual     stockholders, 

JOHN    W.    GARRETT.  263 

although  they  were  authorized  to  subscribe  to  one-half  part  only  of 
the  capital  stock  of  the  Company.  Xo  party  considerations  in- 
duced the  State  to  grant  the  charter  authorizing  the  construction 
of  the  road,  and  it  was  wisely  determined  to  place  the  management 
of  the  property  in  the  hands  of  those  who  were  personally  and  per- 
manently interested  in  its  productiveness,  rather  than  commit  it  to 
the  control  of  the  rapidly-changing  representatives  of  a  political 
body.  But,  unhappily,  the  estimates  made  of  the  real  cost  of  the 
road  were  not  well  founded,  and  it  was  soon  discovered  that  a  large 
increase  of  the  capital  stock  was  necessary  to  the  completion  of  the 
work.  The  stockholders  of  the  Company  were  unwilling  to  sacri- 
fice the  large  sums  of  money  which  they  had  already  invested ;  the 
public  clamored  for  the  completion  of  the  road ;  the  Legislature, 
less  wise  or  less  liberal  than  the  body  by  which  the  charter  had 
been  granted,  in  giving  new  aid,  and  in  authorizing  it  to  be  given 
by  the  City  of  Baltimore,  insisted  upon  increased  representation 
for  the  State  and  City;  whilst  the  friends  of  the  railroad  company 
omitted  to  reserve  any  right  to  increased  representation  to  the 
individual  stockholders  who  might  agree  to  increase  in  equal  or 
greater  ratio  their  ownership  in  the  stock  of  the  Company.  The 
result  was  that,  although  the  new  stock  subscribed  for  by  the  State 
and  the  aid  afforded  by  the  City  of  Baltimore  were  insufficient  to 
complete  the  road,  and  means  were  provided  by  the  individual 
stockholders,  thus  making  them  the  owners  of  the  majority  in 
value  of  the  whole  stock  in  the  Company,  yet  they  were,  in  fact, 
represented  only  by  a  minority  in  the  Board  of  Direction — the 
State  and  Cit}T  having,  together,  in  the  year  1857,  eighteen  Direc- 
tors, while  the  individual  Stockholders,  owning  a  majority  of  the 
stock,  could  be  represented  only  by  twelve  Directors. 

The  evil  effects  of  this  condition  of  affairs  were  manifest  when  the 
State  of  Maryland  and  the  City  of  Baltimore  were  agreed  in  politi- 
cal opinion.  A  majority  of  the  Board  of  Directors  became,  of  course, 
a  part  of  a  compact  political  organization,  which  could,  at  its  plea- 
sure, control  the  management  of  the  Company.  When  the  State  of 
Maryland  and  the  City  of  Baltimore  disagreed  in  political  opinion, 
the  plurality  of  votes  in  the  Board  remained  with  the  representa- 
tives of  individual  stockholders ;  but,  nevertheless,  they  were  unable 
to  adopt  or  maintain  any  policy,  without  the  concurrence  of  the 
political  directors,  appointed  by  the  State  or  city,  or  without  the  aid 
of  so  many  individual  members  from  one  or  the  other  of  these  dele- 
gations as  would  give  a  majority  of  votes  to  the  directors  represent- 
ing the  stockholders. 


Those  who  are  familiar  with  the  history  of  internal  improvement 
corporations  in  this  country  can  he  at  no  loss  to  conjecture  the  diffi- 
culties arising  from  this  circumstance,  if  no  others  had  existed,  when 
Mr.  Garrett  became  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Directors  in  1857. 
The  corporation  was  in  hourly  danger  of  becoming  one  of  the  prizes 
of  the  political  arena.  Its  resources,  though  undeveloped,  were 
large ;  its  revenues,  though  meagre  in  comparison  with  their  present 
amount,  were  far  greater  than  those  of  any  other  corporation  in  the 
State,  the  patronage  of  the  company  was  very  great,  and  a  large 
number  of  men  in  the  city  of  Baltimore  and  in  the  western  coun- 
ties were  in  its  employment.  It  was,  as  has  been  shown,  practically 
subject  to  political  control. 

It  cannot  be  pretended  that  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad 
Company  escaped  the  ruin,  which  political  management  would  have 
brought  upon  it,  because  of  the  self-denial  practiced  by  any  one  of 
the  political  parties,  which  elected  the  majorities  of  its  Directors. 
Each  party,  as  it  rose  and  fell  in  the  State  of  Maryland,  endeavored 
to  obtain  control  of  the  Company,  but  each  was  foiled  by  the  inde- 
pendent action  of  some  of  the  political  members  of  the  Board,  who 
deemed  it  to  be  their  duty  to  prevent  the  subordination  of  the  Com- 
pany to  political  rule. 

Mr.  Garrett,  however,  plainly  perceived  that  the  Company  could 
not  always  reckon  upon  escaping  from  this  danger;  and  therefore, 
from  an  early  day,  after  his  election  as  a  Director,  he  considered  the 
necessity  of  taking  such  measures  as  would  rescue  the  Company 
from  the  impending  peril,  and  save  the  property  of  the  State,  city 
and  individuals  alike  from  great  depreciation  and  loss. 

In  the  autumn  of  1858,  the  measures  shadowed  forth  in  the  address 
and  resolutions  offered  by  Mr.  Garrett,  became  the  subject  of  earnest 
and  excited  discussion  in  the  Board  of  Directors.  Four  of  the 
Directors,  representing  the  State  and  city,  having  declared  their 
adherence  to  the  new  policy,  Mr.  Johns  Hopkins  nominated  Mr. 
Garrett  for  the  Presidency  of  the  Company,  and  the  controversy 
ended  by  his  election  to  that  office. 

The  practical  wisdom  of  the  policy  inaugurated  by  Mr.  Garrett, 
was  shown  at  the  close  of  his  first  year  of  office.  Although,  owing 
to  n  depression  in  commercial  transactions,  the  gross  receipts  of  the 
Company  were  in  1859,  the  first  fiscal  year  of  his  administration, 
less  by  S'_!7-V.><):5  50  than  in  1858,  the  increase  in  the  aggregate 
comparative  net  gains  of  the  Company — the  result  of  his  wise 
economy  and  careful  supervision — was  $725,325  16.  These  greatly 
increased  earnings  so  improved   the  financial  condition  of  the  Com- 


JOHN    W.    GARRETT.  265 

pany,  that  a  semi-annual  dividend   was   declared  in   the  Spring  of 

1859,  which  was  the  first  of  that  series  of  regular  dividends,  which 
has  been  maintained  since  that  period. 

In  1860,  the  second  year  of  his  administration,  the  results  were 
still  more  remarkable.  The  gross  earnings  were  So, 922, 202  94,  an 
increase  of  8303,584  49  over  the  preceding  year,  and  of  $65,715  15 
over  the  fiscal  year  of  1858.  Notwithstanding  this  limited  improve- 
ment in  the  general  traffic,  the  increase  of  net  profits  on  the  Main 
Stem  amounted  to  $980,300  83.  The  Board  announced  in  its  annual 
report  of  that  year,  that  all  purchases  had  been  made  for  cash,  and 
that  the  Company  was  entirely  free  from  floating  debt.  The  general 
economical  management  of  the  business  and  finances  of  the  Com- 
pany resulted  in  an  aggregate  of  profits  for  the  fiscal  year  of 
$1,834,569  25,  which  showed  a  net  gain  of  more  than  18  per  cent, 
on  the  capital  stock.  During  this  year  the  extra  dividend  of  a  por- 
tion of  the  surplus  fund,  which  had  been  declared  on  the  17th  of 
December,  1856,  was  finally  decided  to  be  legal  and  valid,  and  the 
interest,  which  had  accumulated  upon  this  dividend,  whilst  it  was 
in  litigation,  viz.  from  the  1st  of  June,  1857,  to  the  1st  of  June, 

1860,  $545,950  80,  was  paid  from  the  earnings  of  the  Company. 

On  the  17th  of  November,  1858,  the  period  at  which  Mr.  Garrett 
became  President  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  Company,  the 
market  price  of  its  stock  was  $57,  and  of  the  extra  dividend, 
(amounting  to  $3,033,060,  and  then  in  litigation,)  $10  for  each  $100 
thereof,  making  the  actual  average  market  rate  at  that  date  $46 
per  share  for  the  capital  stock  on  the  aggregate  basis  subsequently 
established.  The  extra  dividend  was  declared  in  certificates  of  in- 
debtedness, which  bore  interest  at  six  per  cent.,  until  converted  into 
the  stock  of  the  Company  on  the  1st  of  June,  1862.* 

No  other  proofs  were  needed  to  confirm  the  views  of  the  new 
President.  The  path  of  success  being  now  clearly  marked  out,  he 
addressed  himself  to  the  task  of  providing  against  those  partisan 
attempts,  which  in  the  existing  organization  of  the  road,  always 
threatened  to  endanger  its  profitable  usefulness. 

When  we  consider  that  all  men  are  to-day  agreed  that  it  is  wise 
to  separate  works  of  internal  improvement  from  political  control, 
and  that  it  is  an  especial  cause  of  public  thankfulness  that  this  Cor- 
poration has  been  withdrawn,  to  a  large  extent,  from  such  influences, 
it  is  painful  to  reflect  upon  the  opposition  made  from  1858  to  1864 
to  the  proposition  that  the  several  classes  of  stockholders  in  the 

*  The  present  price  of  the  stock,  as  thus  augmented,  is  one  hundred  and  forty 
dollars  per  shaie. 


Company  should  be  allowed  to  exercise  an  influence  in  its  manage- 
ment proportioned  to  the  extent  of  their  respective  interests  in  the 
property.  The  motives  to  that  opposition  were,  however,  not  wholly 
political,  but  arose  partly  from  different  impulses.  From  whatever 
cause  it  sprang,  it  was  strong  enough  to  resist,  year  after  year, 
the  calm  and  dispassionate  request  of  the  Company  that  some 
mode  might  be  devised  by  which  the  impending  evil  of  political 
control  could  certainly  be  avoided.  'No  remedy  was  devised  for 
the  evil  until  1864,  when  the  State,  by  authorizing  its  financial  offi- 
cers to  exchange  the  stock  owned  by  it  in  the  Company  in  a  certain 
order  and  with  particular  exceptions,  necessarily  provided  for  the 
relinquishment  of  a  portion  of  its  control.  This  provision  again 
engrafted  upon  the  Constitution  of  1867,  finally  secured  the  stability 
of  the  Company  as  a  purely  industrial  enterprise. 

These  changes  in  the  organic  law  of  the  State,  and  in  the  rela- 
tions of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  Company  to  the  State, 
have  been  the  marked  incidents  in  the  history  of  the  Corporation. 
The  work  of  bringing  them  about  forms  a  signal  labor  and  success  in 
the  official  life  of  President  Garrett.  The  individual  stockholders 
of  the  Company  do  not  even  yet  exercise  a  power  and  influence  in 
anywise  proportioned  to  the  amount  of  interest  owned  by  them  in 
the  Company ;  but  they  hold,  nevertheless,  owing  to  the  energy  and 
success  with  which  Mr.  Garrett  has  upheld  their  rightful  claims, 
authority  enough  to  protect  the  Company  against  the  dangers  which 
had  previously  beset  its  path.  On  the  other  hand,  Mr.  Garrett  has 
never  f  iled  to  acknowledge  the  cordial  and  efficient  support  which 
he  has  received  from  the  stockholder  directors,  or  to  recognize  the 
confidence  reposed  in  him  by  the  great  majority  of  those  represent- 
ing the  State  and  city,  in  his  long  official  career. 

While  engaged  in  this  great  struggle  to  maintain  the  stability  of 
the  Company  as  a  purely  industrial  enterprise,  Mr.  Garrett  was  not 
neglectful  of  other  questions  which  deeply  concerned  its  interests. 
He  never  forgot  the  maxims  which  he  had  inculcated  upon  the 
stockholders  when  he  first  took  part  in  their  deliberations.  He 
maintained  always  the  opinion  that  the  success  of  every  railroad 
company  was  assured  if  its  business  concerns  were  managed  with 
strict  care,  skill  and  integrity.  He  therefore  held  every  officer  and 
every  employee  of  the  Company  to  a  strict  accountability,  and  ex- 
acted from  each  a  rigid  economy  in  the  disbursement  of  the  funds 
of  the  Corporation.  He  insisted  upon  an  ample  equipment  of  the 
road,  upon  completeness  in  the  workshops  of  the  Company,  upon 
the  construction  of  extensive  buildings  to  meet  the  varied  wants  of 

JOHN    W.     GARRETT.  207 

the  Corporation,  and  upon  the  adoption  of  every  improvement 
which  would  facilitate  the  transportation  of  freight  and  assure  the 
comfort  of  the  passenger. 

This  sytem  of  management  was  in  full  force  and  activity  when 
the  great  civil  war  commenced,  in  April,  18(31.  The  location  of 
the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  was  apparently  as  unfortunate  as 
could  well  be  imagined.  From  Baltimore  to  the  Potomac  river, 
near  Harper's  Ferry,  it  was  located  within  the  State  of  Maryland. 
From  Harper's  Ferry  to  a  point  not  far  from  Cumberland,  in  Mary- 
land, it  traversed  the  State  of  Virginia.  From  thence  it  crossed 
the  mountain  region  of  Maryland ;  and  again  entering  the  State  of 
Virginia,  crossed  that  State  to  Wheeling,  while  its  branch  road, 
diverging  at  Grafton,  ran  thence  one  hundred  and  four  miles  to 
Parkersburg,  on  the  Ohio  river. 

The  line  of  road,  therefore,  skirted  the  territory  which  was  des- 
tined to  be  the  chief  route  of  armies  throughout  the  war.  Owing 
to  this  circumstance  the  line  was  broken  many  times,  as  armies 
advanced  and  retreated,  or  as  forays  were  made  or  repulsed.  The 
effect  of  each  breaking  of  the  line  was  to  convert  the  road,  appar- 
ently, into  isolated  and  separate  fragments.  But  such  was  the 
wonderful  energy  shown  by  President  Garrett,  and  infused  into  the 
skilful,  and  disciplined  men  under  his  control,  that  the  practical 
utility  of  the  road  was  never  lost.  When  such  disasters  occurred, 
they  had  been  so  far  foreseen  and  provided  for,  that  each  severed 
section  of  the  road  seemed  to  be  possessed  of  its  own  organization 
and  equipment,  and  able  to  do  the  enormous  military  business  en- 
trusted to  it,  as  perfectly  as  if  the  whole  road  had  remained  entire. 
]STo  incident  of  the  war — no  personal,  public  or  local  excitement — ■ 
interfered  with  the  operations  of  the  road,  when  there  was  any 
possibility  of  conducting  them  as  usual.  The  President,  cheer- 
fully sustained  by  the  majority  of  his  Board,  remembered  that  he 
was  responsible,  primarily,  for  the  safety  of  the  great  property  which 
had  been  committed  to  his  charge,  and  he  administered  it  in  strict 
subordination  to  those  principles  which  he  had  prescribed  as  proper 
for  the  government  of  the  Company  at  the  stockholders'  meeting 
held  in  1857,  to  which  allusion  has  already  been  made. 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  war  the  Company,  under  the  lead  of  its 
President,  entered  upon  a  yet  more  active  career  of  usefulness. 
The  Parkersburg  Branch  Railroad  was  put  in  thorough  order  and 
its  twenty-three  tunnels  solidly  walled  and  arched,  at  a  cost  of  one 
and  a  half  millions  of  dollars.  The  Washington  County  Branch 
Railroad,  from  Knoxville  to  Hagerstown,  was  built;   the  Central 


Ohio  Division,  from  the  Ohio  river  to  Columbus,  was  reorganized, 
and  a  branch  road  provided  from  Newark  on  the  Central  Ohio  Road, 
a  distance  of  one  hundred  and  sixteen  miles,  to  Sandusky,  on  Lake 
Erie.  The  line  of  the  Marietta  and  Cincinnati  Railroad,  worked  in 
connection  with  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Road,  was  improved  ;  the 
Metropolitan  Branch  Road,  from  the  Point  of  Rocks  on  the  main  line 
to  the  city  of  Washington,  was  placed  under  construction  ;  the  build- 
ing of  one  great  iron  bridge  over  the  Ohio  river  at  Parkersburg,  and 
of  another  over  the  same  river  at  Bellaire,  was  commenced ;  and  a 
provision  of  means  was  made  to  complete  fully,  within  a  brief  period, 
the  railroad  extending  from  Pittsburgh,  through  Connellsville,  to 
Cumberland,  in  Maryland,  where  it  will  connect  with  the  Baltimore 
and  Ohio  Railroad  Company.  In  addition  to  these  undertakings, 
arrangements  were  also  organized  to  open  more  direct  communica- 
tions, through  the  Valley  of  Virginia,  between  the  City  of  Baltimore 
and  the  Southwestern  States.  These  improvements  and  changes,  so 
far  as  completed,  have  resulted  in  increasing  the  aggregate  receipts 
of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  Company  from  the  sum  of 
$4,301,009  27,  received  during  the  fiscal  year  ended  September  30th, 
1859,  to  the  sum  of  $10,840,370  48,  received  during  the  fiscal  year 
ended  September  30th,  1870.  After  the  payment  of  all  interest  and 
dividends  on  capital  invested  in  the  road  and  its  branches,  the  Com- 
pany is  possessed  of  surplus  profits  amounting  to  $21,375,050  73, 
which  are  undivided,  and  represented  by  its  proprietorship  of 
branch  and  connecting  roads  and  other  property.  Thus  the  enor- 
mous sum  of  $19,355,835  66  of  net  earnings  has  been  accumulated 
and  invested  in  works  adding  largely  to  the  usefulness  of  the 
Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  Company  during  the  administration 
of  President  Garrett. 

In  addition  to  the  development  of  the  railway  enterprises,  to 
which  allusion  has  been  here  made,  Mr.  Garrett  has  of  late  years 
steadily  directed  the  attention  of  his  Company  to  the  propriety  of 
organizing  steam  lines  of  communication  between  the  chief  ports  of 
Europe  and  the  harbor  of  Baltimore.  The  Board  over  which  he 
presides  has  already,  by  an  arrangement  with  the  North  German 
Lloyd  Steam  Ship  Company,  secured  a  semi-monthly  line  of  first 
class  steamers  between  Bremen,  Southampton  and  Baltimore,  and 
measures  have  been  taken  to  secure  a  similar  line  of  steamers 
between  Liverpool  and  Baltimore.  There  can  be  no  question,  that 
the  opening  of  such  lines  of  steam  communication  from  Baltimore 
to  Liverpool,  Havre,  Bremen  and  Rotterdam,  would  do  much  to 
increase  the  trade,  and  to  add  to  the  general  prosperity  of  Baltimore. 

JOHN    W .     GARRETT.  269 

Its  neighborhood  to  the  cotton  and  tobacco  growing  sections  of  the 
United  States,  the  shorter  lines  of  railway,  connecting  it  with  the 
South,  Cincinnati,  St.  Louis  and  the  South  west,  and  with  Chicago 
and  the  Northwest,  and  its  cheaper  fuel,  give  it  advantages  with 
which  no  other  city  on  the  Atlantic  coast  can  profitably  com- 
pete. It  is  very  fortunate  for  that  community,  that  the  Baltimore 
and  Ohio  Railroad  Company,  has  been  willing  and  able  to  undertake 
the  partial  support  of  such  lines  of  ocean  travel  and  traffic.  It  is  no 
less  fortunate  that  the  people  of  the  State  of  Maryland,  keenly  alive 
to  the  importance  of  exerting  every  power  to  promote  the  welfare  of 
their  chief  commercial  city,  agree  thoroughly  with  the  committee 
of  the  House  of  Commons,  of  which  Lord  Stanley,  now  the  Earl  of 
Derby,  was  Chairman  in  1864.  That  Committee,  when  the  subject 
of  the  steamboat  powers  of  railway  companies  was  under  consider- 
ation, did  not  hesitate  to  affirm  the  expediency  of  permitting 
railway  companies  to  carry  by  sea,  as  well  as  by  land  ;  and  English 
railway  companies  are  now  largely  engaged  in  subordinating  ocean 
traffic  and  travel,  to  the  uses  and  developments  of  their  home  com- 
panies and  home  ports. 

These  great  results  enuring,  year  by  year,  most  advantageously  to 
the  interest  and  prosperity  of  the  State  of  Maryland,  and  of  the  city 
of  Baltimore,  have  contented  both ;  and,  fully  satisfied  with  the 
practical  working  of  the  policy,  which  Mr.  Garrett  inaugurated, 
under  so  many  difficulties,  the  great  majority  of  the  representatives 
of  both  constituencies,  have  united,  year  after  year,  in  soliciting  him 
to  remain  in  the  occupation  of  the  Presidency. 

In  concluding  this  notice,  it  is  impossible  to  forbear  mention  of 
the  fact  that  Mr.  Garrett  has  not  hesitated  to  apply  his  rules  of 
economical  administration  to  himself,  in  his  official  relations  to  the 
Company.  He  believed  that  example  taught  a  better  lesson  than 
precept.  After  he  became  President,  and  gave  his  time  so  largely  to 
the  duties  of  his  office,  the  Board  of  Direction,  by  a  unanimous  vote, 
increased  his  salary  from  $4,000  a  year,  which  was  the  rate  when 
he  took  office,  to  $10,000  a  year.  This  increase  of  salary  he 
declined.  It  was  not  to  be  wondered  at,  therefore,  that  he  should 
refuse  to  accept  the  offer  of  the  presidencies  of  other  railway  com- 
panies, though  accompanied — one  by  the  proposition  of  a  salary  of 
$30,000  per  year,  and  one  by  a  proposal  of  a  salary  of  $50,000  per 
year.  He  has  been  content,  apparently,  to  abide  with  those  among 
whom  his  life  began.  He  certainly  could  propose  to  himself,  no  aim 
or  purpose,  more  useful  than  the  complete  and  successful  develop- 
ment of  that  entire  system  of  Maryland  Railways,  with  which  his 


name  has  been  and  must  remain  inseparably  associated.  Mr. 
.  Garrett  continues  to  occupy  the  office  of  President  of  the  Baltimore 
and  Ohio  Railroad  Company,  and  is  also  the  head  of  the  firm  of 
Robert  Garrett  &  Sons,  doing  business  in  the  City  of  Baltimore. 
Robert  Garrett,  his  father,  died  greatly  respected,  in  1857 ;  and 
Henry  S.  Garrett,  his  elder  brother,  died  equally  esteemed  and 
lamented,  in  the  prime  of  life,  in  1867.  The  two  sons  of  Mr.  John 
W.  Garrett,  Robert  Garrett  and  Thomas  Harrison  Garrett,  are  now 
with  their  father,  the  only  members  of  the  firm.  The  house,  in  its 
commercial  relations,  maintains  the  unspotted  reputation  which  has 
always  distinguished  it,  and  continues  as  it  has  always,  to  promote 
every  railway,  steamship  or  other  enterprise,  which  could  add  to  the 
commercial  prosperity  of  the  town,  as  well  as  to  promote  those 
other  objects  of  public  charity,  recreation,  or  instruction,  which 
excite  the  interest  of  the  people  of  Baltimore. 





James  Sullivan  Gary,  born  at  Medway,  Massachusetts,  on  Xo- 
vember  loth,  1808,  was  descended  from  John  Gary,  who  with  his 
brother  James,  emigrated  from  Lancashire,  England  in  1712,  and 
settled  in  this  country  ;  James  at  Marblehead,  Massachusetts,  and 
John  in  New  Hamsphire. 

His  father  having  died,  leaving  a  large  family  dependent  on  their 
own  exertions  for  subsistence,  James  went  to  work,  at  the  early  age 
of  five  years,  in  the  cotton  mill  of  the  Medway  Manufacturing  Com- 
pany, where  he  remained  constantly  employed  until  1820,  acquiring 
thus  a  thorough  practical  knowledge  of  the  minutest  details  of  the 
manufacture  which  contributed  largely  to  his  success  in  after  life. 

His  opportunities  of  education  were  necessarily  very  limited,  but 
were  improved  to  their  fullest  extent,  in  which  he  was  aided  by  a 
kind  and  exemplary  mother. 

Quitting  the  Medway  Company  to  find  more  remunerative  em- 
ployment elsewhere,  he  was  engaged  successively  in  various  manu- 
facturing establishments,  thas  enlarging  his  knowledge  of  the  busi- 
ness, and  in  1830,  by  strict  economy  and  incessant  industry  he  had 
succeeded  in  accumulating  a  few  thousand  dollars.  In  this  year  he 
was  married  to  Pamelia,  daughter  of  Deacon  Ebenezer  Forrest  of 
Foxboro',  Massachusetts,  and  removed  to  Mansfield,  Connecticut, 
where  he  became  a  partner  in  a  cotton  factory.  This  first  adven- 
ture in  business  on  his  own  account  proved  unfortunate ;  the  agents 
of  the  mill  became  bankrupt,  and  the  capital  he  had  invested  was 
entirely  lost. 

After  this  disaster,  Mr.  Gary  returned  to  Rhode  Island,  and  for  a 
number  of  years  had  charge  of  one  of  the  departments  of  the  mills 
of  the  Lonsdale  Manufacturing  Company.  In  1838,  he  removed 
with  his  family  to  Maryland,  having  been  engaged  to  take  charge 
of  one  of  the  departments  in  the  Patuxent  Manufacturing  Company, 
at  Laurel,  Prinee  George  county.  Here  he  remained  until  1844, 
when  with  three  other  gentlemen,  he  established  the  Ashland  Manu- 
facturing Company  of  Baltimore  county,  and  assumed  the  entire 


control  of  the  mill.  This  Company  was  one  of  the  most  prosperous 
of  its  kind  that  was  ever  inaugurated.  While  thus  engaged  he  was 
invited  by  the  Patuxent  Company,  who  had  been  greatly  impressed 
with  his  energy  and  administrative  ability,  to  undertake  the  general 
supervision  and  control  of  their  works,  which  for  some  time  he  did, 
without  severing  his  connection  with  the  Ashland  Company,  but 
visiting  and  directing  both.  The  latter  Company  continued  in 
successful  operation  until  1854,  when  the  buildings  and  machinery 
were  destroyed  by  fire. 

A  year  or  so  before  this  occurrence,  Air.  Gary,  in  connection  with 
another  gentleman,  had  established  the  Alberton  Manufacturing 
Company,  at  Elysville,  in  Howard  county,  which  continued  in 
operation  until  1857,  when  it  shared  the  fate  of  many  other 
business  houses  in  the  financial  crisis  which  swept  over  the 
country.  A  reorganization  was  effected,  however,  soon  after,  aud 
operations  resumed  under  the  name  of  the  Sagouan  Manufacturing 

In  1859,  Mr.  Gary  discovered  that  through  the  management  of 
his  associate  who  controlled  the  financial  operations,  the  Company 
had  become  involved  in  outside  operations  to  a  large  amount,  and 
with  disastrous  results.  Upon  this  he  arranged  to  assume  the  entire 
ownership  of  the  establishment,  accepting  the  heavy  indebtedness, 
which,  in  the  opinion  of  the  creditors  stood,  but  a  poor  chance  of 
complete  liquidation.  Recognizing  the  fact  that  Mr.  Gary  ought 
not  to  be  held  responsible  for  what  had  been  done  without  his 
knowledge,  they  were  ready  to  agree  to  a  very  liberal  compromise ; 
but  Mr.  Gary  declined  to  take  any  advantage  of  their  generous 
disposition,  and  only  asked  time  to  recover  from  this  unexpected 
misfortune,  when  he  would  discharge  every  claim  in  full. 

A  settlement  on  this  basis  was  effected,  and  Mr.  Gary  assuming 
the  entire  control  of  the  business,  showed  that  his  qualifications  for 
mercantile  aud  financial  transactions  were  not  inferior  to  his  skill  as 
a  manufacturer.  His  affairs  prospered  rapidly;  and  in  half  the  time 
for  which  he  had  asked,  he  was  able  to  pay  off  the  indebtedness  of 
the  concern  in  full,  with  interest. 

In  1861,  he  took  into  partnership  his  son  James  Albert  Gary, 
under  the  firm  name  of  James  S.  Gary  &  Son,  with  office  and 
warehouse  in  Baltimore.  In  1863,  for  the  purpose  of  securing 
a  wider  field  of  operation  in  the  purchase  of  cotton  and  sale  of 
manufactured  goods,  a  branch  house  was  established  in  St.  Louis, 
Missouri,  under  the  style  of  James  S.  Gary  &  Company.  Great 
prosperity  attended  these  enlargements  of  the  business. 


"We  puss  over  the  events  of  the  war,  merely  noting  that  during 
that  troublous  time  Mr.  Gary  was  a  sincere  and  zealous  Unionist. 

In  1806,  the  property  of  the  firm  at  Elysville,  commonly  known 
as  Alberton,  was  considerably  damaged  by  a  freshet.  It  was  again 
visited  in  the  same  manner,  and  far  more  disastrously,  in  the  mem- 
orable flood  of  1868,  when  the  whole  valley  of  the  Patapsco  was 
suddenly  swept  by  a  torrent  which  destroyed  many  lives  and  millions 
of  property.  On  this  occasion  Mr.  Gary,  himself,  narrowly  escaped  ; 
but  the  waters  which  spared  his  life,  carried  destruction  to  his  cher- 
ished objects  of  pride,  his  little  village  and  the  mill.  The  prospect 
was  a  disheartening  one;  it  would  cost  much  time,  great  labor,  and 
many  thousands  of  dollars  to  repair  the  devastation  of  a  few  hours. 

But  scarcely  had  the  waters  subsided  when  Mr.  Gary  set  to  work 
with  his  usual  indomitable  courage  and  will.  His  first  act  was  to 
relieve  the  immediate  necessities  of  the  sufferers  around  him,  and 
this  done,  to  repair  and  rebuild  his  mill,  so  as  to  have  it  as  quickly 
as  possible  in  running  order.  At  this  task  he  worked  day  and 
night,  until  the  end  was  accomplished  ;  and  though  the  Alberton 
Mills  had  suffered  more  extensive  damage  than  an)-  other  factory  on 
the  stream,  excepting  one  which  was  entirely  destroyed,  they  were 
by  some  weeks  the  first  to  resume  operations.  At  this  time  many 
improvements  and  additions  were  made,  such  as  Mr.  Gary's  judg- 
ment and  experience  suggested,  and  the  capacity  of  the  mill  was 

Mr.  Gary  died  rather  suddenly,  from  the  effects  of  a  carbuncle,  on 
March  7th,  1870,  aged  sixty-two  years,  and  was  buried  at  Alber- 
ton, the  scene  of  his  many  labors,  where  the  busy  factory  and  its 
pleasant  surroundings  remain  as  monuments  to  his  energy  and  skill. 
He  was  a  man  of  genial  manners  and  amiable  disposition ;  kind  and 
considerate  to  those  in  his  employment,  though  strict  in  his  dis- 
cipline. He  left  two  children,  a  son  and  a  daughter;  the  latter 
married  to  H.  B.  Holton,  and  residing  at  the  mills. 

Mr.  Gary  afforded  a  striking  example  of  what  an  undaunted 
spirit  and  untiring  energy  can  accomplish  in  the  face  of  the  most 
disheartening  circumstances.  Although  past  middle  age  at  the  time 
of  the  pecuniary  difficulties  above  referred  to,  he  did  not  despair  as 
most  men  would,  but  casting  all  thoughts  of  the  past  and  its  gains 
and  losses  to  the  winds,  he  addressed  himself  to  the  future,  and  in 
an  incredibly  short  space  of  time,  he  had  not  only  shaken  off  the 
shackles  of  debt,  but  accumulated  a  large  fortune. 

The  village  of  Alberton  is  pleasantly  situated  on  the  Patapsco 
river,  in  Howard  county,  about  twelve  miles  from  Baltimore,  and  on 


the  line  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad.  The  population  num- 
bers some  nine  hundred,  consisting  entirely  of  persons  employed  in 
the  mills,  and  their  families.  The  houses  are  mostly  built  of  brick 
and  supplied  with  gas  and  water.  The  village  has  the  advan- 
tages of  a  school  and  library ;  a  commodious  hall  for  lectures, 
religious  services,  and  Sunday  school ;  a  store  for  supplies ;  a  post- 
office,  and  a  resident  physician.  It  was  Mr.  Gary's  constant  aim  to 
provide  every  comfort  for  his  large  family  of  operatives,  and  to  pro- 
tect them  from  all  immoral  influences.  Hence  one  of  his  strictest 
regulations  was  that  forbidding  the  sale  of  intoxicating  liquors 
in  the  village. 

The  mills  are  built  of  granite,  in  a  solid  and  substantial  manner. 
The  machinery,  comprising  two  hundred  and  twenty-eight  looms 
and  eight  thousand  spindles,  is  of  the  latest  and  most  improved  de- 
scription, driven  by  an  unfailing  water-power.  The  goods  manufac- 
tured are  various,  consisting  chiefly  of  sheetings,  drills,  osnaburgs, 
light  duck,  denims,  awning  stripes  and  warps.  Under  their  various 
brands  of  u  Alberton,"  "Kentucky,"  u Sagouan,"  "  "Western  Star," 
&c,  they  have  all  acquired  high  reputation  in  the  leading  markets 
of  the  country.  Their  production  consumes  annually  about  three 
thousand  bales  of  cotton. 

The  precautions  against  fire  in  this  establishment  are  especially 
ample,  and  the  provisions  made  for  its  extinction,  of  a  peculiar  kind, 
probably  superior  to  those  in  any  mill  in  the  country. 

Since  Mr.  Gary's  death  the  business  has  been  continued  in  the 
same  name  by  his  son,  like  his  father,  a  practical  manufacturer. 

(sfutyfr    *,    &ustja) 


The  parents  of  Philip  T.  George  were  both  Marylanders,  of 
English  descent.  His  father,  William  E.  George,  came  to  Baltimore 
from  Kent  county,  in  the  year  1800,  and  engaged  in  connection  with 
the  late  Philip  E.  Thomas,  in  the  hardware  business.  His  mother 
was  the  daughter  of  Jonathan  H.  Ellicott,  who,  with  his  brothers, 
came  to  Maryland  from  Pennsylvania,  near  Philadelphia,  about 
the  year  1765,  and  established  mills  and  iron  works  on  the  Patap- 
sco,  and  located  themselves  on  the  site  formerly  called  from  them, 
Ellicott's  Mills,  now  Ellicott  City.  Their  son,  Philip  T.  George, 
was  born  in  Baltimore,  in  1817. 

In  his  fifteenth  year  young  George  entered  his  father's  store, 
taking,  as  was  the  custom  at  that  time,  when  men  were  scarcely 
thought  duly  qualified  for  business,  unless  they  had  risen  regularly 
from  the  ranks,  the  lowest  position  in  the  establishment. 

Mr.  George  married  Miss  Jenkins,  of  Baltimore  county,  whose 
family,  also  English,  had  left  the  mother  country  about  the  middle 
of  the  seventeenth  century,  on  account  of  the  persecution  of  persons 
of  the  Catholic  faith,  which  they  held,  and  settled  in  St.  Mary 
county,  whence  they  subsequently  removed  to  Baltimore  county, 
where  they  acquired  land  by  patent  in  the  locality  known  as  Long 

In  1848  Mr.  George  formed  a  partnership  with  T.  R.  Jenkins,  for 
the  purpose  of  carrying  on  the  wholesale  provision  business,  as  com- 
mission merchants  and  packers  and  curers  of  hams  and  bacon. 
This  firm,  bearing  the  name  of  George  &  Jenkins,  is  still  flourishing. 

For  three  years  the  new  business  made  but  little  progress ;  but 
constant  attention  and  hard  work  bore  their  rarely  failing  fruits, 
and  success  was  assured  after  the  fourth  year. 

About  1850  the  planters  in  the  South  began  to  devote  their  entire 
attention  to  the  cultivation  of  the  especial  Southern  staples,  cotton, 
sugar,  tobacco  and  rice,  to  the  neglect  of  grain ;  a  procedure  which 
of  necessity  prevented  them  from  making  their  own  salted  provi- 
sions.    Hence  arose  a  great  demand  for  bacon,  pork  and  lard,  and 


made  an  opening  for  an  active  trade  in  those  articles,  of  which 
merchants  were  quick  to  avail  themselves.  As  a  matter  of  course 
many  difficulties  had  to  he  overcome  in  meeting  this  rapid  expan- 
sion of  business ;  and  one  of  the  chief  was  the  deficiency  of  steam- 
boat communication  with  Southern  cities.  At  that  time  Baltimore 
had  not  an  ocean  steamer  running  to  a  Southern  port ;  and  shippers 
had  to  rely  upon  transient  sailing  vessels,  making  voyages  at 
irregular  intervals.  This  uncertainty  and  deficiency  of  transpor- 
tation was  long  a  serious  embarrassment  to  the  merchants ;  and 
by  placing  Baltimore  at  a  disadvantage  in  this  respect,  compared 
with  some  other  cities,  deprived  her  to  a  great  extent  of  the 
advantages  of  her  position  and  market,  in  competing  for  the 
Southern   trade. 

With  all  her  wealth  and  energy,  it  must  be  confessed  that  the 
good  city  has  been  at  times  slow  to  put  into  effective  action  lines  of 
policy,  the  wisdom  of  which  was  patent  to  all ;  and  various  plans 
were  broached  and  partly  acted  upon  for  }~ears  before  sufficient 
co-operative  force  was  brought  to  bear  upon  any  to  make  it  a 
decided  and  permanent  success. 

At  last  a  number  of  business  men  and  capitalists,  among  whom 
was  Mr.  George,  determined  that  this  impediment  to  the  increasing 
prosperity  of  Baltimore  should  no  longer  exist.  One  line  was 
started;  then  another,  which  were  worked  with  varying  success, 
until  at  present  there  are  now  steamers  running  regularly  to  Wil- 
mington Charleston  and  Savannah;  and  steamers  make  daily  trips 
to  Richmond. 

Thus,  ample  provision  has  been  made  for  that  Southern  trade 
which  is  daily  increasing  in  value,  which  naturally  belongs  to  Balti- 
more, and  which  it  is  her  true  policy  to  attract  and  foster.  Some 
idea  of  its  increase  under  these  favoring  circumstances  may  be 
formed  from  the  fact  that  the  freight  now  shipped  by  way  of  Nor- 
folk alone,  exceeds  the  total  shipments  to  all  Southern  ports  twenty 
years  ago. 

These  seaboard  communications,  co-operating  with  her  great  Rail- 
road, make  Baltimore  the  grand  entrepdt  between  the  Southern 
Atlantic  States  and  the  great  West,  and  enable  her  to  pour  into  the 
former  the  breadstufis,  the  provisions,  and  other  staples  furnished 
by  the  prolific  soil  of  the  latter.  Thus,  among  the  important 
branches  of  traffic  to  which  the  city  owes  its  prosperity,  the  provi- 
sion houses  occupy  a  foremost  place. 

The  following  statistics  will  give  some  idea  of  the  extent  of  this 
trade,  and  of  its  importance  to  the  city. 

PHILIP     T.     GEORGE.  277 

The  sales  for  the  past  two  years  have  been  in  round  numbers: 








Pork, -. 














There  are  fourteen  houses  engaged  exclusively  in  the  trade,  with 
an  active  capital  of  §'2,500,000.  Of  these  the  house  of  George  & 
Jenkins,  from  the  extent  of  its  business,  may  justly  be  styled  the 

In  character,  Mr.  George  is  peculiarly  unassuming,  rather 
shrinking  from  prominence  than  coveting  it  ;  and  his  talents  have 
been  chiefly  devoted  to  the  development  and  conduct  of  his  business, 
or  to  matters  having  a  direct  bearing  upon  the  commercial  interests 
of  the  city.  In  business  transactions  he  exhibits  the  quick  apprecia- 
tion and  prompt  decision  which  are  as  necessary  to  the  successful 
merchant  as  the  successful  general ;  but  tempered  with  a  courtesy 
which  wins  the  esteem  of  all  who  come  into  contact  with  him.  In 
private  life  his  amiable  and  generous  disposition  have  endeared  him 
to  numbers  of  personal  friends. 


^— — ■ /*.  -y 


William  Fell  Giles,  Judge  of  the  United  States  District  Court, 
for  the  District  of  Maryland,  was  born  in  Harford  county,  Mary- 
land, April  8th,  1807.  His  ancestors,  the  Gileses  and,  on  his 
mother's  side,  the  Pacas,  were  among  the  early  settlers  of  the  State. 
The  latter  family  were  originally  Friends  who  had  sought  an 
asylum  from  the  religious  persecutions  of  the  old  world  in  the 
colony  founded  by  Lord  Baltimore— the  home  of  toleration  in  a 
bigoted  age. 

Judge  Giles  secured  his  early  education  at  Baltimore  College ;  he 
was  subsequently  a  pupil  for  several  years  of  Dr.  Barry,  the  head 
of  a  once  flourishing  academy  in  Baltimore  city,  but  completed  his 
education  at  the  academy  in  Bel  Air,  in  his  native  county,  then 
under  the  charge  of  the  Rev.  George  Morrison,  as  head  master.  In 
1826,  he  came  to  Baltimore  to  study  law,  and  entered  the  office  of 
the  late  Judge  Purviance.  In  1829,  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar. 
and  began  the  practice  of  the  profession,  to  which  he  continued  to 
devote  himself  with  increasing  reputation  and  success,  until  his  ele- 
vation to  the  bench  in  1853.  During  the  whole  of  his  professional 
life  and  since,  Judge  Giles's  residence  has  been  in  Baltimore  city. 

In  1837,  being  then  thirty  years  of  age,  he  was  nominated  for  the 
Legislature  by  the  Democratic  party,  to  whose  principles  he  has 
always  been  attached,  and  was  elected  a  member  of  the  House  of 
Delegates  from  Baltimore  city;  leading  the  entire  party  ticket. 
After  serving  one  term  in  that  body,  Mr.  Giles  declined  the  renomi- 
nation  which  was  tendered  him,  preferring  to  devote  himself  to  the 
practice  of  his  profession  ;  but  his  party  having  been  defeated  the 
following  year,  in  1839,  he  was  prevailed  upon  to  accept  a  second 
nomination  for  the  Legislature,  and  was  again  triumphantly  elected. 
He  could  not  be  induced,  however,  to  become  a  candidate  a  third 
time,  although  the  nomination  was  again  pressed  upon  him.  It 
was  impossible,  however,  for  Mr.  Giles  to  withdraw  himself  alto- 
gether from  political  life.  He  was  a  sincere  and  earnest  Democrat, 
interested  in  the  success  of  Democratic  principles,  which  he  believed 


to  be  those  of  the  Constitution,  and  his  character  and  abilities,  as 
well  as  his  previous  services  in  the  Legislature,  caused  him  to  be 
recognized  as  one  of  the  leaders  of  his  party  in  this  State.  Conse- 
quently, in  1845,  he  received  the  Democratic  nomination  for  Con- 
gress in  Baltimore  city,  and  was  elected  in  a  district  thought  to  be 
strongly  Whig ;  and  under  circumstances  which  made  his  success 
extremely  flattering.  His  Whig  competitor  on  this  occasion  was 
John  P.  Kennedy,  the  accomplished  author  of  "  Horseshoe  Robin- 
son," and  "Swallow  Barn,"  as  well  as  of  the  "Life  of  William 
Wirt,"  and  who  was  afterwards  Secretary  of  the  JSTavy  under  the 
administration  of  President  Fillmore.  After  serving  his  full  term 
in  the  House  of  Representatives,  at  Washington,  Mr.  Giles  declined 
a  renomination,  and  returned  to  his  practice.  He  continued,  how- 
ever, to  take  an  active  interest  in  the  politics  of  the  country  and  of 
the  State  until  July,  1853,  when,  upon  the  death  of  Judge  Glenn, 
he  was  appointed  by  President  Pierce,  Judge  of  the  District  Court 
of  the  United  States,  which  office  he  now  holds.  From  the.  time  of 
his  appointment  and  entrance  upon  his  judicial  duties,  Judge  Giles 
has  scrupulously  refrained  from  taking  an  active  part  in  politics,  or 
even  from  attending  political  meetings.  It  is  his  opinion  that  in 
such  matters,  as  in  every  relation  of  life,  which  may  by  any  possi- 
bility be  supposed  to  affect  his  impartiality,  or  expose  him  to  any 
imputation  of  unfairness,  a  judge  should  not  only  be  free  from 
blame,  but  above  suspicion;  and  his  practice  has  been  strictly  in 
accord  with  the  rigid  rule  he  has  laid  down  for  himself  in  this 
respect.  The  example  is  one  which  it  would  be  well  for  all  who 
occupy  judicial  stations  to  imitate. 

Judge  Giles  was  for  more  than  thirty  3Tears  an  officer  of  the 
Maryland  State  Colonization  Society,  and  for  more  than  twenty 
years  one  of  the  Commissioners  of  the  State  of  Maryland  for  remov- 
ing its  free  people  of  color,  such  of  them  as  chose  to  go,  with  their 
own  free  consent,  to  Liberia.  He  was  in  fact  an  early,  as  he  has 
been  a  constant  friend  of  the  colored  race,  sympathizing  with  them 
in  their  efforts  for  self-improvement,  and  ready  to  contribute  in  any 
useful  and  practical  way  to  the  amelioration  of  their  social  and 
political  condition.  Inheriting,  perhaps,  some  of  the  peculiar  views 
of  his  Quaker  ancestors,  in  regard  to  the  institution  of  slavery,  he 
never  owned  a  slave.  While  respecting  the  opinions  (as  well  as  the 
rights)  of  others  upon  this  subject,  he  did  not  hesitate  to  express 
his  own  sentiments  in  an  address  which  lie  wrote  and  published  in 
behalf  of  the  Colonization  cause  as  early  as  1835.  He  then  said, 
speaking  of  the  dangers  which  were  inseparable  from  the  continued 


existence  of  slavery,  in  language  which  at  this  day  seems  almost 
prophetic:  "  Look  abroad  over  the  face  of  your  land,  and  say,  is 
there  no  cloud  in  the  heavens?  Is  there  nothing  that  tells  you  that 
danger  is  nigh,  and  that  there  is  an  evil  within  your  borders  which 
must  be  removed?  Can  any  one  contemplate  the  scenes  which  have 
lately  taken  place  in  Mississippi,  and  witness  the  feeling  that  per- 
vades the  South,  without  being  convinced  that  slavery  is  a  great 
curse,  and  that  every  one  who  loves  his  country  should  do  some- 
thing to  lessen  its  burden  while  it  hangs  over  us,  and  fervently 
hope  that  the  day  may  come  when  it  will  no  longer  rest  upon  the 
land  ?" 

It  may  be  observed  that  views  similar  to  those  here  expressed  by 
Judge  Giles  were  not  uncommon  among  the  public  men  of  the 
South  at  that  day,  and  that  in  Maryland  and  Virginia,  particularly 
after  the  horrors  of  the  Southampton  massacre  and  the  Xat  Turner 
insurrection  in  the  latter  State,  there  was  a  very  strong  feeling  in 
favor  of  the  policy  of  gradual  emancipation,  especially  in  connection 
with  the  scheme  of  African  colonization.  That  which  changed  the 
current  of  popular  thought  and  feeling  at  the  South,  and  converted 
many  of  the  emancipationists  of  1835  into  strong  pro-slavery  men, 
was  doubtless  the  intemperate  zeal,  the  extreme  opinions  and  still 
more  the  revolutionary  conduct  of  the  fanatics  at  the  Xorth. 

Besides  the  address  from  which  we  have  just  quoted,  Judge  Giles 
was  the  author  of  many  other  published  addresses  and  discourses  on 
various  public  occasions,  which  are  replete  with  sound  and  patriotic 
sentiments,  and  passages  of  striking  force  and  eloquence.  His 
speeches  in  the  House  of  Representatives,  in  the  session  of  1845-47, 
on  the  Oregon  question,  the  Wilmot  proviso,  and  the  Loan  bill, 
attracted  much  attention  at  the  time  they  were  delivered ;  as  did, 
also,  his  subsequent  addresses  to  his  fellow  citizens  of  Baltimore 
upon  the  occasion  of  the  passage  of  the  Compromise  measures  of 
1850.  In  1840,  Judge  Giles  delivered  the  Fourth  of  July  oration 
at  Fairmount,  and  in  May,  1856,  he  was  selected  to  pronounce  the 
address  of  welcome  in  the  name  and  behalf  of  the  citizens  of  Balti- 
more, without  distinction  of  party,  to  President  Buchanan,  on  the 
occasion  of  his  public  reception  in  this  city.  He  also  delivered  the 
address  at  the  dedication  of  the  Odd  Fellows'  Hall  in  Washington 
city,  May  25th,  1846,  being  then  a  Past  Grand  of  the  order.  His 
lecture  on  the  "  Hungarian  Revolution,"  before  the  Maryland  Insti- 
tute, in  1851,  helped  to  awaken  a  spirit  of  sympathy  in  this  com- 
munity for  a  gallant  and  struggling  people.  In  1866,  Judge  Giles 
delivered,  by  invitation,  the  annual  address  before  the  Maryland 


Historical  Society,  in  which,  after  reviewing  in  a  spirit  of  honest 
and  natural  State  pride,  the  Colonial  and  Revolutionary  history  of 
Maryland,  and  counting  the  roll  of  her  departed  heroes,  he  paid  an 
eloquent  tribute  to  the  memory  and  services  of  Col.  John  Eager 
Howard,  one  of  the  foremost,  of  that  band  of  heroes,  and  of  whose 
life  and  character  he  gave  an  interesting  sketch.  It  is  to  be  re- 
gretted that  the  limits  of  an  article  like  the  present  do  not  admit  of 
an  extract,  even,  from  another  address  of  Judge  Giles,  which  was 
delivered  in  1854,  at  the  Commencement  of  the  Baltimore  High 
School,  and  which  is  full  of  sound  and  useful  advice  to  young  men 
just  setting  out  in  life,  and  for  which  class  his  remarks  were  spe- 
cially intended. 

Judge  Giles  has  been  upon  the  bench  of  the  United  States  District 
Court  for  seventeen  years.  During  the  greater  portion  of  that  time, 
owing  to  the  infirm  health  of  the  late  lamented  Chief  Justice  Taney, 
and  the  unavoidable  absence  of  Chief  Justice  Chase,  Judge  Giles 
has  sat  alone  as  Judge  of  the  Circuit  Court,  also,  and  performed  all 
the  arduous  duties  and  labors  of  both  positions.  Latterly,  with  the 
gradual  increase  of  business  in  the  Federal  courts,  ami  especially 
since  the  passage  of  the  Bankrupt  Law,  these  duties  have  been 
exceedingly  onerous.  It  is  to  the  great  credit  of  Judge  Giles,  that 
he  has  been  able  to  discharge  them  all,  expeditiously,  carefully, 
faithfully,  and  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  the  profession  and  of  the 
community.  Of  course,  the  Judge's  life  has  been  necessarily  a  very 
laborious  one,  but  his  industry  and  perseverance  have  been  equal  to 
every  emergenc}T.  Many  important  questions  have  necessarily  come 
before  him.  Important  admiralty  and  patent  cases,  and  cases 
frequently  of  first  impression,  presenting  questions  entirely  new, 
arising  under  the  acts  of  Congress,  both  of  a  civil  and  criminal 
nature,  have  been  adjudicated  in  his  Court,  and  his  decisions  are 
always  received  with  the  greatest  respect,  and  have  been  as  seldom 
reversed,  perhaps,  as  those  of  any  District  or  Circuit  Judge  of  the 
United  States.  During  his  long  service  on  the  bench,  there  have 
been  forty-eight  appeals  from  his  decisions  taken  up  to  the  Supreme 
Court.  That  Court  has  affirmed  him  in  thirty-five  cases ;  reversed 
him  in  ten  cases,  and  three  appeals  were  dismissed  by  the  parties 
themselves.  His  opinions,  which  are  orally  delivered,  are  rarely 
written  out,  and  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  they  have  not  been 
reported  and  preserved  for  the  guidance  and  instruction  of  the 
profession  and  of  legal  students. 

The  purity  of  the  private  life  and  character  of  Judge  Giles  has 
added  dignity  as  well  as  usefulness  to  the  position  which  he  holds. 


It  is  very  difficult  for  a  bad  man  to  be  a  good  judge,  and  tbe  admin- 
istration of  justice  in  the  tribunal  over  which  Judge  Giles  presides 
enjoys  the  advantages  of  all  the  weight  and  authority  which  attach 
to  the  possession  of  an  unspotted  character  and  name. 

The  Judge  is  and  has  been  for  many  years  an  Elder  in  the  Presby- 
terian Church,  having  first  been  chosen  to  that  position  in  the  Second 
Presbyterian  Church,  of  which  he  became  a  member  when  the  Rev. 
Robert  J.  Breckinridge  was  its  pastor.  He  remained  connected 
with  that  society  until  1861,  when  he  became  attached  to  the 
Franklin  Street  Church,  of  which  he  was  also  chosen  an  Elder. 

Judge  Giles  has  been  twice  married  ;  first,  in  1831,  to  Miss  Sarah 
Wilson,  daughter  of  John  "Wilson,  of  Baltimore  city  ;  subsequently, 
in  1847,  to  Miss  Catharine  Donaldson,  daughter  of  Dr.  William 
Donaldson.  He  has  living  four  children — three  sons  and  a  daugh- 
ter. His  eldest  son,  William  F.  Giles,  Jr.,  is  a  member  of  the  Balti- 
more Bar,  and  for  several  years  resided  abroad  as  United  States 
Consul  at  Geneva,  to  which  position  he  was  appointed  by  President 


An  unusual  number  of  merchants  of  remarkable  energy  seem  to 
have  been  attracted  to  Baltimore,  whilst  as  ATet  it  was  a  place  com- 
paratively insignificant  in  size.  The  name  of  Robert  Gilmor  occurs 
among  them  as  deserving  of  mention.  He  was  born  in  the  town  of 
Paisley,  Scotland,  on  the  10th  November,  1748.  He  was  taken  into 
business  with  his  father,  Gavin  Gilmor,  at  that  place,  when  a  very 
young  man,  and  being  desirous  of  visiting  the  Colonies  of  America, 
came  out  in  one  of  the  tobacco  ships  annually  trading  to  this 
country,  sailing  from  Glasgow  on  the  24th  July,  1767,  and  arriving 
at  Oxford,  in  Talbot  county,  in  the  month  of  September  following, 
bringing  with  him  a  shipment  of  merchandise  such  as  he  supposed 
would  be  adapted  to  the  wants  of  the  place  of  his  destination. 

The  following  year  he  chartered  a  vessel  and  returned,  stopping 
on  the  voyage  at  Fayal,  and  making  there  some  valuable  friends. 
In  1769,  he  returned  to  America,  landing  at  Benedict,  on  the 
Patuxent  river.  For  a  number  of  years  he  here  pursued  a  profit- 
able business,  and  married  the  daughter  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Airy, 
of  Dorchester  county,  Maryland,  but  the  war  of  the  Revolution 
occurring,  he  took  a  decided  part  with  the  country  of  his  adoption, 
not,  however,  going  into  the  regular  army,  but  serving  with  the 
militia  of  the  county  (St.  Mary).  Two  young  gentlemen  living  with 
him  as  clerks  at  the  time,  Mr.  John  Eccleston  and  Mr.  John  Gale, 
went  into  the  regular  service  and  distinguished  themselves. 

In  December,  1778,  he  determined  to  remove  to  Baltimore,  then 
a  small  but  thriving  town,  and  not  long  afterwards  having  con- 
siderable transactions  with  the  celebrated  house  of  Samuel  Inglis 
&  Co.,  of  Philadelphia,  in  which  Mr.  Robert  Morris  (the  well-known 
financier  of  Congress)  and  Mr.  Thomas  Willing,  both  signers  of  the 
Declaration  of  Independence,  were  partners,  a  mutual  confidence 
and  friendly  feeling'  growing  up  between  them  and  the  son-in-law 
of  Mr.  Willing,  Mr.  William  Bingham  (whose  career  was  also  one 
of  extraordinary  success,)  and  Mr.  Gilmor,  a  copartnership  was  the 


result ;  the  purpose  of  whichwas  the  transaction  of  the  American 
business  at  Amsterdam,  in  Holland.  The  firm  was  formed  under 
the  name  of  "Bingham,  Inglis  &  Gilmor."  The  latter  was  to  reside 
abroad  and  have  the  active  conduct  of  the  business.  Accordingly, 
on  the  27th  November,  1782,  Robert  Gilmor  embarked  for  the  place 
thus  selected  for  the  operations  of  this  concern,  and  soon  after 
reached  it  with  his  family.  Starting  under  very  favorable  auspices, 
in  this  association  he  met  with  gratifying  success,  and  made  mer- 
cantile connections  of  the  highest  character  in  all  parts  of  Europe. 
Eighteen  months  later,  however,  the  death  of  Mr.  Inglis  brought 
the  prosperous  career  thus  inaugurated  to  a  sudden  close. 

Mr.  Gilmor  declined  an  offer  from  Messrs.  Morris  &  Willing  for 
a  renewal  of  the  copartnership  with  them,  but  accepted  a  similar 
proposal  from  William  Bingham,  and  articles  of  copartnership  be- 
tween him  and  the  latter  were  signed  in  London  in  the  month  of 
February,  1784.  The  style  of  this  firm  was  Robert  Gilmor  &  Co., 
and  the  place  fixed  for  the  transaction  of  its  business  was  Balti- 
more. One  of  the  ships  of  this  firm,  the  brig  Ann,  Captain  Skinner, 
was  sent  in  that  year  to  St.  Petersburg  for  Russia  goods,  with 
which  she  arrived  in  America  the  same  year ;  she  was  immediately 
dispatched  to  Batavia,  and  in  both  places  she  was  the  first  vessel 
that  ever  displayed  the  American  stripes.  The  active  member  in 
the  last  formed  connection,  Mr.  Gilmor,  again  returned  to  Balti- 
more, and  made  it  thenceforward  his  permanent  home.  Thereafter 
he  became  largely  engaged  in  foreign  commerce,  principally  de- 
voting his  attention  to  the  East  India  trade,  of  which  he  may  be 
considered  the  founder  in  this  country.  In  this  trade  he  was  joined 
by  the  prominent  Philadelphia  house  of  Mordecai  Lewis  &  Co. 
From  it  he  derived  an  extensive  fortune,  and  he  continued  in  it 
until  finally  when  it  was  overdone  by  the  number  of  vessels  fitted 
out  from  the  Northern  ports,  and  the  market  inundated  with  this 
description  of  goods  from  Boston  and  Salem. 

In  1799,  after  lasting  for  fifteen  years,  his  copartnership  with  Mr. 
Bingham  was  closed,  and  he  took  into  business  with  him  his  two 
sons,  Robert  and  William,  under  the  firm  of  "Robert  Gilmor  & 
Sons,"  a  house  which,  for  the  period  of  some  fifty  years,  ranked 
with  those  of  the  highest  standing  and  respectability  here  and 

Mr.  Gilmor  died  in  January,  1822.  He  had  no  inclination  for 
public  situations,  but  was  nevertheless  called  on  to  fill  many  im- 
portant and  influential  positions. 

ROBERT    GIL  M  OR.  287 

It  was  mainly  through  his  exertions,  acting  in  conjunction  with 
Mr.  Patterson  and  a  few  other  enterprising  merchants  of  that  day 
in  Baltimore,  that  the  first  Bank  in  Baltimore  received  its  origin. 
The  Bank  of  Maryland  obtained  its  charter  in  1790,  and  was  the 
first  institution  of  the  sort  chartered  south  of  Philadelphia. 

In  1797,  Baltimore  was  raised  to  the  rank  of  a  city  by  the  Legis- 
lature of  the  State,  and  under  the  first  charter  election  Mr.  Gilmor 
was  chosen  a  member  of  the  Second  Branch  of  the  City  Council, 
and  by  the  members  of  that  body  made  President,  which  office  he 
continued  to  occupy  for  several  terms,  assisting  materially  in  or- 
ganizing the  city  government,  and  in  framing  many  of  the  early 

He  was  one  of  the  Committee  of  Merchants  of  Baltimore,  who, 
when  the  French  Directory  in  1797  refused  to  treat  with  our  Com- 
missioners, Marshal  Gerry  and  Pinckney,  and  Congress  authorized 
the  capture  of  vessels  belonging  to  French  citizens,  offered  to  fur- 
nish two  sloops  of  war  for  the  use  of  the  Government,  and  was 
made  Chairman  of  the  Committee  which  fitted  them  out. 

In  1807,  a  company  was  formed  to  carry  on  the  trade  between 
India  and  China,  and  Baltimore,  and  from  his  superior  experience  in 
this  branch  of  commerce,  Mr.  Gilmor  was  appointed  President. 

In  1821,  a  Chamber  of  Commerce  was  established,  and  of  this,  he 
was  called  to  be  the  President,  a  position  to  which  he  was  unani- 
mously re-elected,  and,  we  believe,  held  at  the  time  of  his  death,  at 
the  venerable  age  of  seventy-three  years. 

The  community,  and  a  large  circle  of  immediate  friends  in  Avhich 
he  moved,  entertained  an  exalted  opinion  of  his  worth  and  benevo- 
lence in  the  use  of  the  ample  fortune  he  accumulated,  and  the 
expressions  which  his  death  elicited  evidence  a  remarkably  high 
appreciation  of  his  ability  as  a  merchant.  The  following  quotation 
is  from  a  letter  written  by  Mr.  Alexander  Baring,  of  the  house  of 
Baring  Brothers,  the  English  bankers,  afterward  Lord  Ashburton, 
to  Robert  Gilmor,  the  son  of  the  subject  of  this  notice. 

"  I  had  before  learnt  the  loss  of  my  old  and  excellent  friend,  your 
worthy  father,  which  I  can  assure  you  gave  us  all  sincere  concern. 
I  can  well  conceive  what  a  loss  he  must  have  been  to  his  family ; 
as  a  friend,  I  owe  him  great  obligations;  and  as  a  merchant, 
although  I  have  seen  and  dealt  with  a  great  many,  I  never  knew 
his  superior,  if  his  equal." 

After  his  death,  the  house  of  Gilmor  converted  its  business  into 
that  of  Bankers,  and  its  reputation  was  fully  maintained  by  the  son 


of  the  gentleman  of  whom  we  have  been  speaking,  also  bearing  his 
name.  Mr.  Robert  Gilmor,  the  son,  died  at  Baltimore  in  1849.  He 
was  a  gentleman  of  very  affluent  fortune  and  of  refined  culture,  who 
had  moved  in  the  most  elevated  circles,  and  had  accumulated 
extensive  treasures  in  literature  and  art,  many  of  them  of  peculiar 
interest  and  value. 



Xorth  of  the  city  of  Baltimore,  and  about  fifteen  miles  distant, 
in  that  beautiful  valley  known  as  Long  Green,  some  of  the  earlier 
immigrants  to  Maryland,  in  search  of  a  rich  soil  and  peaceful  skies, 
settled  with  their  families.  Many  of  their  homesteads  remain  to 
this  day,  in  possession  of  their  descendants,  hallowed  by  association 
and  endeared  by  domestic  ties ;  while,  in  the  eye  of  the  stranger 
passing  that  way,  long,  low  roofs  and  quaint  old  gables  rise  up, 
here  and  there,  in  the  midst  of  more  modern  improvements — his- 
toric relics,  marking  the  line  between  the  proud  present  and  the 
simpler  past.  Among  the  first  drawn  to  this  spot  was  Thomas 
Gittings,  the  great-grandfather  of  John  S.  Gittings.  He  came  to 
Maryland  about  the  year  1084 ;  and  in  1720  obtained  patents  for  a 
large  tract  of  land  in  the  valley,  under  the  then  name  of  Gittings' 
Choice — now  known  as  the  Long  Green  Farm.  Here  he  lived  and 
died  ;  devising  his  estate  to  his  son  James.  The  mother  of  James 
was  of  the  Webster  family,  of  Harford  county.  James  Gittings 
married  the  daughter  of  Dr.  George  Buchanan,  "one  of  the  founders 
of  Baltimore."  The  wife  of  Dr.  George  Buchanan  was  Eleanor 
Rogers.  Dr.  Buchanan  was  the  proprietor  of  Druid  Hill,  now 
Druid  Hill  Park.  He  was  the  father  of  General  Andrew  Bu- 
chanan, the  Lieutenant  of  the  county  during  the  Revolution,  and 
afterwards  Chief  Judge  of  the  Court ;  also  of  William  Buchanan, 
one  of  the  first  Registers  of  Wills  of  Baltimore  county  and 
city ;  grandfather  of  James  M.  Buchanan,  late  United  States 
Minister  to  Denmark ;  and  great-grandfather  of  Admiral  Franklin 
Buchanan.  James  Gittings,  junior,  the  father  of  John  S.,  married 
Harriet  Sterrett,  daughter  of  John  Sterrett,  whose  wife  was 
Deborah  Ridgely,  daughter  of  John  Ridgely,  which  latter  gentle- 
man was  the  eldest  son  of  the  original  proprietor  of  "  Hampton,"  in 
Baltimore  county.  John  Ridgely  married  a  daughter  of  Colonel 
Edward  Dorsey,  of  Elkridge.  James  Gittings,  senior,  and  John 
Sterrett,  were  zealous  and  active  during  the  Revolution ;  they  were 


members  of  the  General  Assembly  of  Maryland,  at  a  time  when  tlie 
principal  citizens  were  selected  for  the  public  service. 

John  Sterrett  Gittings,  the  prominent  living  representative  of 
the  family  of  his  name  in  Maryland,  was  born  at  Long  Green  in 
the  house  where  his  grandfather  and  father  were  born ;  and  he  is 
now  the  owner  of  the  estate.  Standing  upon  the  old  threshold, 
worn  by  the  feet  of  three  generations  of  his  family,  with  the  graves 
of  many  of  them  in  view,  the  crowding  memories  that  there  over- 
whelm him,  come  with  no  murmuring  voices  out  of  the  past, 
charging  degeneracy  as  a  descendant  and  son.  True  to  the  dictates 
of  a  high  nature,  ever  responsive  in  breasts  from  which  pride  is  not 
flown,  to  the  just  wishes  of  those  who  see  not,  nor  hear — yet,  speak 
down  the  years  with  an  unmistakable  emphasis,  he  has  withheld 
the  home  of  his  forefathers  from  the  hand  of  the  stranger.  Thus, 
in  the  winter  of  life  of  one  other  of  the  race,  fast  hastening  to  join 
the  band  gone  before,  no  ghosts  of  the  departed  bemoan,  in  that 
beautiful  valley,  the  homestead  and  hearthstone  deserted. 

The  childhood  of  John  S.  Gittings  was  passed  at  Long  Green; 
and  the  rudiments  of  his  education  he  there  acquired  at  a  mother's 
knee.  He  further  pursued  his  studies  at  Dickinson  College,  Penn- 
sylvania. At  the  age  of  sixteen  he  left  college,  to  enter  the 
counting  house  of  James  A.  Buchanan.  At  seventeen  he  was 
made  discount  clerk  in  the  City  Bank.  In  the  spring  of  1820  his 
father  died,  and  he  was  recalled  to  the  country,  to  take  charge  of 
his  father's  estate.  In  1821,  he  married  Eleanor  Addison  Smith, 
daughter  of  William  Rogers  Smith,  and  granddaughter  of  Cumber- 
land Dugan  by  his  first  wife,  who  was  a  Miss  May,  of  Roxbury, 
Massachusetts.  In  the  same  year  (1821)  Mr.  Gittings  commenced 
business  in  Baltimore  as  a  stock  broker.  In  1835  he  was  elected 
President  of  the  Chesapeake  Bank.  In  1836  he  was  appointed 
Commissioner  of  the  Loans  for  the  State  of  Maryland,  which  office 
he  filled  until  removed  through  a  change  in  the  State's  administra- 
tion. He  was  reinstated  under  Democratic  rule,  but  again  removed 
under  a  Republican  administration.  For  many  years  Mr.  Gittings 
was  a  member  of  the  City  Council  of  Baltimore,  during  which 
time  he  was  chairman  of  the  Finance  Committee.  He  was  elected 
by  the  City,  and  also  appointed  by  the  State,  a  Director  in  the 
Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  Company,  during  the  presidency  of 
Mr.  William  G.  Harrison,  and  was  chairman  of  the  Finance  Com- 
mittee. Mr.  Gittings  for  two  years  was  President  of  the  Northern 
Central  Railroad.  When  Hie  State  of  Maryland  was  divided  into 
four   Judicial    Districts,  he   was   elected   Commissioner    of  Public 

JOHN    S .    G  I  T  T  I  X  G  S.  291 

Works.  In  the  Democratic  State  Convention  which  nominated  E. 
Louis  Lowe  for  Governor,  Mr.  Gittings's  name  was  presented  as  the 
choice  of  Baltimore  county. 

In  1848  Mr.  Gittings  lost  his  wife,  who  left  two  children,  Eleanor 
Addison,  who  married  George  II.  Williams,  a  prominent  member  of 
of  the  bar  of  Maryland  ;  and  William  S.  Gittings  who  died  several 
years  since,  leaving  two  children,  a  son  and  a  daughter. 

In  Xovember,  1853,  Mr.  Gittings  married  Charlotte  Carter  Rit- 
chie, daughter  of  the  venerable  and  distinguished  Thomas  Ritchie, 
and  granddaughter  of  Dr.  Fouche  of  Richmond. 

In  the  business  world  Mr.  Gittings  is  eminent  as  a  banker.  He 
is  now  President  of  the  Chesapeake  Bank,  a  position  which  he  has 
filled  successfully  and  uninterruptedly,  with  the  confidence  of  the 
public,  for  thirty-five  years.  In  point  of  individual  wealth  he  ranks 
with  millionaires.  As  a  business  man,  he  is  a  model.  Discipline, 
fixed,  severe,  is  the  basis  of  his  business  course.  Prompt  and 
methodical  himself,  he  requires  an  unremitting  exercise  of  the  like 
qualities  in  those  about  him,  so  that  the  machinery  of  which  he  is 
master  and  main-spring,  moves  with  the  precision  of  the  stroke  of 
time.  In  all  strictly  business  transactions,  his  rule  is — payment  for 
value  received — equivalent  for  equivalent — dollar  for  dollar  ;  and  to 
the  uttermost  farthing  he  stands  by  the  spirit  and  letter  of  con- 
tract ;  where  differences  arise,  and  other  means  fail,  he  invites  to 
the  courts  of  law  and  abides  their  decisions.  In  the  world  he  is  of 
the  world,  and  facing  its  face,  he  looks  out  with  the  eyes,  and  wears 
the  armor  of  a  Girard  and  a  Peabody.  Just,  he  observes  the  prime 
law  ;  true  to  himself,  he  is  an  example  to  others. 

In  that  more  sacred  world — the  domestic  circle — where  is  cast 
the  needless  outer  armor  off,  he  stands  revealed  iu  all  the  strength 
and  devotedness  of  connubial  and  parental  affection — in  the  pride 
of  fatherly  care — in  undiminished  solicitude,  yet  satisfaction — the 
faithful  sentinel  off  guard,  within  the  citadel  of  heart  and  home. 


Eobert  Goodloe  Harper  was  born  near  Fredericksburg,  Virginia, 
in  1765.  His  parents  were  poor,  having  much  to  struggle  with, 
and  his  prospects  at  the  outset  of  life  were  anything  but  flattering. 
During  his  childhood  the  family  removed  to  Granville,  North 
Carolina.  The  war  of  the  Revolution  desolated  the  South,  and  the 
Carolinas  were  terribly  harassed  with  the  presence  of  the  enemy  and 
Tory  partisans.  Young  Harper  had  only  entered  on  his  fifteenth 
year  when  he  joined  a  troop  of  horse,  and  under  General  Greene 
served  in  the  latter  part  of  the  Southern  campaign.  His  military 
training,  however,  did  not  extinguish  in  him  the  love  of  learning, 
and  he  made  every  exertion  to  profit  by  the  limited  advantages  he 
had.  With  diligence  and  perseverance  he  qualified  for  college,  and 
in  1785  he  graduated  at  Princeton.  While  there  he  acted  for  a 
time  as  tutor  to  lower  classes  than  his  own.  After  leaving  college, 
he  proceeded  to  Philadelphia  in  search  of  some  congenial  occupa- 
tion, but  finding  little  encouragement  there  he  sailed  for  Charleston, 
South  Carolina,  and  arrived  at  his  destination  almost  penniless. 
As  he  was  standing  upon  the  pier  uncertain  of  the  future,  he  was 
accosted  by  a  person  who  inquired  his  name,  and  on  learning  it 
spoke  of  his  own  son,  who  having  been  at  Princeton,  had  known 
Harper  there.  This  person,  who  proved  to  be  a  tavern-keeper, 
learning  of  Harper's  needy  circumstances,  kindly  provided  for  his 
wants,  and  finding  that  his  predilection  was  for  legal  studies,  intro- 
duced him  to  a  lawyer. 

Harper  now  applied  himself  with  great  diligence  to  his  studies, 
and  in  one  year  was  prepared  to  practice  in  the  courts.  He 
removed  into  the  interior  of  the  State,  and  soon  began  to  attract 
attention  as  an  able  and  clear  headed  lawyer.  He  also  busily 
employed  his  pen,  and  wrote  many  vigorous  articles  for  the  news- 
papers on  political  subjects,  chiefly  in  regard  to  the  change  of  the 
State  Constitution.  He  was  elected  to  the  Legislature  of  South 
Carolina,  and  in  1794  to  the  National  House  of  Representatives, 
serving  with  distinction  until  1801.  He  was  regarded  as  one  of  the 


leaders  of  the  Federal  party,  and  vigorously  supported  the  adminis- 
trations of  Washington  and  Adams.  In  1801  he  retired  from 
Congress.  He  married  Catherine,  daughter  of  Charles  Carroll,  of 
Carrollton,  and  removed  to  Baltimore.  He  came  to  this  city  with 
a  distinguished  reputation,  and  he  shone  conspicuously  at  the  bar  of 
Baltimore,  at  the  period  of  its  greatest  brilliancy,  when  beside  him- 
self it  was  graced  by  William  H.  Winder,  Luther  Martin,  Roger  B. 
Taney,  William  Wirt,  and  William  Pinkney.  He  was  employed  as 
counsel  for  Judge  Samuel  Chase  in  his  famous  trial  of  impeachment, 
in  connection  with  J.  Hopkinson  and  Luther  Martin.  He  partici- 
pated in  the  defence  of  Baltimore  against  the  attack  of  the  British 
in  1814,  and  during  the  war  attained  the  rank  of  Major  General. 
In  1815,  he  was  elected  to  the  United  States  Senate,  and  took  an 
able  and  active  part  in  the  debates.  In  1819-20  he  visited  Europe 
with  his  family.  His  own  reputation  and  the  celebrity  of  his 
father-in-law  gave  him  ready  access  to  the  most  illustrious  society 
of  the  continent.  He  returned  to  Baltimore,  resuming  the  practice 
of  his  profession,  and  taking  a  very  active  interest  in  the  Maryland 
Colonization  Society.  He  died  very  suddenly  on  the  14th  of  Janu- 
ary, 1825.  He  had  only  the  day  before  argued  a  case  in  court  for 
three  hours  with  his  usual  ability,  and  gave  no  sign  of  the  slightest 
indisposition  up  to  the  very  moment  of  his  death.  He  attended  a 
large  party  the  evening  before  his  decease,  and  appeared  in  most 
lively  spirits.  The  succeeding  morning  after  breakfast,  while 
standing  before  the  fire  and  reading  a  newspaper,  he  fell  and 
instantly  expired.  General  Harper's  mind  was  of  singular  clearness, 
and  his  power  of  statement  was  considered  almost  unequalled.  His 
private  virtues  endeared  him  to  a  wide  circle  of  friends,  and  his 
public  services  rendered  him  an  honor  to  the  State  and  to  the 


The  City  of  Baltimore  lias  been  greatly  indebted  to  many  German 
merchants  who  have  settled  here  at  various  periods.  Trained  at 
home  in  systematic  habits  of  industry,  and  skilled  in  all  the  minutiae 
of  the  counting-house,  many  of  them  have  become  eminent  in  their 
new  field  of  labor,  and  have  left  enduring  monuments  of  their 
mercantile  ability  and  liberal  public  spirit.  Among  these  merchants 
Peter  Hoffman,  Senior,  the  founder  of  the  house  of  Peter  Hoffman 
&  Sons,  and  the  first  of  his  family  who  settled  in  Maryland,  deserves 
honorable  mention.  He  was  born  in  1742,  near  Frankfort-on-the- 
Main,  and  came  to  America  when  quite  a  young  man.  He  pur- 
chased a  farm  near  Frederick,  Maryland,  which  he  sold  in  1776,  for 
the  sum  of  thirty  thousand  dollars,  and  removed  with  his  family  to 
Baltimore.  His  family  eventually  became  a  large  one,  consisting  of 
eight  sons  and  four  daughters.  His  sons  were  Jacob,  Jeremiah, 
A\ 'illiam,  Peter,  George,  John,  Samuel  and  David.  All  of  them 
became  active  and  prosperous  merchants,  with  the  exception  of 
David,  the  youngest  son.  He  adopted  the  profession  of  law,  in 
which  he  acquired  reputation;  but  is  more  widely  known  as  an 
author.  Beside  various  lectures  on  legal  subjects,  he  published 
several  literary  works,  one  of  them  being,  "  Viator,  or  a  Peep  into 
my  Xote-books  ;"  issued  in  Baltimore,  in  1841.  His  most  extensive 
work,  however,  is  entitled  "  Chronicles  selected  from  the  originals  of 
Cartaphilus,  the  Wandering  Jew;  embracing  a  period  of  nearly  nine- 
teen centuries;"'  published  in  Loudon,  1853-54,  in  three  large  octavo 
volumes.  These  "  Chronicles"  display  wide  research  and  much  pro- 
found learning. 

Another  one  of  the  family  was  also  distinguished  as  a  man  of 
letters,  Peter  Hoffman  Cruse.  He,  with  his  friend  the  late  John  P. 
Kennedy,  published  in  1828,  "  The  Red  Book,"  a  series  of  essays, 
giving  great  promise  of  future  eminence.  He  was,  however,  cut  off 
in  the  flower  of  his  age,  being  one  of  the  earliest  victims  of  the 
Asiatic  cholera,  during  its  first  visit  to  this  city  in  1832. 

Returning  to  Peter  Hoffman,  Senior,  he  soon  established  himself 


in  Baltimore  as  a  dry  goods  merchant,  and  in  due  time  formed  the 
mercantile  firm  of  Peter  Hoffman  &  Sons.  He,  as  the  head  of  the 
house,  was  joined  by  his  sons  John,  George  and  Peter,  Jr.,  in  Balti- 
more, while  William  and  Jeremiah  became  residents  of  London, 
where  for  many  years  they  carried  on  business  as  American  com- 
mission merchants.  Peter,  Senior,  lived  in  Calvert  street,  south  of 
Baltimore  street,  but  afterwards  built  two  houses  on  Baltimore 
street,  one  for  a  dwelling,  the  other  for  a  store.  The  white  marble 
store  of  Messrs.  Hamilton  Easter  &  Sons  now  occupies  the  site  of 
these  buildings.  Mr.  Hoffman  was  one  of  the  selectmen  of  "  Balti- 
more-Town," before  the  adoption  of  the  city  government,  and  was 
much  interested  in  the  various  improvements  of  the  town  as  well  as 
in  its  early  charitable  institutions,  of  which  he  was  a  promoter  and 
director  Among  the  projects  which  he  labored  to  effect  must  be 
mentioned  the  City  Spring,  in  Calvert  street,  adjoining  Saratoga. 
He  was  instrumental  in  building  and  laying  out  this  spot,  which 
although  now  somewhat  shorn  of  its  attractions  from  the  removal 
of  the  Gothic  building,  with  its  niche  enclosing  the  Armistead 
Monument,  for  very  many  years  was  considered  one  of  the  orna- 
ments of  the  city,  and  was  the  resort  of  the  best  classes  of  our 
citizens.  Mr.  Hoffman  died  in  1809,  and  was  buried  in  the  grave 
yard  attached  to  the  old  Otterbine  German  Church,  leaving  an  ex- 
cellent reputation  as  an  upright  merchant  and  Christian  man.  His 
eldest  son  Jacob,  was  for  a  time  a  sugar  refiner  in  Alexandria, 
Virginia,  but  subsequently  retired  to  a  farm  in  Loudoun  county, 
where  he  passed  the  remainder  of  his  life. 

John  Hoffman  retired  from  a  successful  business  about  the  year 
1820.  He  lived  in  Hanover  street,  between  German  and  Lombard 
streets.  This  locality  is  now  wholly  occupied  by  large  warehouses, 
but  half  a  century  ago  contained  some  of  the  best  residences  ia  the 
city.  He  built  several  warehouses  on  Charles  street,  between  the 
two  just  named,  and  four  on  Lombard  street,  between  Uhler's  alley 
and  Hanover  street,  which  were  afterwards  sold  to  John  Eager 
Howard,  who  converted  them  into  the  present  "  New  Assembly 
liooms."  Mr.  Hoffman  died  in  1837.  He  was  much  esteemed  for 
his  generosity  of  disposition,  and  for  his  lively  humor. 

His  brother  George  being  also  prosperous  retired  about  the  same 
time,  1820.  He  was  prominent  as  a  promoter  of  many  of  the  lead- 
ing enterprises  of  the  city,  and  was  a  man  of  uncommon  business 
sagacity.  He  was  one  of  the  Baltimore  Directors  of  the  Bank  of 
the  United  States,  in  Philadelphia,  and  was  one  of  the  original 
friends,  organizers  and  directors,  for  many  years,  of  the  Baltimore 

PETER    HOFFMAN    &     S  0  N  S .  2(J7 

and  Ohio  Railroad.  He  lived  and  died  in  the  house  on  the  corner 
of  Franklin  and  Cathedral  streets,  now  occupied  by  the  Maryland 
Club.  The  grounds  attached  to  this  fine  mansion  were  beautiful 
and  very  extensive,  there  being  for  many  years  only  one  other 
house  that  of  the  late  Dr.  Thomas  Edmoudson,  Jr.,  between  them 
and  the  Unitarian  Church.  The  main  building  of  the  Maryland 
Club  fronting  on  Franklin  street,  is  very  much  as  Mr.  Hoffman  left 
it,  and  its  interior  especially  is  a  remarkably  beautiful  specimen  of 
domestic  architecture. 

Peter,  Jr.,  after  conducting,  under  his  own  name,  a  successful  dry 
goods  business,  retired  about  the  same  time  with  his  brothers,  in 
1821.  He  was  one  of  the  incorporators  and  trustees  of  the  Balti- 
more Orphan  Asylum,  was  a  vestryman  of  St.  Paul's  Church,  and 
actively  connected  with  nearly  all  the  public  charities  of  the  city, 
while  his  many  good  deeds  in  private  have  otherwise  endeared  his 
memory.  He,  in  connection  with  his  son  Samuel  Owings  Hoffman, 
built  the  present  "  Law  Buildings"  on  the  corner  of  St.  Paul  and 
Lexington  streets:  and  on  the  site  of  the  first  Athenaeum,  which 
was  totally  destroyed  by  fire  in  February,  1835 ;  such  being  the 
intense  severity  of  the  weather  that  the  water  froze  in  the  hose  of 
the  lire  companies,  and  rendered  unavailing  all  efforts  to  save  the 
building  from  the  flames.  Mr.  Hoffman  died  in  1837,  in  his  house 
on  the  corner  of  St.  Paul  street,  opposite  to  the  Law  Buildings. 
This  house  still  remains,  but  is  no  longer  a  private  residence,  having 
been  converted  into  offices. 

Jeremiah  Hoffman,  who,  with  his  brother  William,  had  long  re- 
sided in  London  where  they  enjoyed  the  reputation  of  a  leading 
American  house,  returned  to  this  country  and  to  his  native  city  in 
1825.  William  also  returned,  and  died  unmarried  in  1828.  Jere- 
miah bought  the  house  at  "  Chatsworth"  as  the  neighborhood  was 
called,  and  near  the  intersection  of  Franklin  and  Chatsworth  streets. 
The  dwelling  house  a  very  elegant  and  substantial  structure,  fronts 
on  Franklin  street,  with  extensive  grounds  attached,  the  property 
now  being  in  the  possession  of  Daniel  B.  Banks.  From  Mr. 
Hoff mau's  long  residence  abroad,  his  tastes  were  decidedly  English, 
and  during  his  life  these  grounds  were  always  kept  in  the  most 
excpiisite  order,  and  were  laid  out  in  a  truly  elegant  manner.  He 
died  in  1844. 

Samuel  Hoffman,  for  some  time  carried  on  the  dry  goods  business 
in  Philadelphia,  but  eventually  formed  a  connection  with  his  nephew, 
Samuel  Owings,  son  of  Peter  Hoffman,  Jr.,  and  conducted  a  dry 
goods  jobbing   house   in   Baltimore,  under   the  firm  of  S.  &  S.  0. 


Hoffman.  Soon  after  establishing  this  copartnership,  such  opportu- 
nities in  the  auction  business  presented,  that  they  availed  themselves 
of  them  and  formed  the  auction  house  of  Hoffman  &  Co.,  and  occu- 
pied the  large  warehouse  on  Charles  street,  formerly  used  by  George 
&  John  Hoffman,  and  now  owned  by  Mr.  James  S.  Waters,  and 
fitted  up  as  his  book  store,  the  upper  floors  being  employed  by  Bry- 
ant, Stratton  &  Co.'s  Commercial  College.  Samuel  Hoffman  took 
very  high  rank  as  a  merchant,  and  his  nephew,  Samuel  Owings,  was 
also  an  excellent  business  man ;  while  both  were  noted  for  genial 
manners  and  hospitality,  and  Mr.  S.  O.  Hoffman  possessed  a  highly 
cultivated  mind  and  fine  taste  in  art. 

S.  Owings  Hoffman  represented  the  City  of  Baltimore  as  Senator 
in  the  State  Legislature. 

Samuel  was  for  many  years  a  Director  in  the  Baltimore  Branch  of 
the  Bank  of  the  United  States,  and  in  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Rail- 
road, of  which,  together  with  his  brother  George,  he  was  one  of  the 
original  corporators.  In  the  great  financial  crisis  of  1837,  when 
terror  and  disasters  pervaded  all  commercial  circles,  they  stepped 
manfully  forward  in  aid  of  the  dry  goods  jobbing  houses,  not  only 
with  all  their  public  influence,  but  also  with  their  private  means, 
rendering  assistance  to  many  in  need.  Some  years  afterward,  in 
recognition  of  his  services,  he,  as  the  head  of  the  firm  and  financier, 
was  presented  by  a  number  of  the  leading  merchants  of  Baltimore, 
with  an  elegant  piece  of  silver  plate.  He  retired  from  active 
business  in  1842,  and  died  in  1852,  in  the  house  which  he  had  built 
nearly  twenty  years  before,  opposite  to  the  Unitarian  Church,  in 
Franklin  street.  Samuel  Owings  built  the  large  house  on  the  north- 
west corner  of  Madison  and  Charles  streets,  and  there  died  in  1861. 

All  of  the  children  of  Peter  Hoffman,  Sr.,  have  passed  away,  pre- 
senting the  uncommon  circumstance  of  seven  of  the  sons  attaining 
wrealth  and  distinction  as  merchants,  and  contributing  materially  to 
the  commercial  eminence  and  prosperity  of  Baltimore. 


Johns  Hopkins  was  born  in  Anne  Arundel  county,  Maryland,  on 
May  19th,  1795.  He  was  the  son  of  Samuel  Hopkins,  of  Anne 
Arundel  comity,  and  of  Hannah  Janney  Hopkins,  of  Loudoun 
comity,  in  the  State  of  Virginia, 

Samuel  Hopkins,  his  father,  was  descended  from  an  English 
Quaker  family  of  respectability  and  substance.  Soon  after  the 
colonization  of  Maryland,  six  brothers  of  that  family  determined 
to  emigrate  to  America,  On  reaching  this  country,  two  of  these 
brothers  agreed  to  make  their  home  in  New  England,  and  four, 
journeying  to  Maryland,  selected  large  tracts  of  land,  situated  on 
Deer  Creek,  in  Harford  county,  Maryland,  in  Baltimore  county, 
near  Govanstown,  and  at  the  head  of  South  River,  in  Anne  Arun- 
del county,  Maryland. 

Many  of  the  descendants  of  the  two  brothers  who  settled  in  New 
England  reside  in  the  State  of  Rhode  Island,  and  are  persons  of 
well-known  character,  wealth  and  influence.  The  descendants  of 
the  four  brothers  who  made  their  home  in  Maryland  are  yet  more 
numerous.  The  members  of  the  family  have,  in  successive  genera- 
tions, with  few  exceptions,  adhered  to  the  Society  of  Friends. 

Johns  Hopkins,  the  grandfather  of  the  gentleman  who  is  the  sub- 
ject of  this  notice,  was  the  descendant  of  that  one  of  the  brothers, 
emigrating  from  England,  who  established  his  home  upon  South 
River,  in  Anne  Arundel  comity.  He  inherited  the  considerable 
landed  estate  acquired  by  his  ancestor  in  that  neighborhood,  and 
cultivated  his  property  with  the  aid  of  some  hundred  negroes,  of 
whom  he  became  possessed  by  bequest  from  his  parents  and  by  mar- 
riage. He  had  eleven  children.  At  that  period  slave  labor  was 
essential  to  profitable  farming  in  the  colony,  and  the  industry  and 
enterprise  of  Mr.  Hopkins  were  taxed  by  the  necessity  of  providing 
for  the  support  of  so  large  a  family.  But  doubts  arose  in  his  mind 
as  to  the  rightfulness  of  keeping  negroes  in  bondage ;  and  he,  there- 
fore, gave  freedom  to  all  his  slaves,  cultivating  his  estate  afterwards 


by  his  own  labor,  aided  by  the  toil  of  his  sons  and  by  such  free  labor 
as  could  then  be  procured. 

His  son,  Samuel  Hopkins,  was  much  beloved  for  his  popular  and 
social  manners.  He  married  in  early  life  Hannah  Janney,  a  lady 
belonging  to  a  wealthy  and  highly  respected  family,  which  had  long 
been  established  in  the  valley  of  Virginia,  where  many  descended 
from  it  yet  remain.  She  was  a  woman  of  great  intelligence  and 
force  of  character,  and  exercised  marked  influence  not  only  in  the 
social  circle  by  which  she  was  surrounded,  but  also  in  the  general 
Society  of  Friends,  of  which  she  was  a  member. 

Soon  after  his  father's  death,  Samuel  Hopkins  became,  by  pur- 
chase from  the  other  children,  the  sole  owner  of  the  property  on 
which  his  father  had  resided,  and,  in  his  turn,  cultivated  the  estate 
with  the  assistance  of  his  sons. 

In  1812,  however,  Johns  Hopkins,  the  subject  of  this  notice,  who 
was  one  of  these  sons,  being  then  in  the  eighteenth  year  of  his  age, 
showed  a  strong  disposition  to  engage  in  mercantile  life,  and  was, 
therefore,  allowed  to  enter  the  counting  room  of  Gerard  T.  Hopkins, 
his  uncle,  who  was  then  conducting  a  wholesale  grocery  business  in 
the  city  of  Baltimore.  Johns  Hopkins  brought  to  this  new  occupa- 
tion the  habits  of  industry  and  intelligent  observation,  which  he  had 
developed  upon  his  father's  farm,  and  entered  upon  its  duties  with 
an  energy  to  which  his  former  life  had  given  no  outlet.  He 
acquired  rapidly  a  knowledge  of  all  the  details  of  the  branch  of 
trade  in  which  he  was  engaged,  and,  in  1819,  with  the  consent  of 
his  uncle,  formed  a  partnership  with  Benjamin  P.  Moore,  for  the 
purpose  of  carrying  on  the  wholesale  grocery  business,  under  the 
name  of  Hopkins  &  Moore. 

The  new  firm  had  no  money  capital  whatever.  It  began  business, 
upon  the  credit  which  the  energy  of  Johns  Hopkins  had  already 
created,  and  with  no  other  assured  aid,  except  certain  endorsements, 
for  purchases  of  merchandise,  with  which  Gerard  T.  Hopkins  obliged 
the  firm.  In  1822,  the  partnership  was  dissolved ;  and  Johns 
Hopkins,  confident  in  his  individual  resources,  called  to  his  aid  two 
younger  brothers,  both  under  age,  gave  them  an  interest  in  his 
business,  and  inaugurated  a  new  firm  under  the  style  of  Hopkins  & 

The  business  of  this  house  was  rapidly  developed  by  the  great 
personal  energy  of  the  senior  and  principal  partner.  Its  trade  with 
the  valley  of  Virginia,  where  Mr.  Hopkins  had,  as  has  been  said, 
many  family  connections,  was  very  large,  and  it  rapidly  extended 


through  other  parts  of  the  State  of  Virginia,  and  into  adjoining 

Mr.  Hopkins  remained  connected  with  this  firm  for  twenty-five 
years.  During  all  this  period,  which  was  marked  by  many  periods 
of  general  financial  embarrassment,  the  house  of  Hopkins  &  Brothers 
maintained  the  highest  credit.  His  means  had  rapidly  increased, 
and  the  business  proved  capable  of  producing  even  greater  results; 
but  he  determined  to  lessen  the  amount  of  personal  labor,  devolving 
upon  him,  and  after  the  active  toil  of  a  quarter  of  a  century,  relin- 
quished the  business  to  his  brothers  and  to  two  of  his  clerks. 

He  did  not,  however,  abandon  his  interest  in  commercial  affairs. 
After  the  resignation  of  the  late  James  Swan,  who  had  for  many 
years  filled  with  credit  the  office  of  President  of  the  Merchants 
Bank  of  Baltimore,  Mr.  Hopkins  was  elected  his  successor,  and  has 
ever  since  discharged  the  duties  of  that  office,  with  great  ability  and 
energy.  He  has  been  always  a  close  observer  of  the  conduct,  char- 
acter and  intelligence  of  the  young  men,  who  were  entering  business 
life  in  the  city  of  Baltimore,  and  he  has,  uniformly,  exercised  his 
power,  as  a  bank  officer,  in  such  manner  as  to  extend  assistance  to 
those,  who,  by  their  diligence,  good  sense  and  integrity,  attracted 
his  attention  and  esteem,  even  in  cases  where  he  had  no  personal 
acquaintance  with  them.  It  is  well  known  indeed,  that  many 
young  merchants,  to  whom  liberal  discounts  were  extended,  during 
periods  of  commercial  embarrassment,  have  learned  for  the  first 
time,  when  their  obligations  were  paid  at  bank,  that  they  were 
indebted  for  the  discounts,  which  they  had  received,  to  the  volun- 
tary and  unsolicited  endorsement  of  their  paper  by  Johns  Hopkins 
himself,  acting  as  a  member  of  the  Board,  to  which  it  had  been 
submitted  for  consideration. 

Mr.  Hopkins  had  been,  from  an  early  period  in  its  history,  a  close 
observer  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad.  He  knew  thoroughly 
the  resources  of  the  country  through  which  it  was  proposed  to 
construct  it,  and  was  deeply  interested  in  promoting  the  progress 
of  the  work,  first  to  the  coal  fields  of  the  Alleghany  region,  and  then 
to  the  Ohio  river.  In  the  year  1847,  being  already  holder  of  a  large 
amount  of  the  stock  of  the  Company,  he  was  induced  to  become  a 
Director,  and  thenceforth  took  an  active  part  in  its  management. 
In  December,  1855,  he  was  appointed  Chairman  of  the  Finance 
Committee  of  the  Company,  and  he  has  continued  to  perform  the 
duties  of  that  important  office  until  the  present  time,  contributing 
greatly  to  the  success  of  the  Company,  by  his  firmness,  sagacity  and 
self-devotion  to  its  interests. 


It  will  be  remembered,  hereafter,  to  his  great  honor,  that  when, 
prior  to  1857,  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  Company,  embar- 
rassed by  the  monetary  difficulties  of  the  country,  and  by  internal 
dissensions,  was  unable  to  provide,  in  due  season,  for  the  heavy  obli- 
gations imposed  upon  it  by  the  extension  of  the  road,  Mr.  Hopkins 
came  voluntarily  forward,  and,  by  endorsing  the  notes  of  the  Com- 
pany, to  a  very  large  amount,  pledged  his  private  fortune  to  its 
support,  and  thus  greatly  contributed  to  the  maintenance  of  the 
credit  of  the  Company,  and  ensured  the  completion  and  perfect 
success  of  the  road. 

Mr.  Hopkins  has  added,  year  by  year,  to  his  ownership  of  the 
stock  of  the  Company,  and  is  now  possessed  of  more  than  fifteen 
thousand  shares,  representing  a  par  value  of  one  million  five  hun- 
dred thousand  dollars,  and  an  actual  market  value  of  more  than 
two  millions  of  dollars.  He  holds  an  interest  in  the  Company,  less 
only  in  amount  than  that  owned  by  the  State  of  Maryland  and 
by  the  city  of  Baltimore ;  and  both  the  State  and  city  have  largely 
profited  by  the  sagacity  and  zeal  with  which  he  has  devoted  himself 
to  the  promotion  of  the  true  interests  of  the  Company. 

The  attention  of  Mr.  Hopkins,  however,  since  his  retirement 
from  the  firm  of  Hopkins  &  Brothers,  has  not  been  confined  to  the 
interests  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  Company  only.  He 
has,  throughout  his  business  life,  entertained  a  firm  confidence  in 
the  increasing  welfare  and  prosperity  of  the  city  of  Baltimore.  He 
has,  therefore,  not  only  used  every  effort  to  open  new  channels  of 
commercial  intercourse  between  that  city  and  other  sections  of  the 
United  States,  but  he  has  endeavored  also  to  employ  his  means  in 
such  manner  as  would  best  enable  the  merchants  of  the  city  to 
accommodate  and  retain  its  growing  trade.  With  this  purpose  he 
became  the  owner  of  squares  and  parcels  of  ground  situated  in 
localities  convenient  for  the  transaction  of  business,  but  which 
were  useless,  because  of  the  mean,  or  inadequate,  buildings  erected 
upon  them.  Upon  these  squares  and  lots  he  has  built  a  large 
number  of  substantial  warehouses,  and  has  thus  centered  certain 
branches  of  important  trade  in  proper  and  convenient  localities, 
and  supplied  them  with  ample  room  and  accommodation.  He  has 
also  been  at  the  pains  to  provide  massive  buildings,  in  proper 
locations,  capable  of  greater  ornament  than  the  warehouses  he  has 
erected,  for  the  use  of  those  mercantile  corporations  and  agencies 
which  grow  and  increase  with  the  needs  of  a  commercial  city. 

By  providing  full  scope  for  the  transaction  of  an  important  part 
of  the   business  of  the   city,  and    by  performing  this    task   in  a 

JOHNS     HOPKINS.  303 

manner  which  adds  largely  not  only  to  the  taxable  wealth  of  the 
community,  but  to  its  commercial  importance,  Mr.  Hopkins  has 
greatly  contributed  to  the  prosperity  of  the  city  of  Baltimore. 
He  has  especially  supplied,  for  many  years,  ample  occupation  to 
many  mechanics,  who  were  employed  upon  his  improvements.  To 
such  work  and  to  the  cure  of  his  property  in  the  Baltimore  and 
Ohio  Railroad  Company,  Mr.  Hopkins  mainly  devotes  his  time. 
Since  his  connection  with  the  Company  first  commenced,  the  stock 
has  greatly  enhanced  in  value,  but  he  has  not,  for  this  reason,  sought 
to  realize,  by  sale,  any  profit  upon  his  original  investments.  He 
has  full  confidence  in  the  permanent  value  of  the  stock  itself,  and 
has,  it  is  believed,  set  apart  the  whole  fund  for  the  establishment 
and  support  of  a  University,  to  be  located  upon  his  fine  estate  at 
"  Clifton,"  containing  nearly  four  hundred  acres  of  land,  and 
situated  about  one  mile  from  the  city  of  Baltimore,  on  the  Har- 
ford road. 

This  University,  bearing  his  name,  has  been  already  fully  or- 
ganized by  the  appointment  of  trustees,  under  the  provisions  of  a 
general  law  of  this  State;  and  Mr.  Hopkins,  having  already  pro- 
vided for  the  creation  of  free  scholarships,  by  which  poor  and 
deserving  students  from  the  States  of  Maryland  and  Virginia  shall 
be  maintained,  is  occupied  in  maturing,  during  his  lifetime,  the 
details  of  this  great  work. 

This  estate  at  Clifton  will  afford  ample  room,  not  only  for  the 
accommodation  of  the  professors  and  students  attached  to  the  Uni- 
versity, but  also  space  for  the  establishment  of  a  Botanical  and 
Agricultural  school  upon  an  extended  scale.  The  buildings  of  the 
University  will  be  surrounded  by  pleasure  grounds  as  ample  as  the 
trustees  may  see  fit  to  maintain ;  and  if  they  part  at  any  time  with 
outlying  portions  of  the  land,  they  will  be  able  to  do  it  upon  terms 
which  will  protect  the  grounds  and  property  of  the  University  from 
intrusion,  annoyance  and  injury. 

In  the  same  spirit  he  has  set  aside  property  to  the  value  of  more 
than  two  millions  and  a  half  of  dollars  to  be  appropriated  to  the 
erection  of  a  great  hospital  upon  the  site  of  the  present  Maryland 
Hospital,  which,  with  the  grounds  around  it,  have  been  purchased 
by  him  for  that  purpose  from  the  trustees  of  the  Maryland  Hospital. 

The  Corporation  bearing  his  name,  which  he  intends  shall  ad- 
minister this  great  charity,  has  been  fully  organized;  and  it  is 
understood  that,  as  soon  as  the  streets  and  alley-ways,  as  yet  un- 
opened, which  might  intersect  the  property,  are  permanently  closed, 
by  competent  authority,  the  trustees  of  the  new  hospital  will  be 


enabled  to  commence  buildings  which  will  be  a  splendid  and  en- 
during monument  to  their  founder,  and  will  prove  an  incalculable 
blessing  to  the  poor  of  the  community  in  which  they  will  be 

The  new  hospital  will  be  possessed  of  separate  buildings  for  the 
reception  of  the  sick  of  different  sexes,  and  also  of  separate  build- 
ings for  the  reception  of  the  sick  of  different  colors,  and  will  be 
dedicated  to  the  cure  of  bodily  injuries  and  non-contagious  diseases. 
It  will  be  placed  under  the  care  of  the  ablest  surgeons  and  physi- 
cians, and  its  endowment  will  supply  ample  funds  for  its  support. 
It  is,  therefore,  reasonably  expected  by  its  founder  that  the  people 
of  the  State  and  city  will  co-operate  earnestly  with  him  in  pro- 
moting its  early  and  secure  establishment. 

Mr.  Hopkins  has  also  provided  for  the  erection  of  an  asylum  for 
the  education  and  maintenance  of  orphan  colored  children,  in  a 
location  separate  and  distinct  from  the  site  of  the  hospital.  This 
asylum  will  be  placed  under  the  care  and  management  of  the  trus- 
tees of  "The  Johns  Hopkins  Hospital." 

Mr.  Hopkins  is  awaiting  with  anxiety  the  arrival  of  the  time 
when  he  may  regard  the  admirable  site  which  he  has  selected  for 
his  hospital  as  secured  to  its  public  uses  by  proper  legislation,  in 
order  that  he  may  see  that  work  completed  during  his  life,  and  may 
be  able  to  assure  to  the  sick  and  disabled  in  the  community  a  place 
of  refuge,  easy  of  access,  healthful  in  air,  with  pleasant  outlooks 
over  the  city,  harbor  and  river,  and  with  ample  grounds,  in  which 
the  feeble  and  convalescent  may  find  solace  and  regain  strength. 


The  name  of  Howard  is  probably  more  widely  connected  with 
the  annals  of  Baltimore,  from  the  very  foundation  of  the  city,  than 
any  other.  Joshua  Howard,  the  grandfather  of  the  subject  of  this 
notice,  was  an  Englishman,  and  came  to  America  in  1685-6.  He 
obtained  the  grant  of  a  large  tract  of  land  in  Baltimore  County,  not 
far  from  the  present  city  of  Baltimore,  and  his  grandson,  John 
Eager,  son  of  Cornelius  Howard,  was  born  June  4th,  1752.  Young 
Howard  was  brought  up  on  his  family  estate,  but  without  regard 
to  any  particular  profession  ;  but  on  attaining  manhood  the  difficul- 
ties with  the  mother  country  warmly  enlisted  his  patriotic  feelings. 
At  the  outbreak  of  the  Revolution  a  committee  of  safety  was  estab- 
lished in  Baltimore-Town,  and  having  expressed  his  desire  of  serving 
in  a  military  capacity,  one  of  the  committee  offered  to  procure  him 
the  commission  of  Colonel.  Unwilling  to  accept  so  responsible  a 
post,  he  chose  that  of  Captain,  which  was  offered  him  on  the  pro- 
vision of  raising  thirty  men.  In  two  days  the  requisite  number  was 
obtained,  and  Captain  Howard  joined  a  regiment,  commanded  by 
Colonel  J.  Carvil  Hall.  They  marched  at  once  to  join  the  army, 
and  Captain  Howard  participated  in  the  battle  of  White  Plains, 
about  twenty-five  miles  north  of  New  York ;  and  served  until 
December,  1776,  when  his  corps  was  disbanded.  He  immediately 
rejoined  the  army  as  Major,  and  the  winter  of  1776-77  was  passed 
industriously  in  raising  troops.  In  April  of  that  year  he  marched 
with  part  of  his  regiment  to  Rocky  Hill,  near  Princeton,  New 
Jersey,  where  he  remained  until  July,  when,  on  the  death  of  his 
father,  he  was  sent  home  on  recruiting  service.  He  rejoined  the 
army  just  after  the  battle  of  Brandy  wine,  and  displayed  signal 
courage  and  ability  soon  afterward  in  the  battle  of  Germantown, 
It  is  a  romantic  incident  in  his  career,  that  "  Chew's  House,"  a  for- 
tified house,  occupied  by  the  British,  belonged  to  Mr.  Benjamin 
Chew,  of  Philadelphia,  the  father  of  the  lady  whom  he  afterward 
married,  he  having  first  seen  the  mansion  during  the  battle.  He 
also  participated  in  the  action  at  Monmouth. 


On  the  1st  of  June,  1779,  he  was  commissioned  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  of  the  Fifth  Maryland  regiment,  in  the  army  of  the  United 
States.  In  April,  1780,  the  Maryland  aud  Delaware  troops,  about 
fourteen  hundred  infantry,  were  detached  from  the  army  for  the 
purpose  of  relieving  Charleston,  which  had  been  besieged  by  the 
British  under  Clinton.  They  embarked  from  Elk  River,  at  the 
head  of  the  Chesapeake,  on  May  3d,  but  did  not  reach  Petersburg, 
on  their  way  South,  until  June,  too  late  for  any  succor  to  Charles- 
ton, which  capitulated  on  May  12th.  The  disastrous  battle  of 
Camden,  where  Gates  Avas  so  signally  defeated,  followed  in  July. 
Colonel  Howard  bore  himself  bravely  in  that  unfortunate  affair ; 
but,  overpowered  by  numbers,  was  forced  to  retreat  into  the 
swamps,  keeping  a  small  force  together,  and  being  joined  at 
Charlotte,  sixty  miles  off,  by  other  officers  and  men.  In  December, 
General  Greene  arrived  and  took  command,  and  under  his  able 
leadership  affairs  were  ere  long  changed  for  the  better.  A  detach- 
ment was  placed  under  Morgan,  and  in  it  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Howard  had  command  of  four  hundred  Continental  infantry  and 
two  companies  of  Virginia  militia.  The  eventful  battle  of  Cowpens 
soon  followed,  in  which  the  British  were  completely  defeated.  For 
Howard's  gallantry  in  this  action  he  was  voted  a  medal  by  Con- 
gress, in  company  with  Morgan  and  William  Augustine  Washing- 
ton. In  the  succeeding  battles  of  Guilford  Court  House  and 
Eutaw,  he  again  reudered  most  signal  service,  and  in  the  latter 
engagement  was  severely  wounded.  Several  of  our  principal  streets 
commemorate  these  victories  of  the  Revolution ;  Howard  street 
being  named  in  honor  of  Colonel  Howard,  and  Eutaw  for  the  action 
in  which  he  gained  such  celebrity.  Cowpens'  alley,  joining  these 
two  streets,  modestty  reminds  of  another  successful  action.  The 
bravery  of  the  Maryland  troops,  in  these  and  other  encounters, 
under  the  leadership  of  Colonels  Howard,  Williams  and  other 
officers,  won  the  highest  encomiums  from  General  Greene,  and  on 
Howard's  return  to  Maryland,  as  soon  as  his  wound  permitted  him 
to  travel,  he  bore  with  him  the  strongest  assurances  of  his  com- 
mander's regard. 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  war,  Colonel  Howard  married  Miss 
Chew,  of  Philadelphia,  at  whose  summer  residence  in  Germantown 
he  found  a  much  more  kindly  welcome  than  had  rained  from 
British  bullets  in  the  heat  of  action.  In  November,  1788,  he  was 
chosen  the  Oovernor  of  Maryland  for  three  years,  and  during  that 
period  the  Federal  union  was  adopted,  which  measure  the  Governor 
did  all  in  his  power  to  support.     In  17U4,  he  was  appointed  Major- 

JOHN    EAGER    HOWARD.  307 

General  of  militia,  but  declined  to  accept ;  and  in  November,  1795, 
he  was  invited  by  General  Washington  to  accept  a  seat  in  his 
Cabinet.  '  For  such  a  position,  however,  he  had  no  inclination,  and 
though  gratified  at  this  proof  of  Washington's  regard,  he  saw  fit  to 
decline  the  offer.  Three  years  later,  when  the  attitude  of  France 
became  such  that  it  was  feared  wre  should  be  embroiled  in  a  war 
with  that  power,  and  that  Washington  would  again  be  called  into 
the  field  as  commander-in-chief,  Colonel  Howard's  name  was  one  of 
those  whom  he  intended  to  select  for  the  position  of  .Brigadier-Gen- 
eral. Fortunately,  however,  a  war  was  averted,  and  in  1803, 
Colonel  Howard  finally  withdrew  from  public  life,  spending  the 
remainder  of  his  life  in  the  management  of  his  very  large  estate, 
exercising  a  liberal  hospitality,  and  taking  great  interest  in  the 
prosperity  and  growth  of  Baltimore.  In  1814,  when  the  city  was 
threatened  by  the  British,  among  other  arms  of  defence,  a  troop  of 
elderly  men  was  raised,  with  Colonel  Howard  at  its  head,  and 
although  this  body  was  not  intended  to  act  outside  the  limits  of  the 
city,  Colonel  Howard  had  resolved  to  offer  his  personal  services  in 
the  expected  battle.  That  of  North  Point,  however,  took  place  a 
day  sooner  than  he  anticipated.  In  the  excitement  and  alarm  con- 
sequent on  the  capture  of  Washington,  and  the  destruction  of  the 
public  buildings,  a  timid  suggestion  was  made  that  Baltimore,  in 
order  to  be  saved  from  such  a  calamity  had  better  capitulate.  This 
proposition  the  old  patriot  scouted  with  indignant  scorn.  "  I  have," 
said  Colonel  Howard,  "  as  much  property  at  stake  as  most  persons, 
and  I  have  four  sons  in  the  field,  but  sooner  would  I  see  my  sons 
wTeltering  in  their  blood,  and  my  property  reduced  to  ashes,  than  so 
far  disgrace  the  country."  Honored  and  beloved,  Colonel  Howard 
died  on  the  12th  of  October,  1827,  he  having  lost  several  years 
before  his  eldest  son,  his  eldest  daughter,  and  his  wife,  while  his 
own  health  had  been  impaired  for  some  years,  mainly  in  con- 
sequence of  his  wound  received  at  Eutaw. 

The  noble  mansion  which  he  built,  at  the  time  of  its  erection  in 
the  midst  of  an  extensive  estate,  always  known  as  Howard's  Park, 
still  exists  (1870),  but  must  probably  ere  very  long  go  down  before 
the  inevitable  growth  of  the  city.  The  line  of  Calvert  street,  north 
of  Eager  street,  will  pass  directly  through  the  house.  The  north 
wing  was  built  in  1786,  and  the  main  building  and  south  wing  a 
few  years  later.  Of  the  hundreds  of  acres  originally  forming 
"  Howard's  Park,"  stretching  from  Centre  street  north  to  the 
present  parallels  of  Hoffman  street,  and  eastward  from  Howard 
street  to  Jones's  Falls,  only  five  or  six  acres  now  remain  to  encircle 


"  Belvidere,"  "  the  proper  house  and  home"  designed  by  Colonel 
Howard  as  his  principal  residence  at  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary 
"War.  In  place  of  the  noble  oaks  and  evergreens  which  hid  from  the 
sight  the  roofs  and  steeples  of  the  city,  and  the  lawns  and  dells  and 
thickets  familiar  to  our  childhood,  we  tread  now  through  street 
after  street  tilled  with  elegant  private  residences,  churches  and 
halls.  The  writer  of  this  sketch,  although  very  young  at  the  time, 
perfectly  remembers  in  1830  the  raising  of  the  statue  which  crowns 
the  Washington  monument.  He  saw  it  from  one  of  the  houses  on 
Hamilton  street  in  the  rear  of  the  present  Maryland  Club  House, 
and  some  idea  of  the  growth  of  the  city  since  then  may  be  formed, 
from  the  writer's  having  enjoyed  an  uninterrupted  view  of  the 
elevation  of  the  statue  from  this  house.  ISTot  a  single  building 
existed  north  of  Hamilton  street,  excepting  a  few  humble  tenements 
on  the  line  of  Centre  street.  What  is  now  Mount  Vernon  Place 
was  then  only  planted  with  huge  forest  trees,  and  a  rough,  uneven 
country  road  led  from  the  foot  of  the  Monument  to  Charles  street. 
In  1822,  William  Wirt,  writing  to  his  daughter,  and  speaking  of 
the  monument,  says :  it  "  is  rendered  indescribably  striking  and 
interesting  from  the  touching  solitude  of  the  scene  from  which  it 
lifts  its  head."  "  Howard's  Park"  is  now  only  a  memory  of  the 
past,  and  "  Belvidere"  exhibits  marks  of  decay.  But  if  we  must 
regret  the  beautiful  forest,  we  can  still  take  pride  in  the  wealth  and 
power  of  the  city  which  has  supplanted  it ;  and  rejoice  that  the 
stately  home,  so  long  the  chosen  seat  of  historic  fame  and  of  refined 
hospitality,  will  not  lose  its  influence,  even  with  its  existence. 


The  ancestors  of  Jesse  Hunt,  were  among  the  early  settlers  of 
Calvert  county,  Maryland.  In  the  year  1760,  Job  Hunt,  the 
father  of  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  with  his  brothers,  Samuel  and 
Phineas,  removed  from  the  old  homestead  to  a  tract  of  land  in 
Baltimore  county,  which  had  been  taken  up  under  patent  some 
twenty  years  before,  in  what  was  then  known  as  "  The  Forest," 
and  in  what  is  now  known  as  the  Green  Spring  Valley  which  was 
situated,  and  settled  on  adjoining  farms.  One  of  these  farms 
remains  now  in  Mr.  Hunt's  possession. 

In  1771,  Mr.  Job  Hunt  married  Margaret,  daughter  of  Samuel 
Hopkins,  of  a  numerous  family  of  the  name,  for  the  most  part 
landed  proprietors  in  Baltimore  county,  in  the  tract  of  country  near 
the  present  Govanstown.  A  numerous  family  was  the  result  of  this 
union,  of  whom  Jesse,  the  youngest,  was  boru  on  July  3d,  1793. 
In  February  following,  his  mother  died,  much  regretted  by  a  large 
circle  of  friends,  for  her  amiable  and  exemplary  character. 

Nothing  can  ever  entirely  replace  the  loss  of  a  mother's  care  and 
guidance  during  childhood ;  but  so  far  as  this  was  possible,  the 
mother's  place  was  supplied  by  the  watchfulness  and  tender  solici- 
tude of  a  sister,  under  whose  care,  combined  with  that  of  an  upright 
and  judicious  father,  he  spent  the  first  years  of  his  life. 

Arrived  at  the  years  which  made  it  necessary  for  him  to  choose  a 
vocation  in  life,  his  tastes  inclined  him  to  a  mechanical  calling,  and 
in  1808,  he  became  an  apprentice  in  the  house  of  William  and 
Richard  Hall,  saddlers,  in  Baltimore.  The  death  of  his  father  took 
place  in  the  following  year.  Thus  his  youthful  son  was  deprived  of 
a  truly  excellent  father,  and  society  of  a  man  of  strict  integrity  and 
hio-h  souled  honor. 

In  June,  1812,  came  the  declaration  of  war  with  England,  and 
young  Hunt,  though  still  an  apprentice,  took  an  active  part  in 
raising  a  company,  known  as  the  Washington  Blues,  attached  to 
the  5th  regiment  of  infantry,  of  which  George  H.  Steuart,  was 
chosen  .Captain.  This  company  bore  an  honorable  part  in  the 


defence  of  the  city  at  the  battle  of  ISTorth  Point,  September  1 2th, 
1814.  Shortly  afterwards  Mr.  Hunt  was  elected  to  a  lieutenancy, 
which  post  he  filled  until  1822.  On  his  resignation  in  that  year, 
his  former  captain,  then  colonel  of  the  regiment,  wrote  him  a  letter 
testifying  in  high  terms  to  his  conduct  as  soldier  and  officer. 

In  1815,  Mr.  Hunt  commenced  business  on  his  own  account,  and 
afterwards  became  the  successor  of  his  former  employers.  In  the 
same  year  he  married  Margaret,  daughter  of  Leonard  Yundt,  for 
many  years  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the  Baltimore  Federal  Gazette. 
This  marriage,  which  proved  an  eminently  happy  one,  was  the  result 
of  an  affection  dating  back  to  childhood. 

Mr.  Hunt  continued  to  conduct  his  business  with  a  fair  share  of 
success,  and  enjoyed  a  moderate  prosperity,  thanks  to  his  industry 
and  economy  and  the  assistance  of  his  estimable  wife.  He  took  no 
active  part  in  political  matters,  until  the  great  contest  between 
Jackson  and  Adams,  in  the  year  1828,  owing  to  the  momentous 
character  of  the  questions  at  issue,  roused  even  the  most  indifferent. 
Iuto  this  contest  Mr.  Hunt  entered  warmly,  and  was  an  active 
supporter  of  General  Jackson,  whose  administration  he  continued 
to  support  to  its  close.  In  1829,  1830  and  1831,  successively,  he 
was  unanimously  nominated  by  a  convention  of  the  Jackson  party 
as  candidate  for  a  seat  in  the  Maryland  House  of  Delegates ;  and  on 
each  occasion  he  was  returned  by  a  handsome  majority.  At  that 
time  Baltimore  was  represented  in  the  House  by  only  two  delegates. 

Mr.  Hunt  made  no  pretensions  to  oratory,  and  was  known  rather 
as  an  active  working  member  than  as  a  public  speaker,  but  he 
occasionally  took  part  in  the  debates  on  many  of  the  leading 
questions  before  the  House.  One  of  these  affected  the  interests  of 
the  public  schools  of  the  city,  then  in  their  infancy,  under  the 
following  circumstances.  A  former  Legislature  had  passed  an  Act 
authorizing  the  city  to  sell  the  properly  known  as  the  "  old  Aims- 
House,"  near  the  intersection  of  Madison  and  Eutaw  streets,  and 
appropriate  the  proceeds  to  the  Public  School  Fund.  The  Senate 
passed  a  bill  repealing  this  Act,  and  directing  the  appropriation  of 
the  money  to  the  House  of  Refuge,  and  sent  it  to  the  House.  Mr. 
Hunt  resisted  this  bill,  with  his  utmost  ability  in  the  House, 
arguing  that  it  was  both  unjust  and  inexpedient ;  that  while  the 
value  of  such  an  institution  as  the  House  of  Refuge  could  not  be 
denied,  the  Public  Schools  had  not  only  the  prior  claim,  but  a  claim 
of  far  higher  importance.  The  bill,  notwithstanding  the  urgency  of 
the  Senate,  was  finally  defeated. 

In  1832,  Mr.  Hunt  was  nominated  by  a  convention  of  the  Jackson 

JESSE    HUNT.  311 

party,  then  beginning  to  be  known  as  the  Democratic  party,  as  a 
candidate  for  the  Mayoralty.  From  the  time  of  the  great  political 
contest  of  1824,  the  Jackson  party  comprised  a  large  majority  of  the 
voters  of  Baltimore,  and  yet  no  decided  Jackson  man  had  tilled  the 
office  of  Mayor.  It  was  a  sort  of  neutrality,  which  operated 
adversely  to  the  majority  of  voters,  who  saw  nearly  all  the  muni- 
cipal offices  filled  by  their  political  opponents.  In  accepting  the 
nomination,  Mr.  Hunt  refused  to  pledge  himself  to  any  specific  line 
of  conduct,  in  regard  to  the  retention  or  removal  of  officers,  deter- 
mining to  be  guided  solely  by  what  he  believed  to  be  the  best  in- 
terests of  the  city  ;  and  this  determination,  to  the  best  of  his  ability, 
he  carried  out  from  the  time  of  his  election,  removing  no  officer 
except  where  he  was  convinced  that  the  public  welfare  required  it, 
filling  such  vacancies  with  his  political  friends.  In  pursuing  this 
course,  however,  he  did  not  escape  the  noisy  censure  of  those  who 
considered  that  all  public  offices,  were  the  legitimate  prizes  of  the 
victorious  party. 

Upon  his  re-election  in  1834,  these  clamors  were  revived  ;  but  the 
Mayor  was  firmly  supported  by  the  great  majority  of  the  Demo- 
cratic party,  as  well  as  by  a  number  of  the  more  moderate  among 
the  Whigs,  who  had  assumed  the  name  of  the  Workingmen's  party. 
At  this  election  strong  attempts  were  made  to  injure  Mr.  Hunt's 
popularity,  by  dwelling  upon  and  misrepresenting  his  connection 
with  the  Bank  of  Maryland,  then  a  subject  of  extreme  popular 
odium.  As  the  circumstances  of  this  affair,  have  become  a  feature 
of  the  history  of  the  city,  and  for  a  long  time  were  used  to  blacken 
her  good  fame,  we  will  give,  as  briefly  as  possible,  some  account  of  it. 

The  Bank  of  Maryland  suspended  payments  about  six  months 
before  the  election  we  have  just  referred  to.  As  it  had  enjoyed 
great  popularity,  and  the  deposits  were  heavy,  the  failure  gave  rise 
to  great  distress,  excitement  and  indignation.  Popular  meetings 
were  held;  it  was  alleged  that  the  Bank  had  been  managed  in  the 
interests  of  a  few  influential  citizens,  to  whom  the  smaller  stock- 
holders and  depositors  had  been  sacrificed.  Some  of  the  parties 
accused,  dreading  an  outbreak  of  popular  fury,  endeavored  to  shift 
the  odium  upon  others,  and  mutual  recriminations  were  the  conse- 
quence. Pamphlets  and  placards  abouuded,  and  the  temper  of  the 
sufferers  urged  on  by  that  reckless  part  of  the  community  that 
delights  in  disturbance,  gradually  approached  the  boiling  point. 

Every  means  was  used  to  turn  the  tide  of  this  feeling  against  Mr. 
Hunt,  at  the  election.     He  had  injudiciously  allowed  himself  to  be 


chosen  a  Director  of  the  Bank — a  merely  nominal  office,  as  it  was 
well  known  that  the  ownership  of  the  Bank  was  held  by  a  few  indi- 
viduals— but  this  was  thought  sufficient  reason  for  identifying  him 
with  the  subject  of  popular  hatred.  He  succeeded,  however,-  in 
proving  that  so  far  from  having  reaped  any  profit  from  the  Bank, 
he  was  a  loser  by  it,  being  its  creditor  to  a  considerable  amount. 

After  the  election,  the  feverish  state  of  excitement  still  continued. 
The  financial  condition  of  the  whole  country  had  been  much  dis- 
turbed by  various  causes;  and  the  opponents  of  the  administration 
fiercely  assailed  President  Jackson  for  the  course  he  pursued,  espe- 
cially in  regard  to  his  firmness  in  maintaining  that  gold  and  silver 
were  the  only  constitutional  currency  of  the  country.  The  failure  of 
the  Bank  of  Maryland  was  followed  by  that  of  a  number  of  fraudu- 
lent institutions,  assuming  the  name  of  Savings  Banks,  spreading 
misery  and  ruin  widely  around,  especially  among  the  working 
classes,  who  saw  the  little  provision  they  had  made  for  sickness  or 
old  age,  thus  suddenly  swept  away.  The  losses  by  these  failures 
were  far  heavier,  and  affected  a  class  of  persons  who  suffered  far 
more  than  the  losers  by  the  Bank  of  Maryland  ;  who  endeavored, 
and  in  part  succeeded,  in  screening  themselves  by  turning  the 
popular  fury  against  the  Bank  of  Maryland,  as  the  real  cause  of 
all  the  mischief.  The  law-suits  to  which  the  settlement  of  the 
affairs  of  the  Bank  of  Maryland  gave  rise,  afforded  further  oppor- 
tunities for  stimulating  the  excitement ;  and  the  charges  and 
counter-charges  of  the  parties  in  controversy  grew  fiercer  than  ever. 

In  August,  1835,  it  was  evident  that  popular  irritation  was  on 
the  point  of  some  violent  outbreak.  Nocturnal  meetings  were  held, 
which,  however,  the  Mayor,  aided  by  the  day  police,  only  about 
twenty  strong,  the  night-watch,  and  a  few  resolute  volunteers, 
succeeded  for  a  time  in  dispersing.  But  the  determination  to 
avenge  their  wrongs  against  the  real  or  supposed  authors  of  them, 
it  was  plain  to  see,  had  in  nowise Jjeen  shaken;  and  the  Mayor,  who 
saw  the  imminence  of  the  danger,  was  indefatigable  in  his  attempts 
to  rouse  the  law-abiding  citizens  to  take  effective  steps  for  pre- 
serving the  peace  of  the  city.  His  efforts,  however,  were  nearly 
ineffectual;  the  great  mass  of  the  citizens  exhibiting  an  apathy 
which  could  only  be  explained  by  ignorance  of  the  real  extent  of 
the  peril,  and  refusing  to  aid  the  civil  authorities  in  the  forcible 
preservation  of  the  peace.  At  last  the  Mayor  led  a  forlorn  hope, 
consisting  of  bis  handful  of  police,  and  a  few  citizens  whom  he 
induced  to  assist  him  against  a  large  gathering  of  riotously  disposed 

JESSE     HUNT.  313 

persons  in  Monument  Square.  Their  efforts  to  disperse  the  mob, 
though  fearless,  were  unavailing.  There  was  no  destruction  of 
property;  but  the  persons  arrested  were  immediately  rescued  by 
force,  and  the  city  authorities  openly  defied. 

The  civil  authorities  thus  finding  themselves  not  strong  enough  to 
cope  with  the  danger,  an  order  was  issued  calling  out  the  uniformed 
volunteer  Light  Brigade,  at  the  time  under  the  command  of  Col. 
Benjamin  C.  Howard.  At  ten  o'clock  on  the  following  morning  Col. 
Howard  reported  to  the  Mayor  that  he  had  issued  orders  for  the 
assembling  of  the  Brigade  at  eight  o'clock,  but  that  so  far  only  three 
men  had  presented  themselves  for  duty.  He  continued  his  efforts 
until  five  in  the  afternoon,  with  the  result  of  obtaining  a  doubtful 
promise  from  about  twenty  men.  Convinced  now  that  they  had 
nothing  to  fear  from  the  military,  the  mob  proceeded  to  execute 
their  vengeance  by  assailing  the  houses  of  several  of  the  citizens 
most  obnoxious  to  them,  destroying  the  furniture  and  carrying  off: 
the  valuable  articles  which  the  occupants  in  hasty  retreat  had  left 

The  violence  of  the  mob,  and  the  danger  of  its  resorting  to  still 
more  deplorable  extremities,  had  the  effect  of  rousing  from  their 
culpable  apathy  a  large  number  of  the  citizens,  who  had  hitherto 
abstained  from  any  active  support  of  the  city  authorities,  and  a 
genuine  determination  to  restore  order  at  any  cost  was  manifested. 
Even  some  of  those  who  had  previously  sided  with  the  mob,  now 
arrayed  themselves  on  the  side  of  order,  Avhether  from  regret  at 
their  excesses,  or  the  desire  to  elude  punishment,  may  be  a  matter 
of  doubt. 

The  assault  on  the  Mayor,  and  the  charges  of  complicity  with  the 
Bank  authorities,  still  continued,  and  his  continuance  in  office  was 
alleged  to  be  the  main  cause  of  popular  irritation.  Mr.  Hunt, 
convinced  that  his  influence  over  the  people  was  greatly  impaired, 
and  unwilling  to  give  rise  for  any  pretext,  however  unjust, 
that  impeded  the  return  to  order,  tendered  his  resignation.  The 
City  Council,  in  accepting  it,  unanimously  passed  the  following 

"  Resolved,  By  both  branches  of  the  City  Council  of  Baltimore, 
that,  while  we  regret  that  the  measures  adopted  by  Jesse  Hunt, 
Esq.,  late  Mayor  of  the  city,  did  not  prove  effectual  in  suppressing 
the  riots  which  have  disturbed  the  order  and  destroyed  the  peace 
and  quiet  of  the  community,  wre  entertain  the  fullest  confidence  in 
his  integrity  and  fidelity,  and  hereby  tender  to  him  the  thanks  of 


the  corporation,  for  the  honest  and   unceasing  exertions  made  by 
him  to  restore  peace  to  the  city  and  supremacy  to  the  laws. 

By  order: 


Assistant  Clerk  to  1st  Branch  C.  C. 

IT.  Myers, 

PresH  pro  tern.  1st  Branch. 

F.  Lucas,  Jr., 

PresH  2d  Branch:1 

Public  meetings  were  also  held,  at  which  resolutions  were  passed 
expressive  of  undiminished  confidence  in  the  late  Mayor,  and  at  one 
of  these  he  was  nominated  for  re-election,  which  gratifying  evidence 
of  their  confidence  he,  however,  judged  proper  to  decline. 

Mr.  Hunt  at  once  returned  to  his  saddlery  business,  in  which  he 
had  retained  an  interest,  and  recommenced  working  with  his  own 
hands.  In  this  position,  however,  he  did  not  long  remain.  In  less 
than  three  months  after  his  resignation  as  Mayor,  and  during  his 
absence  from  the  city,  the  office  of  City  Register  became  vacant  by 
the  death  of  its  occupant.  Mr.  Hunt  was  immediately  named  by 
his  friends  for  the  vacancy.  On  his  return,  without  being  aware 
that  a  vacancy  had  occurred,  he  found  himself  in  effect  Register  of 
the  city.  At  the  election  by  both  branches  of  the  City  Council, 
which  took  place  a  few  days  afterwards,  Mr.  Hunt  not  only  received 
the  entire  support  of  his  political  friends,  but  of  a  portion  of  the 
opposition  also.  He  filled  this  really  responsible  office  to  the  satis- 
faction of  all. 

At  the  time  of  his  taking  this  office,  the  finances  of  the  city  were 
in  a  condition  very  far  from  satisfactory ;  but  they  became  still  worse 
in  the  years  1840-42.  Indeed,  at  that  time  the  financial  condi- 
tion of  the  whole  country  was  deplorable.  The  banks  were  in  sus- 
pension, the  State  failed  to  meet  the  interest  on  its  public  debt,  and 
the  city  was  compelled  to  meet  its  payments  on  the  $3,000,000  sub- 
scription to  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad,  by  forced  sales  of  city 
stock,  with  the  result  of  finally  depressing  the  stock  to  50,  while  that 
of  the  State  was  less  than  30.  At  this  time  a  strong  opinion  was 
current  that  both  State  and  city  would  be  compelled  to  repudiate 
their  debts ;  or  at  the  very  least  the  city  would  be  under  the  neces- 
sity of  ceasing  to  pay  the  interest  on  its  stock  debt.  But  the  Regis- 
ter not  only  insisted  that  the  good  faith  of  the  city  should  be  kept, 
but  maintained  that    the   city  had  abundant  ability   to  meet    its 

JESSE    HUNT.  315 

obligations,  if  the  authority  was  given  him  to  conduct  the  necessary 
negotiations.  He  was  invested  with  the  requisite  power,  and  after 
much  difficulty  succeeded,  so  that  the  city  at  no  time  failed  to  meet 
the  interest  as  it  fell  due.  The  season  of  embarrassment  and  finan- 
cial depression  soon  passed  over,  and  the  city  stock  rose  not  merely 
to  par,  but  commanded  a  premium. 

Mr.  Hunt's  conduct  of  the  city  finances  gave  such  satisfaction, 
that  he  was  five  times  re-elected  to  the  office  which  he  thus  filled 
for  more  than  ten  years,  being  assured  of  his  election  for  the  sixth 
time  if  he  would  make  a  change  in  the  office  of  deputy,  then  filled 
by  a  most  faithful  officer,  whom  he  refused  to  remove.  On  his 
retirement  from  office,  resolutions  highly  complimentary  to  his 
efficiency  and  integrity  were  passed  by  both  branches  of  the  City 
Council.  This  event  closed  Mr.  Hunt's  long  connection  with  the 
public  service. 

In  1847,  the  Eutaw  Savings  Bank  was  incorporated,  the  Presidency 
of  which  was  unanimously  tendered  to  Mr.  Hunt.  Finding  that 
the  Board  of  Directors  were  all  gentlemen  of  the  highest  respect- 
ability, and  amongst  the  most  wealthy  citizens  of  Baltimore ;  and 
that  the  institution  was  strictly  benevolent  in  character,  the  charter 
abundantly  securing  to  the  depositors  the  entire  net  earnings  of 
the  Bank,  he  accepted  the  position,  for  the  time  being,  without  any 
pecuniary  compensation.  He  has  been  re-elected  each  successive 
year,  the  last  election  being  in  June,  1870.  The  Bank  has  proved 
an  entire  success,  and  justly  ranks  among  the  most  prosperous  and 
faithfully  conducted  institutions  of  its  character.  At  the  close 
of  the  year  1870,  it  had  upwards  of  nine  thousand  depositors  and 
assets  exceeding  three  millions  of  dollars. 

Previous  to  the  year  1849,  there  was  no  organized  association  for 
the  general  relief  of  the  poor  of  the  city,  and  convinced  of  the  great 
need  of  such  an  association,  a  few  benevolent  citizens  started  the 
"  Association  for  the  Improvement  of  the  Condition  of  the  Poor." 
In  its  organization  Mr.  Hunt  took  an  active  part,  and  has  for  a 
number  of  years  been  its  President.  The  funds  of  this  association 
are  derived  from  voluntary  contributions,  and  it  has  been  the  means 
of  relieving  much  suffering  and  greatly  improving  the  condition  of 
the  deserving  poor. 

On  the  18th  day  of  May,  1860,  Mr.  Hunt  was  deprived,  by  the 
act  of  Providence,  of  the  associate  of  his  childhood,  his  chosen  com- 
panion and  partner  in  early  manhood.  Of  this  excellent  lady  it  can 
be  justly  said,  that  she  was  an  affectionate  wife,  a  devoted  mother, 
a  sincere  and  unpretending  Christian. 


In  closing  this  brief  sketch  of  the  life  of  Mr.  Hunt,  it  is  proper  to 
remark,  that  during  the  long,  exciting  and  often  angry  discussions 
which  continued  throughout  his  more  public  and  political  career,  his 
social  and  domestic  life  was  marked  by  that  uniform  kindness  and 
courtesy,  which  commanded  the  confidence  and  respect  of  all  with- 
out regard  to  party  or  sectarian  affiliations. 


g     **  * <??  %  4  /&£^n4& 


In  every  community  there  is  to  be  found  a  distinct  class  of  citi- 
zens more  quiet  in  habits  of  life,  more  painstaking  in  business 
pursuits  than  the  great  mass,  from  whose  slow,  patient,  almost 
unobserved,  yet  sure  and  substantial  labors,  large  fortunes,  in  time, 
accrue, — the  proud  rewards  of  persevering  industry, — securing  not 
merely  individual  independence  and  all  worldly  comforts  to  their 
possessors,  but  adding,  likewise,  in  a  thousand  ways,  directly  and 
indirectly,  to  the  stock  of  power  and  importance  of  a  common- 
wealth. It  is  to  this  class  of  citizens  good  society  owes  its  chiefest 
debt  of  gratitude;  for,  usually,  the  founders  of  society,  they  are,  also, 
always  the  truest  custodians  of  its  interests.  Such,  too,  are  ever 
the  friends  of  material  progress.  The  eye  which  dwells  in  wonder 
and  with  pleasure  on  the  splendid  structures  that  adorn  and  make 
our  cities  great  will  not  fail,  behind  the  solid  masonry,  to  detect 
the  patient,  plodding  power  whose  hand  was  at  the  foundation 
stones.  A  specimen  of  the  class  of  which  we  speak  was  William 
Penn,  in  the  past.  In  the  present  are  many  prototypes  of  his  in 
character,  in  greater  or  lesser  degree,  in  the  various  departments  of 
labor  and  life.  Henry  James  is  one  of  these.  Poor,  and  without 
acquaintance  or  friends  in  the  State,  he  came,  when  but  a  youth,  to 
Baltimore  in  quest  of  occupation  and  a  livelihood, — a  promise  of 
which  the  superior  advantages  of  the  city,  as  a  business  mart,  held, 
encouragingly,  out  to  him, — and  the  city  has  answered  to  his  hopes. 

Mr.  James  was  born  on  the  21st  of  July,  1821,  in  the  town  of 
Truxton,  Courtland  county,  New  York.  His  parents  were  Nathaniel 
and  Elizabeth  Ingersoll  James,  natives  of  Vermont,  but  of  English 
descent,  distinguished  in  the  community  in  which  they  lived  for  pru- 
dence and  piety  of  life.  Henry  James  was  educated  in  the  town  of 
his  birth,  in  the  common  schools,  until  he  reached  his  fifteenth  year, 
when  he  was  sent  to  an  academy  in  the  same  town,  from  which  he 
graduated.  The  greater  part  of  his  youth  was  passed  upon  a  farm, 
where  he  participated  in  all  the  labors  of  farm  life,  rendering  robust 


a  naturally  good  constitution,  and  acquiring  those  habits  of  thrift 
and  industry  on  which  success  in  business  so  largely  depends. 

At  the  age  of  nineteen,  seized  by  a  spirit  of  enterprise,  he  left  his 
birthplace  and  home  to  test  the  qualities  of  his  ripening  manhood, 
and  to  try  his  fortune  in  the  world.  Hope,  energy,  faith  in  himself, 
and  a  strong  will — these  were  his  resources  and  only  capital.  His 
first  three  years  were  passed  in  the  city  of  New  York,  where  he 
managed  creditably  to  maintain  himself, — adding  to  his  acquisitions 
the  valuable  ingredient  of  experience.  In  the  early  part  of  1843  he 
removed  to  Baltimore,  and,  although  an  entire  stranger,  soon  suc- 
ceeded in  securing  for  himself  a  competency  and  the  confidence  of 
the  business  men  with  whom  he  came  in  contact.  His  whole  career 
in  the  city  of  his  adoption,  and  the  city,  now,  of  his  pride  and 
affection,  has  been  one  of  success,  commensurate  with  the  deserts  of 
worthy  and  honest  effort,  while  the  confidence  of  his  fellow  citizens, 
augmented  by  time,  surrounds  him  as  from  the  first.  Mr.  James  is 
the  active  managing  partner  of  the  present  firm  of  Henry  James  & 
Co.,  the  other  members  being  William  E.  Dodge  and  James  Stokes, 
of  New  York,  and  Daniel  James,  of  Liverpool.  The  house  repre- 
sents large  tracts  of  timber  lands  lying  in  the  counties  of  Tioga, 
Clinton,  Cameron,  Elk,  and  Lycoming,  in  the  State  of  Pennsylvania, 
and  owns  extensive  mills  for  the  manufacture  of  lumber  in  Clinton, 
L37coming,  and  York  counties,  Pennsylvania,  and  in  Harford  county 
in  Maryland,  being  one  of  the  largest  establishments  of  the  kind  in 
the  United  States.  The  principal  office  of  the  firm  is  in  Baltimore, 
with  branch  offices  in  the  various  places  where  their  operations  are 
carried  on. 

Mr.  James,  besides  his  large  interest  and  business  connection  in 
the  firm  of  Henry  James  &  Co.,  has,  also,  for  many  years  been  iden- 
tified with,  and  a  Director  in,  the  Citizens'  National  Bank,  and  is 
now  President  of  that  institution,  having  been  elected  to  that  office 
on  the  death  of  his  predecessor,  John  Clark. 

The  capital  of  the  bank  has  been  doubled  since  Mr.  James's  in- 
cumbency, and  the  splendid  marble  banking  house,  on  the  northeast 
corner  of  Pratt  and  Hanover  streets,  was  erected  under  his  auspices. 
In  no  particular  has  the  zeal  of  Mr.  James  been  more  conspicuously 
or  more  usefully  displayed  than  in  the  matter  of  the  organization  of 
the  Baltimore  Warehouse  Company,  of  which  ho  was  one  of  the  first 
projectors  and  friends.     He  is  still  a  Director  in  the  Company. 

At  the  age  of  thirty  Mr.  James  was  married  to  the  daughter  of 
A.  Gate,  of  this  city,  and  has  a  large  and  interesting  family. 

lie  is  a  member  of  the  Westminster   Presbyterian   Church,  of 

HENRY    JAMES.  319 

which  the  Rev.  Dr,  Dickson  is  pastor.  His  attention  to  the  duties 
of  his  religion  is  marked  by  regularity  of  attendance  at  his  place  of 
worship;  and  it  is  the  whole  truth  to  say  of  him  that  he  is  a  sincere 
Christian,  and  a  churchman  without  cant,  bigotry  or  ostentation. 

The  course  of  his  life  has  been,  and  is,  apart  from  the  political 
contests  and  excitements  of  the  day.  A  quiet  vote  is  the  usual 
expression  of  his  views,  under  a  careful  and  calm  consideration  of 
measures  and  men, — a  method,  in  itself,  most  seeming  good,  and 
not  without  merit  in  the  light  of  example. 

The  strong  points  in  the  character  of  Henry  James  are  visible  in 
the  conduct  of  his  daily  life ;  as  a  man  of  business,  he  is  energetic, 
positive,  firm ;  as  a  citizen,  spirited  and  liberal ;  as  a  patron,  the 
friend  of  enterprise;  as  a  Christian,  devout;  as  a  man,  honest, — 
modest  and  retiring  withal. 

The  very  extensive  business  operations  of  the  firm  of  which  he  is 
a  member,  and  the  interests  of  the  Bank  of  which  he  is  President, 
occupy  the  larger  part  of  his  time,  requiring  his  diligent  supervisory 
attention  and  care. 

In  the  proud  list  of  her  citizens,  known  and  honored  throughout 
the  business  world  for  stability,  integrity  and  fair  dealing,  Balti- 
more has  no  cause  to  be  other  than  satisfied  with  the  record  and 
name  of  her  adopted  son,  Henry  James. 



The  ancestors  of  William  Jenkins  were  among  the  earliest  colo- 
nists of  Maryland,  having  emigrated  from  Great  Britain  ahout  the 
year  1660,  to  escape  the  persecutions  exercised  against  Catholics, 
and  settled  at  the  head  of  the  St.  Mary's  river,  near  the  old  city  of 
St.  Mary's.  Here  they  lived  peacefully  for  years  under  the  just  and 
mild  rule  of  the  Lord  Proprietary.  But  ahout  the  beginning  of  the 
next  century  the  spirit  of  religious  persecution  arose  in  the  hitherto 
happy  colony ;  and  the  Act  of  1704,  imposing  test  oaths  and  other 
disabilities  on  the  Catholic  inhabitants  who  had  themselves  set  the 
noble  example  of  toleration,  compelled  many  of  these  to  quit  their 
homes,  and  seek  a  refuse  elsewhere.  Amono;  these  emio-rants  was 
Michael,  the  father  of  Air.  Jenkins,  who,  with  his  brothers  Thomas 
Courtcnay  and  Ignatius,  sought  a  new  home  in  Baltimore  county, 
then  an  outlying  part  of  the  province,  almost  a  wilderness,  and  still 
inhabited  by  Indians.  Here,  in  the  year  1710,  they  took  up  a  tract 
of  land  by  patent,  on  "  Long  Green,"  which  still  remains  in  the 
possession  of  the  family,  and  upon  it  is  yet  standing  the  substantial 
old  house,  constructed  according  to  the  rural  architecture  of  the 
time.  While  here,  the  father  married  the  niece  of  Mr.  Ignatius 
Wheeler,  a  wealthy  Catholic  gentleman  of  Harford  county. 

Ten  children  sprang  from  this  union,  of  whom  William  Jenkins, 
the  subject  of  this  sketch,  was  born  in  1767.  Though  but  a  child  at 
the  commencement  of  the  Revolutionary  struggle,  he  felt  the  enthu- 
siasm and  military  ardor  which  pervaded  all  classes.  He  used  to 
relate,  as  an  illustration  of  the  spirit  of  the  time,  how  the' country 
schoolmaster  who  had  scarcely  a  boy  over  ten  years  of  age,  would, 
after  lesson  hours,  draw  up  his  little  school  in  military  array,  arm 
them  with  cornstalks,  and  put  them  through  their  drill. 

At  the  close  of  the  war,  young  Jenkins,  being  thirteen  years  old, 
and  perceiving  that  his  father  could  with  difficulty  provide  for  the 
wants  of  his  large  family,  determined  to  go  to  Baltimore  and  carve 
out  his  own  fortunes.  Here  he  became  apprentice  to  William  Hay- 
ward,  a  tanner,  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Friends;   an  estimable 


man  and  kind  master,  of  whom  Mr.  Jenkins  always  spoke  with 
affection  and  respect,  and  to  whom  he  rendered  cheerful  and  sub- 
stantial service  in  business  affairs.  At  the  close  of  his  apprentice- 
ship, and  before  he  was  of  age,  he  commenced  business  on  his  own 
account,  in  Baltimore,  occupying  a  small  building  on  Water  street. 

While  quite  young  he  married  Ann,  daughter  of  Solomon  Hillen, 
of  Baltimore  county,  who,  however,  lived  but  a  few  years.  He  then 
married  Eleanor,  daughter  of  Mark  Willcox,  of  Delaware  county, 

In  1805,  an  accidental  fire  destroyed  all  the  stock  in  his  tan  yard, 
thus  sweeping  away  nearly  the  whole  of  his  capital — a  total  loss  to 
him,  as  there  was  then  no  insurance  company  in  Baltimore.  He, 
however,  applied  himself  to  retrieve  his  loss  by  persevering  industry, 
and  with  such  success  that  in  three  years  he  found  it  necessary  to 
enlarge  his  small  establishment  on  Water  street  by  the  construction 
of  a  large  three-story  warehouse  and  dwelling  on  the  same  site. 
Thirty-one  years  later  he  again  enlarged  it  by  building  a  large 
four-story  warehouse,  which  he  was  occupying  at  the  time  of  his 
death,  having  carried  on  his  business — which  for  many  years  was  a 
large  one,  extending  to  all  the  surrounding  States — for  fifty-six 
years  on  one  spot. 

In  1812,  Mr.  Jenkins  built  a  large  tan  yard  on  the  York  road,  to 
which,  some  years  after,  he  added  another.  He  introduced  im- 
provements in  the  process  of  tanning  which  gave  to  Baltimore 
leather  a  peculiarly  high  reputation,  which  it  has  ever  since  en- 
joyed ;  and,  indeed,  he  may  justly  be  spoken  of  as  the  father  of 
the  leather  trade  of  this  city. 

Early  in  life  Mr.  Jenkins  joined  what  was  called  "Paul  Bantalou's 
Legion,"  a  body  of  volunteer  cavalry,  which  in  those  days  often 
escorted  General  Washington  from  Waterloo  to  Baltimore,  on  his 
way  from  Mount  Vernon  to  Philadelphia,  where  Congress  then  sat. 

At  the  commencement  of  the  last  war  with  Great  Britain, 
Mr.  Jenkins,  though  over  the  military  age,  became  a  member  of  a 
volunteer  troop  of  cavalry,  and  took  an  active  part  in  the  defence 
of  Baltimore,  having  also  four  brothers  in  the  field.  A  few  days 
before  the  battle  of  North  Point  he  was  sent  to  the  city  on  special 
duty,  and,  having  permission,  made  a  brief  visit  to  his  own  family. 
Before  returning,  he  laid  aside  his  uniform  and  accoutrements  to 
enjoy  a  few  moments'  repose,  and  when  about  to  resume  them, 
found  that  his  wife,  who  had  suffered  great  anxiety  before  his 
arrival,  from  a  false  report  that  his  troop  had  been  cut  to  pieces  by 
the  enemy,  had  concealed  his  uniform  to  prevent  his  return.     Upon 


his  remonstrating,  she  besought  him  to  remain,  urging  his  exemp- 
tion from  duty,  and  all  the  arguments  that  affection  and  solicitude 
could  suggest,  but  without  avail :  he  remounted  his  horse  in  citi- 
zen's dress,  as  she  refused  to  restore  the  uniform,  and  reported 
himself  for  duty  at  the  time  appointed. 

In  all  matters  tending  to  the  improvement  of  the  city  he  took  a 
lively  interest,  and  frequently  an  active  participation.  lie  was  one 
of  the  originators  of  the  York  and  York  Haven  Turnpike  Road 
Companies,  as,  at  a  later  period,  of  the  Baltimore  and  Susquehanna 
Railroad  Company,  (now  the  Northern  Central,)  of  which  he  was 
one  of  the  first  Directors.  When  the  advantage  which  would 
follow  the  extension  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  road  from  Cumber- 
land to  Pittsburgh,  became  manifest,  he  was  a  member  of  the  first 
committee  appointed  by  the  city  to  examine  the  route  via  Con- 

In  all  his  dealings,  both  public  and  private,  he  was  not  merely 
just,  but  generous  and  kind.  When  he  had  introduced  any  new 
process  or  machinery  tending  to  improve  his  manufacture,  so  far 
from  endeavoring  to  secure  all  the  advantages  to  himself,  he  took  a 
pleasure  in  exhibiting  it  to  other  manufacturers,  and  inviting  them 
to  avail  themselves  of  his  improvements.  This  unselfish  and  noble 
spirit  pervaded  all  his  actions,  and  coupled  with  his  kindness  of 
heart  and  truly  Christian  charity,  made  him  not  only  respected  but 
beloved  by  all  who  knewT  him  well.  For  those  in  his  employment 
he  had  an  almost  parental  regard.  During  the  prevalence  of  epi- 
demic yellow  fever,  at  the  beginning  of  the  present  century,  one  of 
his  apprentices  being  attacked  by  the  disease,  Mr.  Jenkins  nursed 
and  tended  him  with  really  fatherly  care,  sleeping  with  him  in  the 
same  room  for  the  purpose  of  ministering  to  his  wants,  although  at 
that  time  the  disease  was  believed  to  be  infectious,  and  never  leav- 
ing him  until  the  fatal  termination. 

Nothing  could  exceed  the  tenderness  and  beauty  of  his  domestic 
relations ;  and  it  is  probable  that  there  was  not  in  the  world  a 
happier  home  than  that  at  his  beautiful  country  seat  of  Oak  Hill. 
From  his  youth  upward  he  was  an  humble  and  devout  Christian,  and 
a  constant  worshipper  according  to  the  faith  of  his  fathers. 

In  person  he  was  finely  formed,  of  a  commanding  presence,  fre- 
quently reminding  observers  of  General  Washington.  He  was  a 
good  horseman  and  fond  of  equestrian  exercise.  In  his  dress  he 
alwrays  followed  the  fashions  of  the  old  school,  and  to  the  day  of 
his  death  he  wore  his  hair  in  a  cue,  as  it  had  been  worn  in  his 


He  died  on  February  21st,  1843,  from  the  results  of  a  paralytic 
attack.  Previous  to  his  death,  surrounded  by  his  devoted  children, 
five  sons  and  one  daughter,  he  settled  all  his  earthly  affairs,  and 
having  prepared  himself  for  the  change,  with  the  humble  piety  and 
faith  which  had  guided  him  through  life,  went  to  his  reward. 

The  funeral  rites  were  performed  by  the  Most  Reverend  Arch- 
bishop Eccleston,  and  his  remains  were  attended  to  the  grave  by  a 
large  concourse  of  his  fellow  citizens. 









Reverdy  Johnson  is  one  of  the  most  conspicuous  men  Maryland 
has  ever  produced.  Distinguished  as  being  perhaps  at  the  very 
head  of  the  legal  profession  in  America,  he  has  also  a  wide  reputa- 
tion as  a  Statesman.  He  was  born  in  the  city  of  Annapolis,  May 
the  21st,  1796.  His  family,  on  his  father's  side,  was  of  English 
descent,  and  on  that  of  his  mother,  French,  and  his  ancestors  were 
among  the  earliest  settlers  in  Maryland,  several  of  them  holding 
prominent  positions  under  the  Colonial  Government.  His  father, 
John  Johnson,  was  an  eminent  lawyer,  who,  after  serving  in  both 
Houses  of  the  General  Assembly,  was,  successively,  Attorney 
General,  one  of  the  Judges  of  the  Court  of  Appeals,  and  Chan- 
cellor of  the  State.*  His  mother  was  a  daughter  of  Reverdy 
Ghiselin,  who  was  long  known  as  Commissioner  of  the  Land 
Office,  at  Annapolis.  Educated  at  St.  John's  College,  in  his  native 
town,  Reverdy  Johnson  entered  the  grammar  school  at  six,  and 
left  the  institution  at  sixteen,  years  of  age.  He  immediately  com- 
menced reading  law  under  the  direction  of  his  father,  and  was, 
afterwards,  for  awhile,  a  student  in  the  office  of  the  late  Judge 
Stevens.  He  was  admitted  to  the  Bar  and  began  practice  in 
Prince  George's  county,  in  the  village  of  Upper  Marlborough,  in 
1815,  when  only  in  his  twentieth  year.  He  was  soon  appointed 
by  the  Attorney  General  of  the  State  his  Deputy  for  the  Judicial 
District,  and  performed  the  duties  of  that  responsible  office, 
in  the  most  creditable  manner,  until  November,  1817,  when  he 
removed  to  Baltimore,  and  started  in  his  career  as  a  lawyer, 
which,  for  brilliancy  and  success,  has  seldom  been  equalled.  De- 
veloping, thus  early,  that  wonderful  vigor  of  intellect  and  deter- 
mination of  character,  which  so  distinguishes  him,  he  at  once  took 
an  excellent  position,  and,  notwithstanding  his  youth,  was  soon 
recognized,  by  lawyers  and  laymen,  as  a  man  of  unusual  ability. 
In  a  short  time  he  became  the  professional  associate  and  intimate 

*  The  late  Chancellor  of  the  same  name  was  another  distinguished  son  of  the 
gentleman  here  alluded  to. 


companion  of  Luther  Martin,  Robert  Goodloe  Harper,  "William 
Pinkney,  Roger  B.  Taney,  William  H.  Winder,  and  several  others, 
who  had  already  made  the  Bar  of  Maryland  famous.  Laboring 
with  untiring  energy  and  earnestness  of  purpose,  Mr.  Johnson 
obtained  a  large  practice,  which,  to  the  present  day,  has  only  been 
interrupted  by  his  various  public  services.  Soon  after  coming  to 
Baltimore,  he  was  appointed  Chief  Commissioner  of  Insolvent 
Debtors.  In  1821,  he  was  elected  to  the  State  Senate  for  a  term  of 
live  years,  and  re-elected  for  another  term.  After  serving  two  years 
of  the  second  term  he  resigned,  and  devoted  himself  exclusively 
to  his  practice  from  that  time  until  1845,  when  he  was  elected  to 
the  Senate  of  the  United  States.  Composed,  as  the  Senate  then 
was,  of  the  very  ablest  intellects  from  all  parts  of  the  country, 
Mr.  Johnson  was  among  its  leading  members.  Chosen  by  the 
Whigs,  he  was  naturally  very  intimate  with  Clay  and  Webster 
and  the  other  statesmen  of  that  school,  but  his  course  in  the 
Senate  was  marked  by  the  most  liberal  and  comprehensive  view 
of  public  measures,  and  by  an  independence  of  party  trammels 
which  rendered  him  conspicuous.  Regarded,  alike  by  friend  and  foe, 
as  possessing  the  clearest  foresight  and  capable  of  the  boldest  step, 
the  position  he  might  assume  in  any  important  debate  was  looked 
for  with  more  than  ordinary  interest.  Retaining,  always,  the 
personal  regard  of  Senators  on  both  sides,  he  was  never  without 
influence,  and  was  invariably  listened  to  with  attention.  In  the 
memorable  debates  upon  the  question  of  the  war  with  Mexico, 
Mr.  Johnson  differed  from  the  sentiments  of  his  party,  and  was 
among  the  supporters  of  the  Democratic  Administration  of  Presi- 
dent Polk,  in  the  advocacy  of  that  war.  In  1849,  he  resigned  his 
seat  in  the  Senate  to  accept  the  position  of  Attorney  General,  ten- 
dered him  by  President  Ta}'lor.  As  a  Cabinet  Minister,  during  the 
short  term  of  office  of  General  Taylor,  Mr.  Johnson  was  no  less 
distinguished  than  in  the  Senate.  On  the  accession  of  Mr.  Fillmore 
he  retired,  and  resuming  the  practice  of  his  profession,  at  once 
appeared  in  its  foremost  rank.  He  was  retained  in  almost  every 
important  cause  in  the  Courts  of  Maryland  and  in  the  Supremo 
Court.  His  advice  and  services  were  sought  from  distant  States, 
and  in  1854  he  was  employed  by  an  English  house  to  argue  a  case 
involving  a  claim  of  great  magnitude  against  the  United  States 
Government,  before  the  joint  English  and  American  Commission, 
then  sitting  in  London,  lie  was  associated  professionally,  in  this 
matter,  with  the  present  Lord  Cairns,  then  in  the  House  of  Com- 
mons, and  a  leading   member   of  the   Chancery  Bar,  and,  subse- 


quently,  Lord  Chancellor  under  the  D'Israeli  administration.  During 
his  sojourn  in  England,  Mr.  Johnson  received  much  attention  from 
the  public  men  and  members  of  the  English  Bar.  Returning  home 
he  was  unceasingly  engaged  with  his  practice,  and  took  no  active 
part  in  politics  until  the  winter  of  1860-61,  when  he  was  called  upon 
by  the  exigencies  of  that  memorable  period.  He  was  sent  as  one  of 
the  Delegates  from  Maryland  to  the  Peace  Convention,  which 
assembled  at  Washington.  He  avowed  himself  a  Union  man,  and 
utterly  repudiated  the  doctrine  of  secession,  believing  it  to  be  in 
violation  of  the  letter  of  the  Constitution  and  inconsistent  with  the 
spirit  and  stability  of  our  Government.  Pie  was,  however,  conspicuous 
in  that  Convention  by  his  earnest  and  eloquent  efforts  to  avert  the 
threatening  calamities  of  civil  war  by  measures  of  compromise  and 
conciliation.  When  all  hope  of  a  peaceful  settlement  of  the  sectional 
difficulties  had  vanished,  Mr.  Johnson  advocated  the  preservation 
of  the  Union  by  the  military  power  of  the  General  Government. 
Soon  after  the  war  had  actually  commenced,  the  position  of  the 
State  of  Maryland  became  one  of  peculiar  difficulty  and  embar- 
rassment. Although  refusing  by  legislative  enactment  to  join  the 
other  Southern  States  in  secession,  the  sympathies  of  the  large 
majority  of  her  people  were,  undoubtedly,  against  the  Government. 
In  this  trying  crisis,  and,  throughout  the  strife,  Mr.  Johnson,  while 
maintaining  firmly  the  position  he  had  taken  in  favor  of  coercion, 
was  zealous  in  endeavoring  to  allay  the  bitterness  of  feeling  which 
was  naturally  enkindled.  He  did  all  he  could  to  prevent,  and,  as 
far  as  possible,  to  redress  personal  wrongs,  and  to  save  the  soil  of 
Maryland  from  the  actual  havoc  of  war. 

In  1861,  he  was  sent  from  Baltimore  county  to  the  House  of 
Delegates.  After  the  capture  of  New  Orleans,  he  was  sent  to  that 
city  by  President  Lincoln,  as  special  Commissioner,  to  revise  the 
decisions  of  the  military  commandant,  General  Butler,  in  regard  to 
several  important  matters  involving  our  peaceful  relations  with 
foreign  governments.  He  deemed  it  necessary  and  proper  to  reverse 
all  those  decisions,  and  for  the  good  effect  of  so  doing  he  received 
the  thanks  of  the  Administration.  In  the  winter  of  1862-63, 
he  was  elected  to  the  United  States  Senate,  and  in  March,  1863, 
resumed  his  seat  in  that  body,  after  an  absence  of  fourteen  years. 
He  soon  participated  actively  in  all  the  debates,  and  while  unswerv- 
ing in  the  support  he  gave  to  the  Union  cause,  he  frequently  re- 
sisted measures  of  the  dominant  party,  which  he  thought  uncalled 
for  by  the  necessities  of  war,  and  subversive  of  the  true  liberties 
of  the   people   and  the   rights   of  the   States.     He  voted  for  the 



constitutional  amendment  abolishing  slavery,  having,  all  his  life, 
deplored  the  existence  of  that  institution.  After  the  surrender 
of  the  Southern  army,  Mr.  Johnson  advised  the  immediate  re- 
admission  of  the  seceding  States  and  an  unconditional  amnesty  to 
their  people,  and  in  his  continued  and  urgent  advocacy  of  that 
course  by  the  Government,  and  in  his  resistance  to  the  passage  of 
the  reconstruction  acts,  he  became,  in  Congress,  and,  was  recognized 
throughout  the  country  as  the  leader  of  the  Conservative  party. 
In  voting  for  one  of  the  reconstruction  bills,  which  he  held  to  be  in 
violation  of  the  rights  of  the  States,  he  declared  that  he  did  so 
only  because  he  believed,  that  if  its  provisions  were  not  accepted 
by  the  Southern  people,  harsher  terms  would  be  exacted  by  the 
party  in  power — a  prediction  which  has  certainly  been  fulfilled. 

In  the  summer  of  1868,  Mr.  Johnson  was  appointed  Minister  to 
the  Court  of  St.  James,  and  the  appointment  was  immediately 
confirmed.  'In  England  he  was  the  recipient  of  attentions  never 
before  paid  to  an  American  Ambassador.  He  visited  different 
portions  of  the  kingdom  and  was  everywhere  met  by  a  popular 
ovation.  In  the  chief  commercial  and  manufacturing  towns  ban- 
quets were  given  him,  and  so  general  was  this  demonstration  that 
Lord  Clarendon,  writing  to  a  friend  in  America  and  referring  to 
the  matter,  expressed  his  belief  that  "  Mr.  Johnson  was  the  only 
Diplomatic  Representative  that  had  ever  brought  out  the  true 
friendly  feeling  of  the  British  people  for  those  of  the  United  States." 
Nor  was  it  alone  in  his  official  relation  that  he  was  so  cordially 
received.  His  fame  as  a  distinguished  American  lawyer  and  jurist 
brought  him  into  the  most  agreeable  intercourse  with  the  Justices 
and  leading  Barristers  of  England. 

In  a  few  months  after  his  arrival  in  England,  Mr.  Johnson 
succeeded  in  negotiating  a  treaty  between  the  two  nations,  for  the 
settlement  of  the  questions  in  dispute,  growing  out  of  what  are 
known  as  the  "Alabama  Claims.''*  This  treaty  was  in  strict  accord- 
ance with  the  letter  of  Mr.  Johnson's  instructions,  on  entering 
upon  his  mission,  and  accomplished,  in  fact,  more  than  had  ever 
even  been  expected  the  English  Government  would  yield.  The 
Senate,  however,  refused  to  ratify  the  treaty,  although  it  was 
privately  acknowledged,  by  Mr.  Sumner  and  other  leading  men,  to 
secure  all  that  our  Government  had  a  right  to  ask  or  any  reason  to 
expect.  It  is  known  that  a  supposed  party  necessity  alone  caused 
the  adverse  action  of  the  Senate.  Mr.  Johnson's  despatch  to  the 
State  Department  in  explanation  and  defence  of  that  treaty  was 
given  to  the  public  at  the  time,  and  was  a  clear  and  able  vindication 


of  his  own  course  and  of  the  justice  of  the  terms  of  settlement  pro- 
posed. Mr.  Johnson  returned  from  England  in  June,  1869,  and 
has  resumed  his  practice  in  Baltimore  and  at  Washington,  having 
argued  recently  some  of  the  most  important  causes. 

In  his  professional  life,  it  may  he  truly  said  of  him,  that  from  his 
very  youth  to  his  present  ripe  age,  he  has  had  uninterrupted  success. 
Great  as  is  his  reputation  as  a  lawyer  of  profound  learning,  and  an 
advocate  of  strong  reasoning  powers,  and  of  the  most  forcible,  as 
well  as  persuasive  eloquence,  he  is,  perhaps  still  more  remarkable  at 
the  Bar,  for  his  display  of  an  acute  knowledge  of  human  nature  and 
an  ingenious  and  irresistible  manner  of  examining  and  cross-examin- 
ing witnesses — eliciting  truth  from  the  most  unwilling,  and  dis- 
covering the  falsehood  of  the  most  unblushing.  In  the  exercise  of 
this  peculiar  faculty  Mr.  Johnson  has  no  superior.  Of  Mr.  Johnson's 
private  life  and  character,  nothing  could  be  said  more  correctly 
expressing  the  estimation  in  which  he  has  ever  been  held  by  his 
personal  friends  and  those  with  whom  he  has  been  brought  in  con- 
tact, than  that  he  is  a  genial,  unassuming  gentleman.  Married, 
when  only  twenty-one  years  old,  to  a  lady  of  rare  beauty,  and  force 
of  character  and  mind,  his  domestic  circle,  has,  for  more  than  fifty 
years,  been. the  scene  of  comfort,  refinement  and  happiness.  Simple 
in  his  tastes,  kind  and  generous  in  his  impulses,  a  warm  and  confid- 
ing friend,  and  a  most  forgiving  enemy,  he  is  not  only  entitled  to 
the  place  we  have  given  him  among  lawyers  and  statesmen,  but  he 
commands  an  equally  elevated  position  as  a  man. 


The  Episcopal  Church  of  Maryland  has  been  adorned  by  many 
men  of  shining  talents  and  virtues,  and  has  always  had  a  very  strong 
influence  on  the  history  and  destinies  of  the  State.  James  Kemp, 
although  not  of  native  birth,  attained  to  distinguished  position  in 
the  church,  and  left  an  exalted  record  for  piety  and  benevolence. 
He  was  born  in  the  parish  of  Keith  Hall,  Aberdeenshire,  Scotland, 
in  1764,  being  baptized  and  educated  in  the  Presbyterian  faith.  He 
was  sent  at  a  very  early  age  to  the  grammar  schools  of  Aberdeen, 
where  he  at  once  became  conspicuous  for  good  conduct  and  scholar- 
ship, and  after  obtaining  the  highest  honors  of  that  institution,  he 
entered  Marschal  College,  a  famous  seat  of  learning,  in  1782.  He 
was  particularly  noted  for  his  mathematical  attainments.  He  took 
his  degree  in  1786,  but  anxious  to  avail  himself  of  the  advantages 
of  the  college,  he  remained  a  year  longer  than  usual,  attending  the 
lectures  on  divinity  of  the  celebrated  Dr.  George  Campbell,  and 
also  turning  his  attention  to  various  ornamental  branches  of  litera- 
ture. He  was  then  very  strong^  urged  by  some  of  his  friends  to 
adopt  mercantile  pursuits,  for  which  he  was  well  fitted  by  nature ; 
but  finding  himself  averse  to  this  course,  he  resisted  the  importuni- 
ties of  his  counsellors,  determined  on  embarking  for  America,  and 
sailed  for  the  United  States,  in  April,  1787. 

He  came  to  Maryland,  and  soon  after  his  arrival  was  employed  as 
private  tutor  in  Dorchester  count}*,  on  the  eastern  shore,  passing 
two  j'ears  in  this  position  and  continuing  his  theological  studies. 
At  this  time,  however,  his  religious  opinions  underwent  a  change. 
He  abandoned  the  Presbyterian  communion,  in  which  he  had  been 
reared,  and  joined  the  Episcopal  Church.  Under  the  instruction  of 
Rev.  Dr.  Bowie,  Rector  of  Great  Choptank  parish,  he  prepared  for 
the  ministry,  and  being  ordained  in  December,  1789,  he  succeeded 
Dr.  Bowie  in  charge  of  the  parish,  in  August  of  the  succeeding 

During  his  labors  on  the  eastern  shore,  for  a  period  of  twenty- 
four  years,  he  acquired  a  high  reputation  in  the  church  for  his  piety 


and  zeal,  while  he  became  endeared  to  those  who  differed  with  him 
in  religious  views,  by  the  Christian  charity  he  exercised  toward  all 
men.  His  excellent  business  qualities  also  were  of  signal  service  to 
his  flock,  and  many  persons  were  in  the  habit  of  consulting  him, 
regarding  their  temporal  affairs,  and  seeking  the  benefit  of  his  sound 
practical  sense. 

In  1813,  he  became  associate  rector  with  Rev.  Dr.  Beasly,  of  St. 
Paul's  parish,  Baltimore,  previous  to  which  appointment  he  had 
been  made  Doctor  of  Divinity  by  Columbia  College,  New  York.  He 
removed  to  Baltimore  with  a  distinguished  reputation  as  a  clergy- 
man and  philanthropist,  and  in  this  city  very  soon  made  numerous 
friends  among  all  classes  of  society.  In  1814,  he  was  elected  by  the 
convention  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  in  Maryland,  to  act 
as  Suffragan  Bishop  during  the  lifetime  of  Bishop  Claggett,  and  to 
succeed  him  in  case  of  survivorship.  In  September  of  the  same  year 
he  was  consecrated  to  the  Episcopal  office  at  New  Brunswick,  New 
Jersey,  by  the  venerable  William  "White,  presiding  Bishop  of  the 
Church.  Thenceforth,  during  the  life  of  Bishop  Claggett,  the  more 
especial  province  of  Bishop  Kemp  consisted  in  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
Eastern  Shore,  but  in  1816,  the  death  of  his  superior  advanced  him 
to  the  position  of  diocesan.  He  continued  to  discharge  the  duties 
of  his  office  until  1827,  when  his  eminent  and  useful  career  was 
suddenly  terminated.  He  had  visited  Philadelphia  to  assist  in  the 
consecration  of  the  Right  Rev.  Dr.  H.  IT.  Onderdonk,  and  on  his 
return  home,  he  was  fatally  injured  by  the  overthrow  of  the  stage- 
coach in  which  he  was  a  passenger.  He  lingered  in  great  suffering 
for  three  days,  and  died  on  Sunday,  28th  of  October.  His  wife  had 
died  in  the  preceding  year,  leaving  two  children,  a  daughter  and  a 
son,  the  late  Judge  Kemp;  both  of  whom  left  descendants  still  resid- 
ing in  Baltimore. 

Bishop  Kemp  beside  being  eminent  as  a  minister  of  the  gospel, 
and  as  a  man  of  learning,  was  a  very  public  spirited  citizen. 
Benevolent  enterprises  always  claimed  his  interest  and  sympathy, 
while  his  liberal  spirit  extended  beyond  the  bounds  of  his  own 
church.  He  felt  a  deep  solicitude  in  the  welfare  of  the  colored 
population,  and  was  ever  active  in  his  efforts  to  ameliorate  their 
condition.  To  piety,  and  warmth  of  feeling,  he  joined  strong 
common  sense,  and  the  cultivation  and  refinement  of  the  Christian 


John  Pendleton  Kennedy  was  born  in  the  city  of  Baltimore, 
October  25th,  1795,  and  died  at  Newport,  August  18th,  1870. 
He  was  of  Irish  descent,  and  his  father  at  the  time  of  his  birth, 
was  a  prosperous  merchant  of  this  city.  His  mother  came  of  the 
distinguished  Pendleton  family  of  Virginia.  He  graduated  at  the 
Baltimore  College  in  1812.  When  the  war  with  Great  Britain 
broke  out,  he  volunteered,  and,  with  the  late  George  Peabody, 
served  as  a  private  at  the  battles  of  Bladensburg  and  North 
Point.  Many  years  after,  he  and  Mr.  Peabody  received  from  the 
United  States,  the  bounty  land  awarded  to  the  soldiers  of  that 

He  studied  law  with  the  late  Judge  Walter  Dorsey,  and  in  1816, 
was  admitted  to  the  bar,  and  practiced  law  successfully  for  about 
twenty  years. 

In  1818,  in  connection  with  the  late  Peter  Hoffman  Cruse,  he 
commenced  authorship,  by  the  publication  of  a  serial,  called  "  The 
Red  Book,"  which  continued  two  years. 

In  1820  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  House  of  Delegates. 

In  1832  he  published  his  first  novel,  "  Swallow  Barn,"  descriptive 
of  plantation  life  in  Virginia.  In  1835  his  second  novel,  "  Horse- 
shoe Robinson,"  a  revolutionary  story,  appeared,  and  proved  the 
most  successful  of  his  writings.  In  1838  he  published  "  Rob  of  the 
Bowl ; "  a  legend  of  St.  Inigoes,  a  Maryland  story  of  the  days  of 
Cecilius  Calvert — second  Lord  Baltimore.  In  1838  Mr.  Kennedy 
again  entered  political  life,  and  was  elected  to  Congress  as  a  repre- 
sentative from  this  city  by  the  Whig  party,  of  which  he  became  a 
prominent  member,  and  was  chosen  a  Presidential  elector  from 
Maryland,  in  the  contest  which  elected  General  Harrison  in  1840. 
In  this  year,  he  published  "  The  Annals  of  Quodlibet,"  a  humor- 
ous and  satirical  account  of  the  Presidential  campaign.  He  was 
re-elected  to  Congress  in  1841,  and  again  in  1843.  The  first 
appropriation  by  Congress  to  enable  Mr.  Morse  to  try  the  experi- 
ment of  the  magnetic  telegraph,  between  Washington  and  Balti- 
more, was  made  mainly  through  the  efforts  of  Mr.  Kennedy.     In 


1846  he  was  again  elected  to  the  House  of  Delegates  of  this  State, 
and  was  chosen  speaker.  In  1849  he  published  his  "  Life  of  William 
Wirt,  Attorney  General  of  the  United  States."  In  1852  he  was 
appointed  by  President  Fillmore,  Secretary  of  the  Navy,  to  fill  the 
vacancy  occasioned  by  the  retirement  of  William  A.  Graham,  and 
warmly  advocated  and  sustained  the  Japan  expedition  and  Dr. 
Kane's  second  Arctic  voyage.  At  the  time  of  his  decease  he  was 
President  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  the  Peabody  Institute,  Vice- 
President  of  the  University  of  Maryland,  and  Vice-President  of  the 
Maryland  Historical  Society.  He  was  the  author  of  a  large  number 
of  political  tracts,  speeches,  reports,  &c,  among  which  his  review  of 
Mr.  Cambreling's  "  Free  Trade  Report,"  in  1830,  his  report  on  "  The 
Commerce  and  Navigation  of  the  United  States,"  when  Chairman 
of  the  Committee  on  Commerce,  in  1842,  and  his  several  pamphlets 
in  favor  of  the  protective  system  are  best  known.  Many  historical, 
biographical  and  literary  discourses,  essays  and  reviews  will  doubt- 
less soon  be  collected  and  with  the  manuscripts  of  "  notes  of  travels," 
&c,  left  by  Mr.  Kennedy,  given  to  the  public  by  his  literary  execu- 
tors. When  Mr.  Peabody  revisited  his  native  land  in  1856,  and 
resolved  upon  his  noble  endowment  of  the  Peabody  Institute,  in 
this  city  of  his  early  efforts,  he  named  Mr.  Kennedy  as  one  of  the 
board  of  trustees  for  his  great  gift,  and  on  the  death  of  Mr.  May  hew, 
Mr.  Kennedy  was  elected  president.  The  earnestness  with  which 
he  entered  upon  and  pursued  the  work  of  organization  committed 
to  him,  was  highly  and  gratefully  appreciated  by  Mr.  Peabody  to 
the  last.  During  the  late  war,  Mr.  Kennedy  was  a  devoted  lover  of 
the  Union,  and  all  his  influence  and  efforts  were  on  the  side  of  the 
Government.  In  1865  was  issued  the  last  work  which  he  gave  to 
the  public,  being  a  collection  of  a  series  of  letters  on  the  principles 
and  incidents  of  the  war,  which,  under  the  assumed  name  of  "  Paul 
Ambrose,"  he  had  communicated  to  the  "  National  Intelligencer." 
At  this  time,  he  made  his  third  visit  to  Europe,  in  the  hope  of 
reinvigorating  his  shattered  health.  Familiar  with  the  best  English 
and  continental  society,  he  renewed  old  intimacies  and  formed 
manj'  new  ones  with  the  literary  men  of  the  Old  World.  As  a 
refined  and  cultivated  American,  the  mansions  of  the  English 
nobility  were  always  open  to  him,  and  he  was  a  frequent  and 
honored  guest  under  their  roofs.  During  this  last  tour  ho  was 
selected  by  Mr.  Seward,  then  Secretary  of  State,  as  one  of  the 
United  States  Commissioners,  at  the  grand  Exposition  of  the 
Industry  of  all  nations  in  Paris,  and  in  that  capacity  rendered 
valuable  services ;  especially  as  one  of  the  small  select  commission, 
under  the  presidency  of  Prince  Napoleon,  to  which  the  subject  of  a 


uniform  decimal  currency  was  referred.  While  in  Paris  the 
Emperor  Napoleon  conferred  upon  him  the  cross  of  the  Legion  of 
•  His  last  public  appearance  before  the  people  of  his  native  city, 
was  in  October,  1868,  when  on  his  return  home,  he  presided  at  the 
great  Republican  mass  meeting,  held  here  in  that  month. 

Though  long  past  three  score  and  ten,  Mr.  Kennedy  was  of  so 
genial  and  joyous  a  nature,  that  the  idea  of  his  being  an  old  man 
never  occurred  to  any  one  of  his  friends,  but  the  hand  of  the 
universal  destroyer  was  reaching  out  toward  him,  and  he  was 
himself  not  insensible  to  the  approach  of  the  inexorable  hour.  This 
was  fully  evidenced,  not  only  in  his  utterances,  but  in  the  corres- 
pondence which  he  still  kept  up,  with  a  few  of  his  older  and  dearer 

In  the  summer  of  1870,  he  went  to  Saratoga  Springs  by  the 
advice  of  his  physician,  and  a  few  weeks  later  to  Newport,  which 
had  been  his  summer  residence  for  years.  Here  a  hidden  malady 
was  developed,  which  after  two  days  of  agony,  patiently  and 
bravely  borne,  and  one  day  of  tranquil  slumbers,  released  him  to 
his  rest,  In  a  blessed  interval  of  wakefulness  and  ease,  he  eagerly 
renewed  those  pledges  of  Christian  faith,  which  he  had  given  in 
health,  and  was  able  to  take  leave  of  those  dearest  to  him  as  he 
said,  "  in  perfect  peace  of  mind  and  body." 

His  remains  now  repose  in  the  sod  of  Greenmount,  at  the  dedica- 
tion of  which  in  1839,  he  delivered  the  address. 

"Mr.  Kennedy,"  says  one  of  the  friends  who  knew  him  best, 
Eobert  C.  Winthrop,  (from  whose  address  before  the  Massachusetts 
Historical  Society,  we  have  extracted  largely  in  this  sketch,)  "as 
a  man,  was  greater  and  better  than  all  his  books.  One  certainly 
looks  in  vain  in  all  that  he  wrote  or  did  for  the  full  measure  of 
those  gifts  and  acquirements  of  mind  and  heart ;  that  learning  and 
wisdom;  that  wit  and  humor;  that  whole  soulecl  cordiality  and 
gaiety  and  kindness,  which  shone  out  so  conspicuously  in  the 
intimacies  of  daily  intercourse.  A  truer  friend  or  more  charming 
companion,  has  rarely  been  found  or  lost  by  those  who  have  enjoyed 
the  privilege  of  his  companionship  and  friendship ;  and  among  these 
may  be  counted  not  a  few  of  our  most  distinguished  authors  and 

The  courtesy  which  Mr.  Kennedy  displayed  upon  all  occasions, 
was  not  the  mere  formal  discipline  of  elegant  manners.  There  was, 
as  has  been  said  by  another  friend,  a  sense  of  benefaction  in  it. 
To  approach  him  was  to  feel  the  friendly  charm  which  his  nature 
radiated.     Excellent  in  anecdote  and  reminiscence,  his  qualities  of 


companionship  were  remarkable,  and  were  lured  out  by  the  sym- 
pathy of  the  fireside  and  the  table.  Thirty  years  ago,  when  he  was 
in  Congress,  and  Washington  society  was  in  the  zenith  of  its 
renown,  he  was  one  of  its  most  popular  members.  In  those  days 
of  famed  dinner  parties,  when  sparkling  wit  and  brilliant  repartee 
flashed  and  danced  around  the  hospitable  board;  when  song  and 
story  went  up  and  down ;  when  the  statesman  forgot  the  affairs  of 
State,  and  when  political  rivalries  and  dissensions  were  thrust  out 
of  sight  in  the  clasp  of  the  hand,  or  the  pledge  of  the  health,  the 
Baltimore  member  was  ever  welcome,  and  it  is  related  that  John 
Quincy  Adams,  himself  a  delightful  companion,  often  forgot  his 
resolution  against  late  hours,  in  listening  to  Mr.  Kennedy.  Wash- 
ington Irving,  in  visiting  Baltimore,  met  Mr.  Kennedy  for  the  first 
time  at  the  table  of  a  common  friend,  and  a  close  intimacy  sprung 
up  between  them,  which  was  only  broken  by  the  hand  of  death. 
Mr.  Winthrop  says,  "  a  delightful  week,  which  I  passed  under  his 
(Mr.  Kennedy's)  roof,  many  years  ago,  gave  me  an  opportunity  of 
witnessing  the  esteem  and  affection,  in  which  he  was  held  by  my 
only  fellow  guest,  Washington  Irving,  whose  life  indeed,  contains 
more  than  one  letter  to  him,  beginning  '  Dear  Horseshoe '  and 
ending  '  Geoffrey  Crayon.'  " 

Thackeray  and  Dickens  while  in  America,  met  Mr.  Kennedy,  and 
the  acquaintance  ripened  into  a  friendship  and  an  intimacy,  which 
they  were  both  happy  to  renew  on  his  visits  to  England.  He  was 
just  the  man  to  appreciate  the  keen  satire  of  the  one,  and  the 
exquisite  humor  of  the  other,  while  those  fascinating  qualities  of 
mind  and  heart,  which  so  marked  him,  won  their  no  less  esteem. 
Oliver  Wendell  Holmes  alluding  to  an  interview  with  Mr.  Kennedy, 
a  few  days  before  his  death,  says:  "He  was  full  of  talk,  so 
cheerful,  so  genial,  so  varied — sometimes  on  political  and  historical 
matters,  with  which  he  was  familiar,  sometimes  relating  personal 
experiences  of  which  he  had  such  a  fund  in  his  memory,  always 
lively,  entertaining,  graceful  in  his  discourse — that  I  have  rarely 
sat  in  a  company  when  one  man  did  more  to  keep  all  the  rest  happy 
in  listening  to  him.  There  was  no  look  of  warning,  no  tone  that 
could  suggest  a  melancholy  foreboding ;  but  bright  and  brave  in  the 
face  of  fast  gaining  infirmity,  which  he  would  not  betray  to  sadden 
others,  he  shed  sunshine  about  him  to  the  last." 

Mr.  Kennedy  left  no  children.  His  wife,  who  survives  to  mourn 
him,  and  who  with  her  sister,  Miss  Gray,  rendered  his  home  for 
more  than  thirty  years,  so  dear  and  delightful  to  himself,  and  so 
attractive  to  his  friends,  is  a  daughter  of  the  late  Edward  Gray, 
one  of  the  most  respectable  merchants  of  Baltimore. 


It  is  a  notable  fact  that  among  the  leading  business  men  of  Balti- 
more, and  the  same  is  probably  true  of  other  commercial  cities  of 
this  country,  there  are  to  be  found  the  names  of  several  whose 
boyhood  and  early  manhood  were  spent  at  sea,  and  who  have 
stepped  from  the  quarter-deck  of  the  vessel  they  commanded  into 
the  positions  they  now  hold  of  trust  and  confidence  in  the  mer- 
cantile community.  This  seems  to  be  particularly  the  case  in  con- 
nection with  the  management  of  large  enterprises  of  associated 
capital.  The  explanation  is  not  far  to  seek.  A  good  commander 
must  necessarily  be  a  man  of  administrative  and  executive  ability. 
Accustomed  to  think  and  act  for  others,  not  only  for  those  who  are 
under  his  personal  control  and  who  obey  his  orders,  but  for  the 
owners,  whose  interests  are  entrusted  to  his  care  on  distant  seas  and 
in  foreign  ports,  fidelity  to  his  trust  and  a  strict  adherence  to  the 
line  of  duty  will  naturally  be  characteristic  of  such  men.  The  very 
responsibility  of  their  position  will  tend  to  develop  in  them  those 
qualities  of  sound  judgment,  prompt  decision,  firmness  and  system, 
which  are  essential  to  the  successful  management  of  any  corporate 
or  associated  enterprise.  Hence,  those  who  have  such  interests  are 
generally  fortunate  when  they  are  able  to  commit  them  to  the  hands 
of  a  man,  who,  amid  the  trials,  temptations,  and  dangers  of  a  sea- 
faring life,  has  established  the  character  of  a  prudent,  faithful,  and 
skillful  commander.  The  traits  which  such  a  character  implies  are 
worth  their  weight  in  gold,  whether  on  shore  or  afloat.  The  subject 
of  this  sketch  was  quite  long  enough  at  sea  and  had  a  sufficient 
share  of  the  vicissitudes  and  experiences  of  a  nautical  life  to  have 
his  character  formed  and  his  qualities  tested  in  the  rough  school 
which  either  makes  a  man  or  mars  him. 

Born  in  Philadelphia,  February  26th,  1801,  Captain  William 
Kennedy  made  his  first  voyage  to  the  West  Indies  when  he  was  a 
lad  of  fourteen.  From  that  time  until  he  finally  quit  the  seas,  in 
1834,  he  was  continuously  in  the  merchant  service,  and  from  the 
year  1820  was  in  command  of  a  vessel. 

In  1835  he  came  to  Baltimore  to  live,  and  formed  a  copartnership 
in  the  hide   and  leather  business  with  Mr.  William   Jenkins,  to 


whose  daughter  he  was  married  in  1831.  After  the  death  of  his 
father-in-law,  in  1843,  Captain  Kennedy  continued  in  business  by 
himself  until  September,  1847,  when  he  was  induced  to  devote  him- 
self entirely  to  the  management  of  the  interests  of  the  Mount 
Vernon  Manufacturing  Company,  of  which  corporation  he  was 
made  President.  This  position,  after  the  lapse  of  twenty-three  years, 
Captain  Kennedy  still  holds.  It  is  not  the  only  position  of  trust, 
however,  to  which  he  was  elected  long  years  ago,  and  which  he  still 
retains,  in  proof  of  the  high  estimation  in  which  his  services  are 
held  by  those  who  have  once  enjoyed  the  benefit  of  them.  For 
more  than  thirty  consecutive  years  he  has  been  a  Director  in  the 
Bank  of  Baltimore,  and  for  more  than  twenty-five  years  a  Director 
of  the  Equitable  Fire  Insurance  Company.  He  is  also  a  Director  in 
the  Baltimore  Savings  Bank. 

The  Mount  Vernon  Mills,  the  property  of  the  Company  whose 
affairs  he  has  so  long  and  faithfully  administered,  are  among  the 
most  important  manufacturing  establishments  in  the  vicinity  of 
Baltimore.  Situated  on  the  Falls  turnpike  and  on  the  bank  of 
Jones's  Falls,  and  distant  about  two  miles  from  the  city,  they  give 
employment  to  about  three  hundred  operatives,  one  half  of  whom 
are  females.  The  mills  are  run  partly  by  water  and  partly  by  steam, 
and  are  employed  in  the  manufacture  of  cotton  sail  duck,  ravens, 
twine,  felting  for  paper  makers,  and  an  article  of  canvas,  wide 
and  light,  used  for  threshing  machines.  The  production  in  1869 
amounted  to  1,240,245  yards  of  goods  and  23,233  pounds  of  twine. 
The  consumption  of  raw  material  amounted  to  3,144  bales ;  the  mills 
have  a  capacity,  however,  to  work  up  a  much  larger  amount,  or 
about  5,000  bales  per  annum.  The  Company's  property  embraces 
some  sixty  acres  of  land,  prettily  embellished  and  improved,  on 
which  are  erected  eighty  or  more  dwellings  for  the  operatives,  the 
majority  of  which  are  built  of  stone,  and  which  constitute  the  little 
village  of  Mount  Vernon. 

Captain  Kennedy  himself  resides  near  Baltimore  city,  his  country 
seat,  where  he  has  lived  for  more  than  forty  years,  being  situated  a 
short  distance  beyond  the  Green  Mount  Cemetery.  His  character 
is  what  the  record  of  his  life  would  indicate, — that  of  an  upright, 
modest,  unassuming  gentleman,  who,  while  habitually  shrinking 
from  notoriety  and  doing  nothing  to  court  public  attention,  has  ac- 
quired the  respect  and  esteem  of  the  community,  by  the  energy  and 
fidelity  with  which  he  has  fulfilled  every  trust  committed  to  his 
charge,  and  particularly  for  his  successful  management  of  the  im- 
portant manufacturing  enterprise  to  which  he  has  devoted  the  latter 
portion  of  his  life. 



Thomas  Kexsett  was  born  in  Cheshire,  Connecticut,  on  February 
12th,  1814.  His  father,  also  named  Thomas,  was  a  native  of  Eng- 
land, who  immigrated  to  America  in  the  early  part  of  this  century, 
and  settled  in  Connecticut,  where  he  soon  after  married  Elizabeth 
A.  Daggett,  of  Xew  Haven. 

In  the  year  1819,  Mr.  Kensett,  Sr.,  invented  a  mode  of  preserving 
meats,  fruits  and  vegetables,  which  in  all  essential  particulars  is  the 
same  with  that  now  in  general  use.  Seeing  at  once  the  commercial 
importance  and  value  of  his  invention,  he  resolved  to  make  arrange- 
ments for  conducting  the  process  on  a  larger  scale,  and  to  this  end 
removed  to  the  city  of  Xew  York,  where  he  established  himself  in 
partnership  with  his  father-in-law,  Mr.  Ezra  Daggett.  The  business 
thus  established  was  successfully  prosecuted  by  the  partners  until 
the  year  1825,  when  Mr.  Daggett  retired  from  the  firm  and  returned 
to  Xew  Haven,  Mr.  Kensett  continuing  the  business  until  his  death, 
in  June,  1829. 

The  trade  in  "canned  goods,"  which  has  since  developed  into  such 
gigantic  proportions,  was  at  this  time  in  its  infancy.  The  demand 
was  limited  to  the  purchases  made  by  the  United  States,  and  con- 
sisted principally  of  meats,  soups  and  milk  for  officers'  stores,  and 
hospital  use  in  the  navy,  and  of  supplies  for  vessels  bound  on  long 

Mr.  Kensett,  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  resided  in  Xew  York, 
engaged  in  mercantile  pursuits,  from  the  year  1820  to  1849.  In 
1838  he  married  Miss  Eliza  P.  Wheeler,  daughter  of  J.  B.  Wheeler, 
a  member  of  the  State  Legislature.  In  1849  he  removed  to  Balti- 
more; and  about  the  same  time,  (his  first  wife  having  died  some 
years  before,)  married  Miss  Sarah  Ann  Wheeler  of  Xew  York,  with 
whose  brother  he  formed  a  partnership.  Mr.  Wheeler  remained  in 
Xew  York  to  represent  the  business,  that  being  the  principal  centre 
of  demand,  while  Mr.  Kensett  established  his  factory  on  York 
street,  near  Light,  in  Baltimore,  as  the  latter  city  afforded  by  far 
the  greatest  facilities  for  procuring  the  oysters  and  fruits  which 


were  the  staple  articles  of  the  business.  The  rent  of  the  building 
he  occupied  then  was  $125  per  annum. 

Just  at  this  time  occurred  the  discovery  of  gold  in  California, 
which  gave  so  amazing  an  impetus  to  nearly  all  branches  of  trade, 
and  to  none  more  than  that  in  canned  goods,  both  for  sea-stores  and 
for  consumption  in  the  mines,  where  they  were  looked  upon  as 
articles  of  prime  necessity.  Mr.  Kensett  experienced  a  full  share 
of  this  prosperity.  The  old  factory  being  found  inadequate  for 
the  increasing  demands  of  the  business,  he  erected  a  new  building, 
of  what  then  seemed  to  the  firm  the  imposing  dimensions  of 
twenty-five  feet  by  sixty. 

The  building  which  the  present  firm  occupies,  on  the  same  site, 
has  a  length  of  a  hundred  and  fifty  feet  with  a  depth  of  seventy,  is 
three  stories  in  height,  and  stands  upon  a  site  fronting  three  hundred 
and  seventy-five  feet  on  West  Falls'  avenue,  with  a  similar  front  on 
the  basin.  Mr.  Kensett  also  erected  another  factory  for  packing 
fruit  and  the  manufacture  of  cans,  which  has  a  front  of  seventy-five 
feet  on  Bank  street,  and  a  depth  of  one  hundred  and  ten. 

Upon  the  death  of  Mr.  Wheeler,  in  1857,  Mr.  Kensett  continued 
the  business  alone  until  1864,  when  he  admitted  his  son,  Thomas  H. 
Kensett,  and  his  nephew,  EL  N.  Vail,  to  interests  in  the  house. 

Until  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  between  the  States,  in  1861, 
the  principal  foreign  markets  for  canned  goods  were  Australia, 
California  and  South  America ;  but  during  the  war  the  demand  for 
home  consumption  was  enormously  increased,  and  the  quality  of  the 
goods  packed  in  Mr.  Kensett's  establishment  gave  so  much  satisfac- 
tion and  attained  so  wide  a  reputation,  that  the  business  has  greatly 
increased  in  extent. 

The  statistics  of  this  trade  afford  an  interesting  proof  of  how 
vastly  the  natural  wealth  of  a  country  may  be  increased  by  the 
discoveries  of  science.  The  oysters  and  fruits,  which  are  the  staple 
articles  of  the  trade,  are  of  so  delicate  and  perishable  a  nature  that 
they  cannot,  under  ordinary  circumstances,  bear  long  keeping  or 
distant  transportation.  Hence  of  the  immense  wealth  contained  in 
the  prolific  oyster  beds  of  the  Chesapeake  Bay,  but  an  insignificant 
portion  was  realized ;  while  the  peach  orchards  on  either  shore, 
though  in  numbers  and  extent  but  a  small  fraction  of  those  now 
flourishing,  produced  crops  of  delicious  fruit,  of  which  great  part 
was  sold  at  a  trivial  price  or  perished  for  want  of  a  market.  At 
the  time  when  Mr.  Kensett,  Sr.,  obtained  his  patent  for  preserving 
meats  and  fruits,  in  1825,  the  market  value  of  poaches  was  from 
forty  to  seventy  cents  per  bushel;  when  now  it  is  not  unusual  for 


a  packer  to  pay  three  dollars,  and  even  five  dollars  a  bushel  for 
fruit  of  good  quality.  Two  years  ago,  one  of  the  Baltimore  packers 
paid  twenty-seven  thousand  dollars  in  cash  for  the  peaches  taken 
from  a  farm  of  a  hundred  and  twenty-five  acres,  being  an  average 
of  about  four  dollars  per  bushel.  Eighteen  years  ago  the  entire 
product  of  the  farm  could  have  been  bought  for  a  third  of  the 
sum.  What  is  true  of  this  orchard  may  be  applied  to  nearly  all 
the  farm  lands  about  the  city,  which  in  many  places  have  increased 
in  value  five  hundred  per  cent. ;  and  this  result  has  been  obtained 
chiefly  by  the  development  of  the  packing  business. 

Fifteen  years  ago  the  largest  houses  in  the  trade  did  not  pack 
more  than  two  thousand  bushels  during  the  season ;  now  many  of 
them  require  from  five  to  eight  hundred  bushels  a  day,  and  this, 
too,  during  a  season  which  lasts  about  two  months. 

During  the  season,  Mr.  Kensett's  firm  employs  eight  hundred 
hands ;  and  to  give  an  idea  of  the  activity  of  the  business,  we 
may  state  that  from  August  9th  to  September  14th  of  the  year 
1870,  this  house  packed  one  million  thirty-seven  thousand  four 
hundred  and  seventy-six  cans  of  peaches. 

The  oysters  are  principally  taken  from  the  Chesapeake  Bay  and 
its  tributaries,  and  the  business  of  taking  as  well  as  packing  gives 
employment  to  a  large  number  of  persons.  There  are  houses 
engaged  in  the  packing  business  in  this  city,  which  give  constant 
employment  during  the  season  to  forty  and  fifty  vessels  each,  and 
which  disburse  more  than  five  hundred  thousand  dollars  a  year. 
The  returns  on  the  business,  which  requires  such  heavy  outlay, 
come  from  all  parts  of  the  country  and  all  quarters  of  the  world, 
except  Maryland,  where  there  is  so  little  demand  for  consumption 
that  the  entire  profits  on  the  goods  sold  for  that  purpose  in  a 
year,  by  any  house,  would  not  pay  their  book-keeper's  salary.  But 
this  one  State  excluded,  the  whole  civilized  world  is  their  customer. 

A  meeting  of  the  Baltimore  Oyster  Packers'  Association,  of 
which  Mr.  Kensett  is  President,  was  held  on  Light  street,  on  the 
9th  of  April,  1868,  at  which  meeting  about  thirty  gentlemen 
were  present,  representing  at  least  $15,000,000  of  capital  engaged 
in  this  business.  Mr.  Kensett  delivered  an  address,  reciting  the 
history  of  the  trade,  and  filled  with  interesting  facts.  After 
dwelling  on  the  importance  of  this  traffic  among  the  various 
industries  of  the  State,  he  went  on  to  say:  "I  do  not  err  when 
I  state  that  we  are  developing  our  resources,  and  contributing 
greatly  to  stimulate  and  foster  the  growth  of  the  city  by  this 
flourishing  branch  of  industry.  Our  factories,  in  many  instances, 


employ  from  three  to  five  hundred  persons,  during  seven  months 
of  the  year,  and  these,  too,  of  a  class  who  could  not  easily  find 
other  occupation.  Were  it  not  for  the  shucking  of  oysters,  many 
children,  from  twelve  to  fifteen  years  of  age,  would  spend  much 
of  their  time  in  the  streets  and  around  the  wharves  and  docks, 
being  trained  up  to  immorality  and  crime,  and  preparing  to  fill 
our  jails  and  workhouses.  Now  they  are  actively  and  usefully 
employed,  earning  from  twenty-five  cents  to  a  dollar  and  twenty 
five  cents  a  day. 

"  On  comparing  the  business  of  the  packing  houses  with  what 
it  was  twelve  years  ago,  it  can  scarcely  be  realized  that  each  of 
them  now  cans  more  goods  than  were  then  packed  during  an 
entire  year.  The  United  States  Government  has  purchased  more 
canned  goods  this  year  than  were  packed  in  the  entire  State  eighteen 
years  ago. 

"  About  eleven  million  bushels  of  oysters  are  taken  annually 
from  the  Chesapeake  Bay  and  its  tributaries,  of  which  nine  mil- 
lions are  packed  in  Baltimore. 

"  There  are  seventy  regular  packing  houses,  employing  fifteen 
thousand  persons,  and  packing  about  fifteen  million  cans  each  year. 

"  Seventeen  hundred  vessels,  averaging  about  fifty  tons  each,  and 
three  thousand  canoes,  are  employed  in  dredging  or  tonging  for 

"  The  extensive  trade  in  this  line  of  goods  has  had  the  effect  of 
bringing  to  Baltimore  an  immense  amount  of  business  in  other 
pursuits,  which  never  would  have  sought  the  city  but  for  its 
general  reputation  as  a  packing  depot." 

Mr.  Kensett's  address,  and  the  important  and  well  authenticated 
facts  which  it  contained,  was  listened  to  with  great  interest,  and 
elicited  much  applause. 

Such  has  been  the  growth  of  a  business,  which  in  sixty  years 
from  the  time  Mr.  Kensett,  Sr.,  packed  the  first  can  of  hermeti- 
cally sealed  goods  in  the  United  States,  has  now  grown  to  be  one 
of  the  most  important  and  flourishing  industries  in  the  State. 

Mr.  Kensett  enjoys  the  possession  of  an  ample  fortune.  He  is  a 
Director  in  the  Second  National  and  Mechanics  Banks,  and  is  a 
large  stockholder  in  most  of  the  other  Banks  of  Baltimore.  He 
is  also  largely  interested  in  several  railroads,  and  has  been  very 
successful  in  his  investments  in  real  estate.  He  is  an  attendant  of 
the  Presbyterian  Church.  His  family  consists  of  three  sons  and 
three  daughters. 



Alexaxder  Kirklaxd,  the  second  son  of  William  and  Margaret 
Kirkland,  was  born  in  March,  1784,  near  Dungannon,  County 
Tyrone,  Ireland.  His  father  was  a  farmer  of  the  sturdy  Scotch-Irish 
race  settled  in  the  north  of  the  island.  He  was  brought  up  at  home 
until  he  reached  the  age  of  sixteen,  when  he  was  placed  with  a 
kinsman,  Mr.  David  Dixon,  then  doing  an  active  business  in  the 
lively  borough  town  of  Dungannon,  which  had  its  weekly  grain 
market,  and  monthly  fair,  its  quarter  and  petty  sessions,  and 
returned  a  member  to  Parliament.  With  Mr.  Dixon,  young  Kirk- 
land acquired  the  correct  and  steady  business  habits  which  were 
characteristic  of  his  whole  life. 

After  coming  of  age,  he  left  Mr.  Dixon,  and  embarked  in  busi- 
ness on  his  own  account,  and  soon  after  married  Miss  Maria  Ken, 
daughter  of  Patrick  Ken,  of  Dungannon.  But  domestic  affliction, 
which  overtook  him  in  the  loss  of  his  wife  and  only  child,  rendering 
his  home,  with  its  painful  associations,  distasteful  to  him,  he  deter- 
mined to  seek  his  fortunes  in  the  ISTew  World.  He  had  always  felt 
attracted  towards  Baltimore,  sharing  in  this  the  feeling  of  many  of 
his  countrymen  who  have  chosen  this  city  as  their  home,  and 
among  whom  Baltimore  counts  not  a  few  of  her  worthiest  citizens  ; 
so  he  selected  that  as  his  destination,  and  arrived  in  December, 

Soon  after  his  arrival  he  was  offered  a  situation  by  Mr.  Marcus 
McCausland,  as  cashier  and  collector  in  his  brewery,  with  a  home 
in  the  family.  He  at  once  accepted  the  offer,  and  remained  in  this 
position  until  1813,  when  he  left  Mr.  McCausland's  establishment 
and  engaged,  on  his  own  account,  in  the  ship-chandlery  business. 
About  this  time,  the  war  spirit,  which  Mr.  Kirkland  had  found 
very  prevalent  in  this  country  upon  his  arrival,  had  resulted  in  the 
outbreak  of  hostilities  with  England.  He,  like  most  of  his  country- 
men, bore  no  love  for  that  country,  and  had  a  high  apprecia- 
tion of  the  liberties  and  institutions  of  the  land  of  his  adoption  ; 
and  in  1810  he  had  joined  a  volunteer  company  of  Irishmen,  com- 


manded  by  the  late  Christopher  Hughes.  At  the  outbreak  of  the 
war,  this  company  marched  in  column  to  the  Court  House,  and 
received  their  naturalization  papers  on  the  spot. 

Upon  Capt.  Hughes  resigning  the  command,  Mr.  Kirkland  joined 
Capt.  Archibald  Pike's  company  of  artillery,  and  during  the  bom 
bardment  of  Fort  McHenry,  in  September,  1814,  he  was  stationed 
with  his  company  on  the  works  thrown  up  at  what  is  now  Patter- 
son Park.  Upon  the  landing  of  the  British  forces  at  North  Point, 
this  company  was  ordered  to  meet  them  by  a  forced  march,  an 
order  which  was  countermanded  when  they  had  nearly  reached  the 
front,  and  they  were  ordered  back  to  the  works  they  had  previously 
occupied.  The  excessive  heat  of  that  day,  and  their  excitement 
and  fatigue,  will  never  be  forgotten  by  the  survivors.  A  night  of 
extreme  severity,  owing  to  the  setting-in  of  the  equinoctial  storms, 
followed  this  exhausting  day,  during  which,  and  for  several  suc- 
ceeding days  and  nights,  Mr.  Kirkland  was  constantly  exposed  in 
the  trenches.  The  consequence  of  this  exposure,  aggravated  by  the 
accident  of  a  broken  ankle,  for  a  time  completely  shattered  his 
robust  constitution,  and  left  its  effects  in  a  permanent  lameness  and 
subsequent  paralysis  of  the  left  leg. 

In  1819,  he  was  prostrated  by  the  epidemic  yellow  fever  of  that 
year;  and  his  convalescence  left  him  so  enfeebled,  that  his  physician 
enjoined  him  to  break  up  his  business  and  take  to  the  seas,  which 
he  did  in  the  following  year,  selling  out  his  stock,  chartering  a 
vessel,  which  he  loaded  partly  with  goods  of  his  own,  and  partly 
with  the  consignments  of  friends,  and  went  as  supercargo  on  a 
trading  voyage  to  the  "West  Indies.  In  that  day,  before  the  estab- 
lishment of  foreign  mail  lines,  and  the  other  facilities  for  safe  and 
speedy  communication  with  distant  ports,  all  vessels  bound  on 
trading  voyages,  were  accompanied  by  supercargoes ;  and  many  of 
our  most  accomplished  and  successful  merchants  received  the  train- 
ing which  conducted  them  to  prosperity  in  this  responsible  but  now 
obsolete  office. 

Mr.  Kirkland  continued  to  perform  these  duties,  to  the  entire 
satisfaction  of  all  who  entrusted  their  interests  to  his  hands,  until 
1825,  when  his  health  being  now  entirely  restored,  he  made  an  ar- 
rangement with  his  present  partner,  Mr.  Daniel  Chase,  and  a  Captain 
Fish,  to  become  joint  proprietors  of  the  vessel.  In  the  same  year, 
he  also  arranged  with  Mr.  Sidney  Mason,  of  Gloucester,  Mass.,  (now 
of  New  York,)  to  embark  in  a  joint  account  business,  Mr.  Kirk- 
land to  remain  in  Baltimore,  and  Mr.  Mason  to  establish  himself 
in  St.  John's,  Porto  Rico.     Mr.  George  Latimer,  of  Philadelphia, 


afterwards  became  a  party  to  this  arrangement,  and  opened  a  branch 
house  at  Mayaguez,  Porto  Rico. 

The  business  thus  commenced,  has  continued  without  interrup- 
tion to  the  present  time.  The  original  founders  are  all  still  living  ; 
and  the  past  year  (1870)  their  aggregate  exports  of  breadstuff's,  pro- 
visions, &c,  to  Porto  Rico  amounted  to  more  thau  $470,000,  and 
their  imports  from  Porto  Rico,  to  13,800  hhds.  of  sugar,  which 
exceeds  the  entire  importation  of  sugar  from  all  sources,  at  the  time 
their  house  was  established. 

The  business  was  at  first  conducted  by  Mr.  Kirkland  under  his 
own  name ;  but  Mr.  Chase,  though  actively  engaged  with  his 
bakery,  was  interested  in  the  Porto  Rico  trade  of  the  house,  and 
purchased  most  of  the  goods  exported.  In  1836,  Mr.  Chase  gave  up 
his  bakery,  and  the  formal  partnership  of  Kirkland  and  Chase  was 
announced  ;  and  in  1841  the  firm  was  increased  by  the  admission 
of  Mr.  Allen  A.  Chapman,  a  son-in-law  of  Mr.  Chase,  and  Mr. 
Robert  R.  Kirkland,  son  of  the  senior  partner,  upon  which  the  style 
of  the  firm  became  Kirkland,  Chase  &  Company,  as  it  now  exists. 

The  introduction  of  the  new  partners,  both  men  of  remarkable 
intelligence,  activity  and  business  talents,  gave  additional  strength 
and  impulse  to  the  already  prosperous  house ;  their  business  in- 
creased from  year  to  year,  and  they  added  vessel  to  vessel,  by 
purchase,  construction,  or  charter,  to  supply  the  requisitions  of  their 
enlarging  trade.  One  of  their  brigs,  the  Frances  Jane,  they  ran  for 
more  than  thirty  years,  taking  always  full  cargoes,  and  making  a 
hundred  and  sixty-three  voyages  to  Porto  Rico  alone,  besides  vari- 
ous trips  to  Brazil ;  an  amount  of  trading  probably  unequalled  by 
any  vessel  of  her  class  in  the  United  States. 

The  business  community  of  Baltimore  has  long  recognized  the 
position  and  value  of  this  estimable  house,  in  its  relation  to  the 
commerce  of  the  city,  which  it  has  probably  contributed  more  to 
improve  and  extend  than  any  other  mercantile  firm.  They  have 
also  given  employment  to  large  numbers  of  mechanics  and  laborers, 
besides  seamen  and  employes  in  the  various  branches  of  their  busi- 
ness ;  and  have  earned  with  all  classes  a  well  deserved  reputation 
for  integrity,  liberality,  and  public  spirit.  Far  above  the  petty 
jealousies  of  trade,  they  have  ever  been  ready  to  extend  a  helping 
hand  to  young  men  entering  into  business,  and  to  assist  them, 
when  deserving,  in  their  efforts  to  rise. 

They  were  largely  instrumental  in  establishing  the  sugar  re- 
fineries whose  business  is  now  so  valuable  to  the  city  ;  aiding  and 
encouraging  their  late  esteemed  and  lamented  friend,  Mr.  John  C. 


Brune,  by  liberal  subscription  and  other  assistance,  in  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Maryland  Sugar  Refinery,  and  by  their  capital  and 
credit  contributing  largely  to  the  success  of  the  Baltimore  Sugar 
Refinery  of  Messrs.  Dougherty,  Woods  &  Co. 

Some  twenty  or  thirty  years  ago,  the  cargoes  of  sugar,  coffee,  &c, 
arriving  in  port,  were  always  sold  at  auction,  and  in  the  busy 
season  this  house  disposed  of  such  cargoes  by  auction,  having  one 
or  two  sales  a  week.  The  brokerage  system  has  now  superseded 
the  former  custom ;  but  our  old  grocery  merchants  will  remember 
those  sales  when  R.  Lemmon  &  Company  were  the  auctioneers  ;  and 
Mr.  Kirkland  was  always  to  be  seen  in  superintendence,  with  a 
smile  and  pleasant  word  for  all.  The  honorable  uprightness,  the 
candid,  open  dealing,  and  the  gentlemanly  courtesy  of  those  two 
well  known  old  Baltimore  houses,  R.  Lemmon  &  Company,  and 
Wm.  G.  Harrison  &  Company,  is  still  well  remembered,  and 
deserves  at  least  a  passing  notice  here. 

Though  the  house  of  Kirkland,  Chase  &  Company  were  noted 
for  their  liberality  in  allowing  credit  to  all  whom  they  deemed 
worthy  of  confidence,  they  weathered  the  various  commercial  crises, 
though  suffering  losses  amounting  to  hundreds  of  thousands  of 
dollars,  until  the  year  1860.  The  commercial  panic  which  followed 
the  election  of  Mr.  Lincoln,  with  the  wide-spread  apprehension, 
which  too  soon  became  reality ,  that  the  excited  feeling  throughout 
the  country  would  result  in  a  wTar  between  the  States,  brought 
heavy  disasters  upon  the  house.  They  were  then  holding  large 
stocks  of  merchandise,  which  rapidly  depreciated  in  value,  and  in 
one  day  more  than  $100,000  of  bills  were  returned  to  them  pro- 
tested. They  went  into  an  investigation  of  their  affairs  ;  their 
actual  and  estimated  losses ;  the  business  assets  of  the  firm,  and  the 
individual  property  of  the  partners,  and  the  result  of  the  investi- 
gation, proved  that  they  were  insolvent. 

Though  their  credit  was  still  good,  they  deemed  it  their  duty  at 
once  to  close  their  business.  Their  liabilities  proved  to  exceed 
$1,800,000.  After  paying  in  full  every  claim  which  could  justly  be 
regarded  as  confidential,  they  compromised  with  their  creditors  at 
seventy-five  cents  in  the  dollar,  a  percentage  which  many  of  the 
creditors  thought  would  never  be  realized  from  the  assets. 

Mr.  A.  Kirkland,  who  at  the  time  of  the  disaster  was  incapaci- 
tated for  active  business,  strengthened  his  partners  in  their  resolu- 
tion to  give  up  all  their  property  for  the  satisfaction  of  the  credi- 
tors. Mr.  Chase  surrendered  all  his  property,  and  with  the  rest, 
the  handsome  residence,  which  he  had  not  long  built,  and  removed 


to  a  small  rented  house.  The  junior  partners,  Mr.  Chapman  and 
Mr.  R.  R.  Kirkland,  were  not  behind  their  seniors  in  this  deter- 
mination to  sacrifice  all  for  the  honor  of  the  house. 

This  failure  excited  universal  sympathy  wherever  the  firm  was 
known.  The  creditors  all  signed  their  release  ;  and  such  was  the 
confidence  reposed  in  them  by  their  foreign  correspondents,  that 
they  were  receiving  new  business  before  they  had  completed  the 
compromise  settlement  for  the  old. 

The  spring  of  1861  tried  them  severely  ;  and  it  seemed  that  they 
must  break  dowu  in  their  efforts  to  pay  the  compromised  propor- 
tion ;  but  they  straggled  manfully,  and  in  less  than  three  years 
from  the  date  of  their  suspension,  paid,  not  merely  the  stipulated 
three-fourths,  but  all  claims  in  full,  principal  and  interest. 

Since  that  time,  the  house  has  gone  on  with  re-established  credit, 
and  more  than  regained  its  former  prosperity.  In  the  past  year  it 
exported  goods  in  seventy-three  vessels,  and  imported  26,000  hhds. 
of  sugar,  52,000  bags  of  coffee,  besides  other  merchandise,  on  which 
the  Governmeut  received  in  duties  $1,500,000  gold,  being  about 
one-hundredth  part  of  its  entire  revenue  from  import  duties. 

Though  Mr.  A.  Kirkland  no  longer  actively  participates  in  the 
business  of  the  firm,  of  which  he  is  still  the  senior,  he  is  cognizant 
of  all  their  large  and  varied  operations. 

In  addition  to  his  regular  business,  Mr.  Kirkland  has  held  vari- 
ous positions  of  trust  in  public  institutions.  He  has  been  a  director 
in  several  banks,  and  still  holds  that  position,  though  rather  as  an 
honoraiy  than  an  active  office,  in  the  Eutaw  Savings  Bank,  his 
fellow  directors  in  which  institution  some  years  since,  waited  upon 
him  in  a  body,  aud  presented  him  with  an  address  expressive  of 
their  sympathy  and  respect.  He  has  also  held  directorships  in  our 
Marine  Insurance  Companies ;  and  in  all  his  official  positions,  his 
known  soundness  of  judgment  and  uprightness  of  character  gave 
great  weight  to  his  advice  and  opinions.  He  never  took  any  active 
part  in  political  affairs. 

On  his  arrival  in  this  country,  he  connected  himself  with  the 
Presbyterian  Church,  but  after  his  marriage  he  joined  the  Metho- 
dist Episcopal  Church,  of  which  his  wife  was  a  member. 

Mr.  Kirkland  has  now  living  two  sons,  "Wm.  E.  Kirkland  (of  the 
firm  of  Kirkland  and  Von  Sachs,  New  York)  and  Robert  R.  Kirk- 
land, his  partner ;  three  daughters,  Mrs.  Benjamin  C.  Buck,  Mrs. 
John  L.  "Weeks  and  Mrs.  Talbot  J.  Taylor;  twenty-three  grand- 
children, and  three  great-grandchildren  ;  and  has  consequently  had 
four  generations  under  his  roof.     Four  years  ago  he  celebrated  his 


golden  wedding,  and  with  his  aged  wife,  who  is  still  living,  and 
descendants  to  the  third  generation,  presented  a  picture  of  happy 
and  honored  old  age,  such  as  is  rarely  seen. 

r  ^ 



The  career  of  Mr.  "William  Knabe,  the  eminent  piano  forte 
manufacturer,  and  founder  of  the  firm  of  William  Knabe  &  Co., 
who  died  in  this  city  May  21st,  1864,  is  an  apt  illustration  of  the 
effect  which  little  causes,  of  the  kind  commonly  called  accidental, 
and  oftentimes  viewed  in  the  light  of  misfortunes,  have  in  shaping 
the  course  of  human  lives  to  the  most  fortunate  results.  Mr.  Knabe 
was  born  at  Kreuzburg,  in  the  Duchy  of  Saxe  Weimar,  June  3d, 
1803.  His  father,  who  was  an  apothecary,  designed  that  his  son 
should  be  educated  for  a  profession,  but  owing  to  the  loss  of  prop- 
erty, occasioned  by  the  calamities  of  war  during  the  French 
invasion  of  Germany  in  1812-13,  was  unable  to  gratify  his  wish. 
Young  Knabe  instead  of  going  to  the  gymnasium  and  the  univer- 
sity, was  apprenticed  to  a  cabinet  maker.  After  learning  his  trade, 
according  to  the  German  custom,  he  traveled  for  two  }Tears  in 
the  exercise  of  his  craft,  and  then  apprenticed  himself  for  three 
more  years,  to  Langenhahn,  a  manufacturer  of  piano  fortes,  at 

He  afterwards  traveled  for  six  years,  during  which  period  he 
visited  the  principal  cities  of  Germany,  and  was  everywhere  recog- 
nized as  an  excellent  piano  maker.  In  1831,  while  a  resident  of 
Saxe  Meiningen,  he  formed  an  acquaintance  with  Miss  Christiana 
Ritz,  the  daughter  of  a  well-to-do  family,  which  resulted  in  an 
engagement  of  marriage ;  but  before  its  consummation,  the  family 
of  his  affianced  decided  to  emigrate  to  America,  whither  a  brother 
of  Miss  Kitz  had  gone  a  few  years  previous.  Mr.  Knabe  accom- 
panied them  with  the  intention  of  becoming  a  farmer,  but  as  Dr. 
Ernest  Ritz,  upon  whom  the  care  of  the  family  principally  rested, 
had  died  on  the  passage ;  and,  as  the  difficulties  encountered  in  a 
journey  to  Missouri,  whither  they  intended  going,  were  learned, 
he  resolved  to  remain  in  Baltimore,  at  least  one  year,  to  familiarize 
himself  with  the  language  and  customs  of  the  country.  Upon  his 
arrival  in  Baltimore  he  was  united  to  Miss  Ritz,  and  obtained 
employment  from  H.  llartge  (the  original  inventor  of  iron  piano 


frames)  at  five  dollars  per  week,  which  was  soon  increased  to  eight 
dollars  per  week.  By  working  early  and  late,  he  increased  his 
earnings  so  greatly  that  he  sold  his  agricultural  utensils,  &c.,  and 
abandoning  his  intention  to  go  to  Hermann,  Missouri,  he  was 
enabled  after  four  years  of  hard  labor  and  judicious  economy,  to 
commence  business  for  himself,  in  the  purchase,  sale  and  repairing 
of  old  pianos,  in  the  old  frame  building  on  the  corner  of  Liberty 
and  Lexington  streets. 

In  1839,  he  formed  a  partnership  with  Mr.  H.  Gaehle,  and  com- 
menced the  manufacture  of  piano  fortes.  The  business  increased  so 
rapidly,  and  additional  accommodation  was  so  necessary,  that  the 
firm  removed  in  1841,  to  the  corner  of  Liberty  and  German  streets. 
In  1843,  in  consequence  of  the  growing  demand  for  their  pianos, 
they  were  induced  to  take  the  warehouse  at  the  corner  of  Eutaw 
street  and  Cowpen  alley.  Four  years  later,  they  rented  the  ware- 
houses ]STos.  1,  3,  5  and  7  North  Eutaw  street,  still  occupied  by 
William  Knabe  &  Co.,  for  office  purposes  and  warerooms.  In  1851, 
they  had  two  large  establishments,  one  on  Baltimore  street  near 
Paca,  the  other,  on  Cowpen  alley  in  the  rear  of  the  Eutaw  House. 
In  November,  1854,  the  latter  manufactory  was  destroyed  by  fire, 
and  five  weeks  later,  that  on  Baltimore  street  was  also  burnt. 
The  major  part  of  their  hard  earned  fortune  was  thus  lost,  as  there 
was  only  a  small  insurance  on  the  factories;  and  it  was  only  by 
indomitable  energy  and  industry,  that  total  ruin  was  averted. 
The  partnership  of  Knabe  &  Gaehle  was  dissolved,  by  the  death  of 
the  latter,  in  1855,  when  he  recommenced  business  under  the 
present  firm  of  William  Knabe  &  Co. ;  and  the  old  paper  mill,  on 
the  corner  of  West  and  China  streets  was  bought,  for  the  purpose 
of  being  converted  into  a  piano  factory.  The  increase  of  business 
soon  led  to  a  corresponding  enlargement  of  his  plans,  and  in  1860, 
he  commenced  the  erection  of  the  present  immense  structure,  at  the 
corner  of  Eutaw  and  West  streets,  making  the  entire  plans  for 
same  as  now  completed,  and  now  having  a  front  of  two  hundred 
and  ten  feet  on  the  former  street  and  of  one  hundred  and  sixty-five 
feet  on  the  latter,  and  one  wing  of  which  had  been  completed,  when 
the  war  in  1861,  caused  a  disastrous  interruption  in  the  business 
of  the  firm.  Up  to  this  time,  their  sales  had  been  chiefly  at  the 
South.  The  loss  of  this  trade,  consequent  upon  the  war,  com- 
pelled the  firm  to  seek  a  new  market  for  their  pianos.  This  was 
found  in  the  West,  and  by  energy  and  perseverance,  an  extensive 
business  was  gradually  built  up.  The  new  factory  was  completed, 
by  additions  made  in  1865  and  1869,  and  crowned  with  its  cupola, 

"WILLIAM    KNABE.  351 

from  which  an  extended  view  of  the  city,  in  every  direction,  can  he 
had,  it  forms  a  conspicuous  ohject,  and  one  which  cannot  fail  to 
arrest  the  attention  of  travelers  entering  or  leaving  the  city  by  the 
Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad,  near  the  line  and  depot  of  which 
company  it  is  situated.  This  extensive  factory,  one  of  the  very 
largest  and  best  arranged  in  every  way  in  the  United  States,  and 
furnishing  employment  to  a  numerous  body  of  skillful  workmen, 
is  capable  of  turning  out  forty  finished  pianos  every  week.  Too 
much  credit  cannot  be  given  to  the  indomitable  pluck  and  energy 
with  which  the  business  of  this  firm  has  been  carried  on,  in  the 
face  of  losses  by  fire  and  wTar,  which,  w'ere  temporarily  almost 
ruinous.  Beginning  life  in  Baltimore,  as  we  have  seen,  as  a  jour- 
neyman mechanic,  led  by  accident,  in  the  first  instance,  to  make 
this  city  his  home,  and  afterwards  to  abandon  his  original  design 
of  turning  farmer,  and  to  engage  instead  in  the  business  of  manu- 
facturing pianos,  AVilliam  Knabe,  from  the  time  he  entered  upon 
this  latter  career,  pursued  it  with  unflinching  energy  and  resolution. 
He  bore  his  reverses  with  equanimity,  continued  faithful  to  his 
engagements  under  all  circumstances,  and  in  the  face  of  disaster 
and  impending  ruin,  maintained  a  cheerfulness  and  decision  of 
character,  worthy  of  imitation  as  well  as  praise.  Qualities  such 
as  Mr.  Knabe  possessed,  rarely  fail  in  the  end  to  command  success. 
He  died  May  21st,  1864,  honored  and  respected  among  business 
men  for  his  integrity,  loved  by  his  employes  for  his  considerate 
care  of  their  comfort,  and  deserving  to  be  held  in  grateful  remem- 
brance b}'  the  many  thousands  to  whose  innocent  and  profitable 
enjoyment,  his  skill  and  ingenuity  have  contributed. 

In  August,  1855,  Mr.  Knabe  decided  to  compete  for  the  gold 
medal  to  be  awTarded  by  the  Maryland  Institute,  for  the  best  piano 
exhibited  at  its  next  fair.  The  difficulties  encountered  in  settling 
the  accounts  of  the  old  firm,  rendered  it  necessary  for  him  to 
temporarily  leave  the  old  stock  in  the  hands  of  others,  he  was 
therefore  compelled  to  contend  for  the  prize  under  very  disadvan- 
tageous circumstances.  Notwithstanding  these,  in  seven  tcceks  the 
instrument  wTas  made,  which  bore  away  the  palm  from  more  than 
twenty  competitors. 

Since  then,  medals,  diplomas,  and  premiums  without  -number, 
have  attested  the  public  appreciation  of  the  excellence  of  these 
pianos,  while  Thalberg,  Gottschalk,  Strakosch,  Marmontel,  Prune 
and  others,  have  recorded  the  verdict  of  the  artistic  and  musical 
world  in  their  favor. 

Owing    to    the   extensive    sale    which    they   have    commanded, 


through  large  portions  of  the  country,  the  name  of  "  Knabe,"  has 
become  a  household  word. 

When  it  is  remembered  that  forty  years  ago,  Americans  were 
satisfied  to  buy  indifferently  finished  pianos,  of  foreign  makers, 
at  extravagant  prices,  and  that  the  prejudice  was  general  and 
inveterate  against  home  manufactured  instruments,  the  part  which 
the  enterprise  and  skill  of  Mr.  Knabe  have  borne  in  effecting  that 
revolution  in  sentiment  and  trade,  which  has  enabled  the  manu- 
facturer of  American  pianos  to  supersede  those  of  the  foreign 
manufacturer,  and  in  reality  to  sell  a  superior  instrument,  at  a 
lower  price,  deserves  especial  commendation. 

In  closing  this  sketch,  it  may  be  cited  as  an  illustration  of  Mr. 
Knabe's  kindly  disposition,  and  of  the  pleasant  relations  which  he 
always  cultivated  with  those  in  his  employ,  that  in  1855  he  insti- 
tuted the  custom  of  giving  an  annual  holiday  and  pic-nic  to  all 
his  workmen  and  their  families,  only  interrupted  for  a  few  years 
during  the  height  of  the  late  war,  a  custom  which  the  firm  has  ever 
since  kept  up.  More  of  such  pleasing  exhibitions  of  consideration, 
and  sympathy  on  the  part  of  employers  towards  those  who  labor 
for  them,  would  tend  to  remove  much  of  the  asperity  which  too 
frequently  marks  the  intercourse  of  employers  and  employes,  and 
embitters  the  contests  between  capital  and  labor. 

The  business  which  Mr.  Knabe  founded  in  his  lifetime,  and  left 
at  his  death  in  a  highly  prosperous  condition,  is  being  carried  on 
with  increasing  success  by  his  sons,  William  and  Ernest  Knabe,  and 
his  son-in-law  Charles  Keidel,  under  the  name  of  William  Knabe 


This  very  distinguished  lawyer,  who  graced  the  bar  of  Maryland, 
at  a  period  when  it  could  also  boast  of  Robert  Goodloe  Harper, 
Roger  B.  Taney,  William  Wirt,  and  AVilliam  Pinkney,  was  born 
in  New  Brunswick,  New  Jersey,  in  1744.  He  was  the  third  of  a 
family  of  nine  children,  and  at  an  early  age  displayed  a  love  of 
learning.  He  acquired  the  elements  of  the  Latin  language,  at  a 
grammar  school  to  which  he  was  sent  at  the  age  of  thirteen  years ; 
and  in  1762,  he  graduated  at  Princeton  College  with  the  highest 
honors.  At  this  institution  he  pursued  his  classical  studies,  and  at 
the  same  time  made  some  progress  in  French  and  Hebrew. 

His  family  being  in  very  moderate  circumstances,  Luther  at  once 
upon  leaving  college,  determined  to  maintain  himself;  and  having 
chosen  the  profession  of  law,  although  greatly  against  the  wishes 
and  views  of  his  friends,  he,  only  two  days  after  graduating,  left 
home,  and  set  out  on  horseback  with  two  or  three  young  men  for 
Cecil  county,  Maryland.  His  object  was  to  take  charge  of  a  school, 
but  finding  on  arrival  that  the  place  had  been  filled,  he  was  advised 
to  proceed  to  Queenstown,  in  Queen  Anne  county.  Here  he  was 
hospitably  received,  and  soon  entered  on  his  humble  duties  as  a 
schoolmaster.  He  occupied  this  position  until  April,  1770,  in  order 
to  gain  a  support  while  studying  for  his  chosen  profession  of  law. 

Even  at  this  period  the  reckless  habits  of  Luther  Martin,  which 
so  seriously  affected  his  good  fortunes  during  life,  brought  him  into 
debt  and  consequent  difficulty ;  but  at  length  in  1771  or  1772,  he 
was,  through  the  aid  of  the  distinguished  George  Wythe  and  John 
Randolph,  admitted  to  the  Virginia  bar.  He  sojourned  for  a  session 
at  "Williamsburg,  and  while  there  made  the  acquaintance  of  Patrick 
Henry  and  other  noted  men.  Soon  after  this  period,  he  commenced 
the  practice  of  the  law  at  Accomac,  Virginia,  and  then  took  up 
his  residence  in  Somerset,  Maryland,  establishing  rapidly  a  very 
lucrative  practice,  amounting  to  one  thousand  pounds  a  year,  being 
for  that  time  a  very  large  sum.  He  continued  to  attract  the  public 
as  an  able  and  brilliant  lawyer,  and  in  1774  he  was  appointed  one 


of  the  convention  which  assembled  at  Annapolis,  to  resist  the 
pretensions  of  the  mother  country.  The  difficulties  with  England 
had  now  fully  roused  the  Colonies,  and  Luther  Martin  threw  the 
whole  weight  of  his  influence  and  talents  into  the  cause  of  American 
Independence.  A  proclamation  published  by  the  Howes,  command- 
ing the  British  forces,  in  the  Chesapeake,  and  addressed  to  the 
people  of  that  section  of  the  country,  was  answered  by  Luther 
Martin,  in  the  most  elocpuent  and  forcible  manner. 

In  February,  1778,  through  the  influence  of  Judge  Samuel  Chase, 
Martin  was  appointed  Attorney  General  of  the  State  of  Maryland. 
He  entered  upon  his  office  at  a  period  when  it  required  the  strongest 
exercise  of  authority  in  prosecuting  the  Tories,  who  were  constantly 
endeavoring  to  thwart  the  action  of  the  United  States  Government. 
Martin  proceeded  against  them  with  iron  will  and  unflinching  pur- 
pose, and  greatly  aided  in  their  total  overthrow  in  Maryland.  The 
office  was  conferred  upon  him  without  any  solicitation  on  his  part, 
and  holding  it  as  he  did  for  a  long  period,  he  constantly  added 
to  his  reputation  as  an  advocate  of  pre-eminent  ability.  In  1804, 
his  friend  Judge  Chase  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States, 
having  been  impeached  in  the  House  of  Representatives,  on  charges 
contained  in  eight  articles,  for  malfeasance  in  office,  Martin  de- 
fended him  in  connection  with  Robert  Goodloe  Harper.  His  argu- 
ment on  that  occasion,  was  one  of  the  most  powerful  ever  heard 
in  an  American  court  room,  and  is  still  referred  to  with  wonder 
by  some  yet  living  who  listened  to  it.  Judge  Chase  was  acquitted 
on  every  charge. 

It  was  the  fortune  of  Martin  to  be  engaged  in  another  cause  of 
wider  celebrity,  and  also  again  with  Mr.  Harper ;  in  the  trial  of 
Aaron  Burr  for  high  treason.  In  1807,  Burr  was  brought  to  trial 
before  the  Circuit  Court  of  the  United  States,  at  Richmond, 
Virginia,  for  treasonable  designs,  "  in  preparing  the  means  of  a 
military  expedition  against  Mexico,  a  territory  of  the  King  of 
Spain,  with  whom  the  United  States  were  at  peace."  During 
this  memorable  trial,  Martin  exerted  all  his  genius  in  defending 
Burr  who,  as  is  well  known,  was  acquitted. 

In  1814,  Mr.  Martin  was  appointed  Chief  Justice  of  the  Court  of 
Oyer  and  Terminer,  for  Baltimore  city  and  county,  and  held  the 
office  with  his  usual  ability  until  he  was  compelled  to  resign  it,  in 
consequence  of  a  new  Act  of  the  Legislature.  In  1818,  he  was 
again  appointed  Attorney  General  of  the  State  of  Maryland,  and 
District  Attorney  for  the  city  of  Baltimore,  but  by  this  time  the 
advances  of  age  and  disease  had  impaired  his  vigor  and  his  intellect, 


so  that  he  was  unable  to  attend  personally  to  his  duties.  His 
powers  at  length  were  shattered  by  a  stroke  of  paralysis,  and  owing 
to  bis  pecuniary  embarrassments,  he  removed  to  New  York,  accept- 
ing the  friendly  hospitality  of  Aaron  Burr  ;  who  repaid  the  services 
which  Martin  had  rendered  him  in  former  years  ;  until  at  the  age 
of  eighty-two,  the  celebrated  lawyer  died  on  the  10th  of  July,  1826. 
The  fame  of  Luther  Martin,  is  still  respectfully  cherished  at  the 
bar  of  Maryland,  and  must  continue  to  be  for  very  many  years, 
although  his  great  legal  reputation  is  now  almost  wholly  traditional. 
His  singular  eccentricities  of  character  and  manner,  are  vividly 
remembered,  his  absence  of  mind  frequently  so  completely  absorbing 
him  from  the  world,  that  he  would  appear  upon  the  streets  closely 
studying  his  legal  papers,  and  totally  unconscious  of  the  passing 
world.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  one  so  gifted  should  have  been 
afflicted  with  habits  of  extravagance  and  intemperance,  which  while 
offering  warnings  to  others,  rendered  his  own  life  often  unhappy, 
and  in  his  old  age  clouded  his  noble  intellect,  and  reduced  him  to 
extreme  penury. 


Brantz  Mayer  was  born  in  the  city  of  Baltimore,  Maryland,  on 
the  27th  of  September,  1809,  and  was  veiy  thoroughly  educated, 
partly  at  Saiut  Mary's  College,  Baltimore,  and  partly  by  private 
instruction.  After  finishing  his  education  he  traveled  extensively 
in  Europe,  and  in  the  East,  as  far  as  China,  and  the  islands  of  the 
Indian  Sea.  Destined  for  the  bar,  he  was  admitted  to  the  Courts, 
and  after  his  return  from  Europe  practiced  law  until  1841,  when  he 
was  appointed  Secretary  of  the  United  States  Legation  to  Mexico,  a 
post  he  retained  until  the  death  of  his  father,  the  late  Christian 
Mayer,  one  of  the  early  and  eminent  German  merchants  of 
Baltimore.  On  his  return  from  Mexico  to  his  native  city  he  varied 
attendance  on  the  Courts  with  contributions  to  literature ;  and,  for 
some  time,  edited  the  "Baltimore  American,"  while  it  was  under 
the  administration  of  its  founders,  Messrs.  Dobbin,  Murphy  &  Bose. 

Mr.  Mayer's  principal  works  which  have  made  him  so  widely 
known  as  a  contributor  to  the  solid,  descriptive  and  historical 
literature  of  our  country,  are:  First,  his  book,  in  one  volume,  pub- 
lished in  1844,  entitled  "  Mexico  as  it  Was  and  as  it  Is ;"  Second, 
the  "  Journal  of  Charles  Carroll,  of  Carrollton,  during  his  journey 
with  Franklin,  Chase  and  Archbishop  Carroll  to  Canada  in  1775," 
which  Mr.  Mayer  edited  with  a  rich,  historical  memoir  and  notes ; 
Third,  "  Mexico  ;  Aztec,  Spanish  and  Republican,"  an  admirable, 
historical,  and  descriptive  work  on  that  country ;  and  the  first 
(native  or  foreign)  that  grouped  the  ancient  and  modern,  as  well  as 
the  productive  and  statistical  characteristics  of  that  interesting 
empire ;  Fourth,  "  Captain  Canot ;  or,  Twenty  Years  of  the  Life  of 
an  African  Slaver ;"  a  narrative  of  the  fads  of  a  real  life,  derived 
from  the  adventurer  himself,  and  valuable  for  the  picture  it  presents 
of  aboriginal  life,  in  the  interior  as  well  as  on  the  coasts  of  Africa, 
and  of  the  abominable  trade  in  human  flesh ;  Fifth,  "  Observations 
on  Mexican  History,  with  some  account  of  the  Zapotec  Remains  at 
Mitla,"  superbly  issued,  in  large  quarto,  with  plates,  by  the  Smith- 
sonian Institute ;  Sixth,  an  account  of  "  Mexican  Antiquities," 


printed,  first,  with  many  splendid  illustrations,  in  copper  plates,  in 
Schoolcraft's  great  Indian  work,  published  by  the  Government  of 
the  United  States,  and  subsequently  issued  in  a  small  private  edition, 
separately,  of  about  thirty  copies ;  Seventh,  "  Tahgahjute ;  or, 
Logan,  the  Indian,  and  Captain  Michael  Cresap,"  an  octavo  volume, 
beautifully  printed  by  the  celebrated  Joel  Munsell,  of  Albany, 
vindicating  Cresap  from  the  attributed  massacre  of  Logan's  family ; 
and  Eighth,  "  A  Memoir  of  Jared  Sparks,"  the  historian,  printed  in 
elegant  style  by  the  Maryland  Historical  Society,  for  private 
circulation  among  its  members  and  friends.  Besides  these  substan- 
tial books,  Mr.  Mayer  has  contributed  largely  to  the  periodical 
press,  daily,  monthly,  and  quarterly,  of  the  Union,  to  the  extent  of 
at  least  two  additional  volumes  of  miscellaneous  articles,  addresses 
and  speeches. 

In  1844,  with  half  a  dozen  citizens,  most  of  whom  are  now  dead, 
Mr.  Mayer  founded  the  Maryland  Historical  Society,  while  he  was 
already  President  of  the